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Browsing by study line "Remote Sensing"

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  • Le, Viet (2021)
    Atmospheric aerosol particles absorb and scatter solar radiation, directly altering the Earth’s radiation budget. These particles also have a complex role in weather and climate by changing cloud physical properties such as reflectivity by acting as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei. Aerosol particles in the boundary layer are important because they pose a negative impact on air quality and human health. In addition, elevated aerosol from volcanic dust or desert dust present an imminent threat to aviation safety. To improve our understanding of the role of aerosol in influencing climate and the capability to detect volcanic ash, a ground-based network of Halo Doppler lidars at a wavelength of 1565 nm is used to collect data of atmospheric vertical profiles across Finland. By comparing the theoretical values of depolarization ratio of liquid clouds with the observed values, bleed through of each lidar is detected and corrected to improve data quality. The background noise levels of these lidars are also collected to assess their stability and durability. A robust classification algorithm is created to extract aerosol depolarization ratios from the data to calculate overall statistics. This study finds that bleed through is at 0.017 ± 0.0072 for the Uto-32 lidar and 0.0121 ± 0.0071 for the Uto-32XR lidar. By examining the time series of background noise level, these instruments are also found to be stable and durable. The results from the classification algorithm show that it successfully classified aerosol, cloud, and precipitation even on days with high turbulence. Depolarization ratios of aerosol across all the sites are extracted and their means are found to be at 0.055 ± 0.076 in Uto, 0.076 ± 0.090 in Hyytiala, 0.076 ± 0.071 in Vehmasmaki and 0.041 ± 0.089 in Sodankyla. These mean depolarization ratios are found to vary by season and location. They peak during summer, when pollen is abundant, but they remain at the lowest in the winter. As Sodankylä is located in the Artic, it has aerosols with lower depolarization ratio than other sites in most years. This study found that in summer, aerosol depolarization ratio is positively correlated with relative humidity and negatively correlated with height. No conclusion was drawn as to what processes play a more important role in these correlations. This study offers an overview of depolarization ratio for aerosol at a wavelength of 1565 nm, which is not commonly reported in literature. This opens a new possibility of using Doppler lidars for aerosol measurements to support air quality and the safety of aviation. Further research can be done test the capability of depolarization ratio at this wavelength to differentiate elevated aerosol such as dust, pollution, volcanic ash from boundary layer aerosol.
  • Santillo, Jordan (2022)
    Research in radar technology requires readily accessible data from weather systems of varying properties. Lack of real-world data can delay or stop progress in development. Simulation aids this problem by providing data on demand. In this publication we present a new weather radar signal simulator. The algorithm produces raw time series data for a radar signal using physically based methodology with statistical techniques incorporated for computational efficiency. From a set of user-defined scatterer characteristics and radar system parameters, the simulator solves the radar range equation for individual, representative precipitation targets in a virtual weather cell. The model addresses the question of balancing utility and performance in simulating signal that contains all the essential weather information. For our applications, we focus on target velocity measurements. Signal is created with respect to the changing position of targets, leading to a discernable Doppler shift in frequency. We also show the operation of our simulator in generating signal using multiple pulse transmission schemes. First, we establish the theoretical basis for our algorithm. Then we demonstrate the simulator's capability for use in experimentation of advanced digital signal processing techniques and data acquisition, focusing on target motion. Finally, we discuss possible future developments of the simulator and their importance in application.
  • Thomas, Steven Job (2020)
    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds play a major role in the atmosphere by acting as precursors in the formation of secondary organic aerosols and by also affecting the concentration of ozone. The chemical diversity of BVOCs is vast but global emissions are dominated by isoprene and monoterpenes. The emissions of BVOCs from plants are affected by environmental parameters with temperature and light having significant impacts on the emissions. The Downy birch and Norway spruce trees consist of heavy and low volatile compounds but published results are limited up to observing sesquiterpenoid emissions from these two trees. In this study, the Vocus proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer is deployed in the field to examine BVOC emissions from Downy birch and Norway spruce trees. With higher mass resolution, shorter time response and lower limits of detection than conventional PTR instruments, the Vocus can effectively measure a broader range of VOCs. For the first time, real-time emissions of diterpenes and 12 different oxygenated compounds were observed from birch and spruce trees. The emission spectrum of birch was dominated by C10H17+, while for spruce C5H9+ contributed the most. The sum emissions of oxygenated compounds contributed significantly to the observed total emissions from both the trees. The emission rates of all compounds varied dramatically throughout the period due to fluctuations in temperature and light. Due to lack of data from spruce, conclusive results for temperature and light response on terpene emissions could not be drawn. For birch, the emission rates were well explained by the temperature and temperature-light algorithms. The terpene emissions modelled using both algorithms correlated similarly with experimental data making it difficult to decisively conclude if the emissions originated from synthesis or pools.
