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Browsing by master's degree program "Master's Programme in Particle Physics and Astrophysical Sciences"

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  • Leppälä, Ari (2023)
    The thesis presents results for simulating an orbit determination process with least-squares fitting (LSF) of synthetic observations for non-cooperative satellites. Five satellites with different masses, sizes, and orbital inclinations are orbiting in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Three different inclinations (53°, 85°, and 98°) are simulated using Orekit (Orbit Extrapolation Kit), an open-source astro- dynamical software library. Satellites are observed with four hypothetical radars. The thesis is a feasibility study. It addresses four main research questions: How reliable are predictions of the satellite position for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h after the first detection when using the observations from four consecutive overpasses and the LSF-estimated orbit? How accurately the Keplerian or- bital elements be modelled with LSF? How does the satellite’s mass affect the results’ reliability, and can the satellite’s drag, reflection, and absorption coefficients be estimated with Orekit? The simulation utilizes the Orekit software library in a Python environment, and the simulation incorporates several perturbing forces: Earth’s gravitational potential model EGM2008, an atmo- sphere model with space weather data NRLMSISE-00, tidal forces, and point-like masses of the Sun and the Moon. Synthetic observations were simulated by assuming Gaussian distribution for the uncertainties of the measurements. The initial estimate of the orbit is done with Gooding’s method, and the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is used for the LSF. The propagation of the actual satellite for 96 h was compared with the 96-h propagation of estimated orbital elements and with a satellite with estimated size and mass. Simulations were conducted with overestimated and underestimated initial masses. Each combination of a satellite, an observing radar, and an orbit was repeated 100 times. The results for reliability were promising. The likelihood of the sky-plane projected error of the position staying under the 3.0-km for up to 3 days was found to be 90% for two of the simulated radars, but only in cases of orbits having an inclination of 53°. Two other orbits had less successful results, but simulations revealed a potential increase in reliability by adjusting the observational strategy. There was a small bias in the results hinting that underestimating the satellite’s mass could result in less accurate orbit estimates than overestimating it. The satellite’s drag, absorption, and reflection coefficients could not be obtained due to the short observational time intervals simulated.
  • Arvo, Jukka (2023)
    Tutkielmani käsittelee kullan pysyvän isotoopin Au-197 tuottamista neutroniaktivaatiolla luonnollisesta elohopeanäytteestä. Kokeen kannalta pääasiallinen reaktiomenetelmä oli Hg-196 neutronikaappaus. Kyseinen transmutaatio suoritettiin myös kokeellisesti. Elohopeaa sisältävänä näytteenä käytettiin Ardentin valmistamia Futura Standard -hammasamalgaamikapseleita. Turvallisuussyistä kapselit olivat koejärjestelyssä alkuperäisessä purkissaan. Kapseleita oli kaikkiaan 50 kappaletta, ja jokaisessa oli 400 mg elohopeaa. Yhteensä näytteessä oli siis 20 grammaa elohopeaa. Näytettä säteilytettiin STUKin tiloissa 14 vuorokauden ajan kolmen AmBe-neutronilähteen avulla. Valmistajan ilmoittamat neutronituotot käytetyille lähteille ovat 2.0E+7 n/s, 2.1E+6 n/s ja 6.7E+5 n/s. Lähteiden ilmoitetut aktiivisuudet ovat vastaavasti 333 GBq, 37.0 GBq ja 11.1 GBq. Neutronien hidastamiseen käytettiin HDPE-tankoa. Säteilytyksen jälkeen näytettä mitattiin STUKin gammaspektrometrian laboratorion B6 p-HPGe BE5030 -germaniumilmaisimella, ja kullan synty voitiin todentaa spektristä löytyvien karakterististen gamma- ja röntgenpiikkien avulla. Koejärjestely onnistui, ja työni osoittaa, että kullan pysyvän isotoopin Au-197 valmistaminen luonnollisesta elohopeasta havaittavissa määrin on mahdollista toteuttaa melko yksinkertaisella koejärjestelyllä käyttäen varsin pienitehoisia neutronilähteitä. Varsinaisen kokeen lisäksi käsittelen työssäni myös kullanteon historiaa sekä aiheeseen liittyvää teoriaa.
  • Vuori, Mikko (2023)
    A method for deriving the complex refractive index of a mm-sized single particle in a specific wavelength using laboratory measurements is presented. Laboratory measurements were done using the 4π scatterometer, which measures Mueller matrix elements of a particle suspended in air using acoustic levitation as a function of scattering angle. To obtain the complex refractive index of the particle, measurements were compared to simulations from a newly developed SIRIS4 Fixed Orientation (SIRIS4 FO) geometric optics simulation. The 4π scatterometer is a unique instrument which measures Mueller matrix elements from a particle using linear polarizers and a detector rotating about the particle on a rotational stage. The scatterometer uses an acoustic levitator as a sample holder which provides nondestructive measurements and full orientation control of the sample. To compare the measurement results to simulations, SIRIS4 single-particle geometric optics code was modified to handle particles in a fixed orientation. The original code is able to calculate the Mueller matrix elements for a given 3D model, but averages the results over the orientation of the particle. The modified SIRIS4 FO calculates the Mueller matrix elements over the full solid angle as functions of the two scattering angles, which give the direction of observation of the scattered wave compared to the direction of the incident wave. A 3D model of the shape of the measured particle was constructed using X-ray microtomography, and was translated to SIRIS4 FO. The complex refractive index was obtained with a nonlinear least squares analysis by minimizing the sum of squared residuals between the measurements and simulations with varying refractive index values. Finally, confidence regions were constrained for the results, by estimating the computed residuals between simulations and measurements as the random errors in the nonlinear model.
  • Blomqvist, Sofia (2024)
    The matter in neutron stars exist under extreme conditions, and the cores of these stars harbour densities unreachable in any laboratory setting. Therefore, this unique environment provides an exceptional opportunity to investigate high-density matter, described by the theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This thesis centers on the exploration of twin stars, hypothetical compact objects that extend beyond the neutron star sequence. Originating from a first-order phase transition between hadronic matter and quark matter, our focus is on understanding the constraints on these phase transitions and their effect on the observable properties of twin stars. In our investigation of twin stars, we construct a large ensemble of possible equations of state featuring a strong first-order phase transition. We approximate the low- and high-density regions with polytropic form and connect them to chiral effective field theory results at nuclear densities and extrapolated perturbative QCD at high densities. The resulting equations of state are then subjected to astrophysical constraints obtained from high-mass pulsars and gravitational wave detections to verify their compatibility with observations. Within our simple study, we identify two distinct types of twin stars, each providing a clear signature in macroscopic observables. These solutions originate from separate regions in the parameter space, with both regions being relatively small. Twin stars in our approach generally obtain small maximum masses, while the part of the sequence corresponding to neutron stars extends to large radii, indicating that these solutions only marginally pass the astrophysical constraints. Finally, we find that all twin stars obtain sizable cores of quark matter.
  • Al-Adulrazzaq, Aula (2023)
    Dark matter direct detection experiments still have found no evidence of the dark matter WIMPs. The search has therefore been expanded for lighter dark matter candidates. Light dark matter is nearly invisible to current detectors through the elastic nuclear recoils. This thesis is meant to provide understanding on the inelastic atomic scatterings, which are one good way to detect dark matter particles with mχ ∼ GeV. In this thesis we consider spin-independent scatterings. Inelastic scatterings are based on the fact that in an atom, electrons do not follow the motion of the recoil nucleus immediately, but instead it takes time. This results in a small probability of observable ionization or excitation of the atom. This is known as the Migdal effect. We will first study the theoretical framework of dark matter-nucleus scatterings, showing how to get the event rate and how it is factorized into the astrophysical, the particle physics and the target response part. Then we will move to the inelastic processes, Migdal and Bremsstrahlung effects, deriving their event rates. In the first, we try to detect ionized electrons. The latter one, the Bremsstrahlung, is a similar process to the Migdal, but there we try to detect photons emitted from the de-excitations of atoms excited in the inelastic recoils. We will also look into the Migdal in semiconductors. Because of the smaller gap for electron excitations in crystals, we find that the rate for the Migdal effect is much higher in semiconductors than in atomic targets, thus allowing the search for even lighter dark matter particles. The rate can be expressed in terms of the energy loss function of the target material.