  • Turunen, Tarja (2023)
    Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is one of the economically most important tree species in Finland. It is known to be drought-sensitive species and expected to suffer from the warming climate. In addition, warmer temperatures benefit pest insect Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) and pathogen Heterobasidion parviporum, which both use Norway spruce as their host and can make the future of Norway spuce in Finland even more difficult. In this thesis, adult Norway spruce mortality was studied from false colour aerial photographs taken in years between 2010 and 2021. Dead trees were detected from the photos by visual inspection, and mortality was calculated based on the difference in the number of dead trees in the photos from different years. The aim was to find out if Norway spruce mortality in Finland had increased over time, and what were the factors that had been driving tree mortality. The results indicate that tree mortality was the highest in the last third of the studied 10-year period, so it was concluded that tree mortality had increased over time. Various possible tree mortality drivers were analysed and found to be connected to tree mortality. Each driver was analysed individually by testing correlation with tree mortality. In addition, linear regression analysis and segmented linear regression with one breakpoint were used with the continuous variables. Increased tree mortality correlated with higher stand mean age, mean height, mean diamater, and mean volume, supporting the findings in earlier research. Mortality was connected to the proportion of different tree species in the stand: the higher the proportion of spruce, the higher the mortality, and the higher the proportion of deciduous trees, the lower the mortality. Of different fertility classes, tree mortality was the highest in the second most fertile class, herb-rich heat forest, and mortality decreased with decreasing fertility. Dead trees were also found to be located closer to stand edges than the stand centroid. Increased temperature resulted in increased mortality. Increased vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and drought, which was analysed with Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) of different time scales, were also connected with increased tree mortality. Further research is required for understanding and quantifying the joint effect of all the interacting mortality drivers. Nevertheless, it seems that for Norway spruce, the warmer future with increased mortality is already here, and it should be taken into consideration in forest management. Favouring mixed stands could be one of the solutions to help Norway spruce survive in the warming climate.
  • Yu, Ping (2024)
    Due to its long lifetime and relatively low variability compared with its background values, it is of great significance to precisely measure the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. In the high latitude regions, permafrost and boreal forest serve as large carbon reservoirs. Capturing the carbon concentration there helps us understand the process of climate change and provide accurate data to the carbon flux models. However, the measurement there is facing significant challenges. Sparse observation coverage and low-quality data are still major problems to be solved. In this thesis, we are looking into these problems from satellite-based OCO-2 XCO2 retrievals in high latitude regions. XCO2 data acquired above 45°N were used to compare the version updates, validate the results with ground-based TCCON site data and come up with a colocation method for boreal areas trying to tackle the issue caused by slant solar radiation. The comparison of version 10 and version 9 datasets shows improvements of version 10 in data volume and precision level. Yet the changes are not as significant for sites near polar areas. It also reveals that the current advances mainly focus on reducing systematic errors. In the validation with TCCON data, from OCO-2 displays lower seasonal fluctuations. The quality filters are shown to be too tight for boreal sites in filtering lower values. It provides information for new approaches when adjusting the filters. The global distribution of averaged XCO2 reveals that standard deviation is higher for nadir mode land observation in mountain areas. This might be lowered with an improved surface pressure correction method. Averaging kernel correction is applied when comparing with TCCON to standardize the sensitivity profile. It enhances the accuracy of the results and also stresses the significance of integration scheme. A new colocation method is implemented for better locating of TCCON observations in high latitudes but did not return good results. Further adjustments for the algorithm and tests in more areas are needed.