  • Mozejko, Arik (2023)
    Dark matter (DM) is introduced and explored in a holistic perspective. Topics include observational evidence, various DM properties, potential candidates, and the tenets of indirect versus direct DM detection. Then an emphasis is placed on understanding the cryogenic detection of weakly interacting massive particles, with explicit connection to phonon-based detection of DM. The importance of improving methods of DM direct detection are emphasised, with specifically the usage of molecular dynamics simulations as an avenue of studying defect creation in cryogenic detector materials. Previous investigations into this area are reviewed and expanded upon through novel experimentation into how defect properties vary when changing thermal motion of the crystal lattice. This experimentation is conducted via the usage of molecular dynamics simulations on sapphire (Al2O3) as a DM direct detection material, and it is found that while atomic velocity does not impact the overall emergent defect structure, it does have an impact on the energy lost in these defects. Changing the temperature of the lattice produces the expected results, generating greater variance in both defect band structure as well as average energy loss.
  • Gibson, Natalie (2023)
    The search for a profound connection between gravity and quantum mechanics has been a longstanding goal in theoretical physics. One such connection is known as the holographic principle, which suggests that the dynamics within a given region of spacetime can be fully described on its boundary surface. This concept led to the realization that string theory provides a lower-dimensional description that encapsulates essential aspects of spacetime. While the "AdS/CFT correspondence" exemplifies the success of this holographic theory, it was discovered soon after that the Universe has a positive cosmological constant, Λ. This immediately sparked interest in a potential correspondence centered around de Sitter (dS) space, which is also characterized by a positive cosmological constant. This thesis comprehensively explores the de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (dS/CFT) correspondence from various perspectives, along with the unique challenges posed by the distinct nature of dS space. The original dS/CFT duality proposes that a two-dimensional Conformal Field Theory resides on the boundary of three-dimensional asymptotic dS space. However, the definition and interpretation of physical observables within the dS/CFT framework remain open questions. Therefore, the discussions in this thesis not only cover the original dS/CFT conjecture, but also extend into more recent advancements in the field. These advancements include a higher-spin dS/CFT duality, the relationship between string theory and dS space, and the intriguing proposal of an "elliptical" dS space. While the dS/CFT correspondence is still far from being well-defined, there have been extensive efforts devoted to shedding light on its intricate framework and exploring its potential applications. As the Universe may be evolving towards an approximately de Sitter phase, understanding the dS/CFT correspondence offers a unique opportunity for gaining fresh insights into the link between gravity and quantum field theory.
  • Takala, Saara (2024)
    Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves in the Pc4-Pc5, 2 – 25 mHz range have been observed to accelerate trapped 1 – 10 MeV electrons in the Earth’s radiation belts. This acceleration can lead to particle losses and injections that occur on timescales comparable to the particle drift periods. Current models rely on diffusion equations written in terms of Fokker-Planck equations and are not suitable for describing fast temporal variations in the distribution function. This thesis is a study of fast transport of equatorially trapped electrons in the radiation belts. We look at solutions for the time evolution of the linear part of the perturbed distribution function using both analytical and numerical methods. Based on this work we build a simple model of fast transport in the radiation belts using a spectral PDE framework called Dedalus. The resulting program is a computationally inexpensive, simple approach to modelling drift-periodic signatures on fast timescales. In this study we investigate the behavior of the distribution function in three systems: a simple system without a wave term, and systems with a single non-resonant and resonant ULF wave. The wave solutions are evaluated with magnetic field perturbations of different magnitudes. The Earth’s magnetic field is modelled with the Mead field. The numerical solution of the perturbed differential equation is studied for relativistic equatorially trapped electrons. Phase-mixing is found to happen regardless of field fluctuations or resonance. The non-resonant wave solution shows time-delayed, spatially localized structures in the equatorial plane forming in the presence of large magnetic field fluctuations. These transients are also seen in the analytical solution and provide a new theoretical explanation for the ubiquitous observation of drift echoes in the inner and outer radiation belts of the Earth (Li et al., 2024).
  • Kostamo, Iida (2023)
    In this thesis, 16 gas-free galaxy merger simulations were run in order to determine the dominant effect that causes the formation of cores, i.e. regions of ”missing light”, in the centers of massive early-type galaxies. The simulations were run on the Mahti supercomputer at the Finnish IT Centre for Science (CSC), using the simulation codes GADGET-3 and KETJU. The merging of galaxies will eventually lead to the merging of their central supermassive black holes (SMBHs). The evolution of a SMBH binary can be divided into three phases: the dynamical friction phase, the three-body interaction phase and gravitational wave (GW) emission phase. After the GW emission phase, the merged SMBH may receive a recoil velocity. To study the effects of these three phases on the formation of the core, three kinds of simulations were run. These include three GADGET runs and thirteen KETJU runs that can be divided into two groups, since eight of the runs had GW recoils enabled. When using only GADGET, the three-body interactions are not modeled due to the softening of gravity. Using KETJU allows for modeling the later evolution of the SMBH binary, including the three-body interaction phase, the GW emission phase and the resulting GW recoil. The initial conditions for the progenitor galaxies were motivated by the galaxy NGC 1600. The same stellar and dark matter profiles were used for each simulated galaxy. Two different SMBH masses were used. One KETJU merger was also run without SMBHs. For the runs with spinning SMBHs, the spin directions and magnitudes were chosen in such a way that different magnitudes of recoil velocity would be achieved. The size of the core can be determined from the brightness profile of the galaxy, assuming a constant mass-to-light ratio. The commonly used core-Sérsic profile was fit to the surface mass density profiles of the merger remnant galaxies. The best-fit parameter values were then used to estimate the sizes of the cores, such as the core radii. The amount of missing mass in the centers of the galaxies, i.e. the mass deficits, were also computed based on the core-Sérsic fits. We found that the mass deficit correlates positively with the mass of the SMBH for all the KETJU runs. Including GW recoils in the simulations was found to increase the mass deficits by roughly the equivalent of one SMBH mass compared to the KETJU runs without the recoils. The formation of cores was the weakest for the GADGET runs, since the cores were created only by the large-scale dynamics. No core was formed in the run without SMBHs, as expected. Thus, we can conclude that SMBHs are essential for the formation of cores in massive early type galaxies, and the largest cores are formed when GW recoils are included in the model.
  • Grön, Julia (2023)
    Mars is a rocky planet in the Solar System, fairly similar to the Earth. It is known for its red color and the theory that there has been liquid water and possibly life in Mars at some point in its history. Mars has been a target of study since space exploration began, with the first fly-by mission occuring in 1965. In the past, Martian climate could have supported a functioning hydrological system and Mars even could have had an ocean. This system would have been similar to the one happening in Antarctica due to cold weather. The Martian atmosphere is mostly composed of carbon dioxide, much thinner and colder compared to the Earth's atmosphere. Methane is a main point of interest due to it being a possible biosignature, a sign of life. Another interesting feature about the atmosphere are the dust devils that contibute to the climate by lifting dust into the air. The Martian soil is composed of rocks and dust containing toxic perchlorates. To colonize Mars, several requirements need to be met: the transportation and funding, designing the settlement efficiently with everything needed and determining how many people are necessary. The risk assessment to both people and equipment needs to be made and taken into account.
  • Garcia Sturba, Sebastian (2023)
    Quantum field theory is often presented without clearly defined mathematical structures, especially in the case of field operators. We discuss axiomatic quantum field theory, where quantum fields and states are defined rigorously using distribution theory, alongside their assumed properties in the form of the Wightman axioms. We present the two key results that come from this construction, namely CPT symmetry and the spin-statistics connection. We then consider the construction of quantum fields in curved spacetime so as to discuss their behaviour in regions of large curvature, such as near black holes. This requires us to redefine fields and states in terms of *-algebras. We then present the GNS reconstruction theorem which allows us to get back the original definitions of these objects in Minkowski spacetime.
  • Luttikhuis, Thijs (2022)
    One of the most noticeable effects of solar–terrestrial physics is the aurora which regularly appears in the polar regions. This polar light is the result of the excitation of atmospheric species by charged particles originating from the solar wind and magnetosphere that enter the Earth’s atmosphere, which are called precipitating particles. We present the first results on auroral proton precipitation into the ionosphere using a global 3-dimensional simulation of near-Earth space plasma with the Vlasiator hybrid-Vlasov model, driven with a southward interplanetary magnetic field and steady solar wind parameters. The hybrid-Vlasov approach describes ions through their velocity distribution function in phase space (3-dimensional ordinary space and 3-dimensional velocity space), while electrons are represented by a massless charge-neutralizing fluid. Vlasiator is a global model describing the whole region of near-Earth space including the Earth’s magnetosphere (whole dayside and part of the magnetotail), the magnetosheath, as well as the foreshock region and some solar wind. The precipitating proton differential number fluxes for this run are determined from the proton phase-space density contained within the bounce loss-cone, which is set at a constant angle of 10 degrees everywhere. To determine the precipitation of particles at ionospheric altitudes (in this case a height of 110 km above the Earth’s surface), we trace magnetic field lines from the ionosphere to the inner boundary of the Vlasiator domain using the Tsyganenko model. With this, we obtain a magnetic local time–geomagnetic latitude map of differential number flux of precipitating protons in 9 energy bins between 0.5 and 50 keV. From the differential number flux, proton integral energy fluxes and mean energies can be obtained. The integral energy fluxes in the Vlasiator run are then compared to data of the Precipitation Electron/Proton Spectrometer (SSJ) instrument of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) for several satellite overpasses during events with similar solar wind conditions as in the Vlasiator run. The SSJ instrument bins proton energies between 0.03 and 30 keV. Typical values of the total integral energy flux are between 5 · 10^6 and 5 · 10^7 keV cm−2 s−1 sr−1 in the cusp and between 1 · 10^6 and 3 · 10^7 keV cm−2 s−1 sr−1 in the evening sector for both Vlasiator and DMSP, although DMSP fluxes can locally be up to an order of magnitude higher. Additionally, global precipitation patterns in Vlasiator are compared to Ovation Prime, which is an empirical model based on data from DMSP which can be used to forecast precipitation of auroral electrons and protons. Although Ovation Prime shows a much wider cusp region compared to Vlasiator, both show similar maximum integral energy fluxes around 1 to 2 · 10^7 keV cm−2 s−1 sr−1 in the cusp region, and between 3 · 10^6 and 5 · 10^7 keV cm−2 s−1 sr−1 in the nightside oval.
  • Kukkola, Antti (2023)
    A stream of charged particles known as the solar wind constantly flows with supersonic speed in our solar system. As the supersonic solar wind encounters Earth's magnetic field, a bow shock forms where the solar wind is compressed, heated and slowed down. Not all ions of the solar wind pass through the shock but rather a portion are reflected back upstream. What happens to the reflected ions depends on the magnetic field geometry of the shock. In the case where the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal vector is small, the reflected ions follow the magnetic field lines upstream and form a foreshock region. In this case the shock is called quasi-parallel. In the case of a quasi-perpendicular shock, where the angle is large, the reflected ions gyrate back to the shock, accelerated by the convection electric field. Upon returning to the shock, the ions have more energy and either pass through the shock or are reflected again, repeating the process. Ion reflection is important for accelerating ions in shocks. In this work we study the properties and ion reflection of the quasi-perpendicular bow shock in Vlasiator simulations. Vlasiator is a plasma simulation which models the interaction between solar wind and the Earth's magnetic field. The code simulates the dynamics of plasma using a hybrid-Vlasov model, where ions are represented as velocity distribution functions (VDF) and electrons as magnetohydrodynamic fluid. Two Vlasiator runs are used in this work. The ion reflection is studied by analysing VDFs at various points in the quasi-perpendicular shock. The analysis is performed with reflections in multiple different frames. A virtual spacecraft is placed in the simulation to study shock properties and ion dynamics, such as the shock potential and ion reflection efficiency. These are compared to spacecraft observations and other simulations to test how well Vlasiator models the quasi-perpendicular bow shock. We find that the ion reflection follows a model for specular reflection well in all tested frames, especially in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. In addition, the study was extended to model second specular reflections which were also observed. We conclude that the ions in Vlasiator simulations are nearly specularly reflected. The properties of the quasi-perpendicular bow shock are found to be in quantitative agreement with spacecraft observations. Ion reflection efficiency is found to match observations well. Shock potential investigations revealed that spacecraft observations may have large uncertainties compared to the real shock potential.
  • Raivio, Riku (2023)
    In high energy physics the microscopic nature of our universe is studied. A common experimental way is to collide particles such as protons with almost the speed of light and study the fragments that fly away from the interaction point. The results are compared to existing theories and help to modify or create knowledge of our universe. However, our senses are not capable of directly measuring those tiny and fast fragments from the collisions. Therefore, we need dedicated devices called particle detectors. Several types of radiation detectors are known to us. Most of those utilize the fact that particles in such experiments are ionizing when traversing matter. The detectors we are interested in contain gas as the main interacting material for the ionizing radiation, called gaseous detectors. One of these is the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM), which uses electric fields to make electrons drift through the holes of one or several foils producing a signal that can be detected. Gain and ion backflow are two properties that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the detector. The effect of the hole diameters of the foil on the gain and on the ion backflow is insufficiently known, however. In this thesis such measurements have been performed. For this purpose a GEM detector operating in proportional region was constructed. The detector contained a special foil with four quadrants in such a way that the diameters of the holes were different in each quadrant. The functionality of the detector was verified by measuring the leakage current, by using a multichannel analyzer, and by calculating the sum of all currents. The detector constructed passed all the tests. The diameters of the holes in the foil quadrants were estimated by calculating the amount of pixels from the foil image taken. The outer hole diameters were around 50 µm and inner hole diameters 40 µm in the quadrant with smallest holes. The corresponding diameters in the quadrant with largest holes were around 70 µm and 66 µm. The measurements were started by searching the proper values for the drift and the induction fields and for the GEM voltage range. A drift field of 2 kV/cm, an induction field of 7 kV/cm, and a voltage range from 400 V to 500 V were chosen. The results from the actual measurements were similar on both sides of the foil. The effective gain increased steadily along with the voltage being around 10-fold at 500 V compared to that at 400 V . The ion backflow, on the other hand, stayed constant or even slightly decreased. The results measured from the four quadrants differed clearly from each other. In the quadrant with the smallest holes the effective gain was about twice as high as in the quadrant with the largest holes. Respectively the ion backflow was about 30 % higher in the quadrant with small holes than in the quadrant with large holes.
  • Björn, Vesa (2023)
    Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System. The planet has a tenuous atmosphere, which means that it can be modeled as an atmosphereless object. Such Solar System bodies are covered in loose material called regolith, which affects how the object scatters light from the Sun. Photometry is a type of measurement that records the intensity of scattered light as a function of the viewing geometry, which is defined using angles from the surface towards the Sun and towards the observing instrument. Mercury was studied in 2011–2015 by the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging) mission of the United States’ National Aeronautics and Space Admin- istration, NASA. The present thesis uses spectrophotometric data, i.e., brightness as a function of wavelength, from the spacecraft’s Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) instrument. Two theo- retical models, the Lommel–Seeliger (LS) and particulate medium (PM) models, are fitted to the observed reflectance using the least-squares method. The PM model is the more complicated of the two, and it includes a shadowing correction that de- pends on three model parameters. The parameters describe the properties of a particulate medium, i.e., regolith. The most important of the parameters is the packing density of the regolith, which is defined as the ratio of the volume of the particles to the total volume. The other two parameters describe the medium’s surface roughness in horizontal and vertical directions. The PM model is fitted to the observed reflectance for various different combinations of the model parameters. Ini- tially, only discrete and predetermined parameter values are used, but the parameter values are extended to arbitrary values using interpolation. Trilinear interpolation is utilized using several methods, followed by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling for the final results. Most of the methods agree with one another, and fall within the uncertainties of the best solution, which allows to form an argumented conclusion about the best parameter values of the PM model. The best parameter values correspond to a densely-packed regolith with horizontally smooth surface and large height variations. The results of the present study can be used in the BepiColombo mission to Mercury, which is planned to begin its science operations in early 2026.
  • Otero Sanchez, Hector (2023)
    Matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the problems that the Standard Model of particle physics faces. All the processes and interactions described by it cannot explain why in the universe the density of matter is greater than the density of antimatter. Baryogenesis is the name given to the mechanisms that can explain this asymmetry. The necessary conditions for a process to generate the asymmetry are the Sakharov conditions. The process must violate the baryon number conservation, must violate charge and charge-parity symmetries (C and CP violation) and must happen out of equilibrium which is related with the charge-parity-time (CPT) violation. Possible processes that can violate the baryon number are proton decay and neutron oscillations. None of them have been observed experimentally. In some theories that allow proton decay, the half-life is some orders of magnitude greater than the age of the universe which implies that high energy scales are needed for testing this decay. However, neutron oscillations have less restrictive bounds. Two options for these oscillations are the neutron-antineutron oscillations and the neutron-mirror neutron oscillations. In the first one, a neutron transforms into an antineutron over time, while in the second one, a neutron transforms into a sterile neutron (only interacts with our universe through gravity). The focus of this work will be neutron oscillations. Some experiments have helped to set bounds on the neutron-antineutron oscillation period and nowadays more advanced experiments based on the improvements of technology are being developed. These new experiments will be able to set new bounds or discover physics beyond the Standard Model. In the theoretical frame, some modifications can be implemented into the Dirac Lagrangian that produce a baryon number violation of two units; this corresponds to a neutron-antineutron oscillation. Once the Lagrangian is formulated the properties of the oscillations are studied. In particular, the probability of the oscillation and the symmetry properties of both the Lagrangian and the oscillation can be computed to check if the Sakharov conditions are satisfied. To do this diagonalization techniques, chiral notation and the charge and charge-parity conjugation operators will be used. The discovering of a process that violates baryon number conservation would be very important for the Standard Model. It could imply the existence of new physics and it could potentially solve matter- antimatter asymmetry.
  • Minkkinen, Tiina (2023)
    Gravitational waves predicted by the theory of general relativity are providing us with an opportunity to study cosmological processes well beyond the horizon for electromagnetic observations. One such process is a first-order phase transition as the universe cools down, which could generate gravitational waves observable in the millihertz range today. The upcoming Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a space-based gravitational wave observatory with peak sensitivity in the millihertz range, so it has the potential to observe a sufficiently strong phase transition signal. The LISA Consortium have developed the LISA simulation pipeline for the purposes of creating mock data, which can then be used to test data analysis methods in preparation for the real LISA data analysis. Our aim is to first test the simulation pipeline by injecting a phase transition signal, with added instrument noises and galactic binary confusion noise, which we expect to be present in the real observations as well. Second, we will attempt to recover the injected signal to see whether it is detectable based on the deviance information criterion (DIC). We will do this for 25 different parameter combinations in order to chart the detectability of signals from different phase transition scenarios. Our results show better detectability for phase transition signals with higher amplitudes and frequencies centered around the mHz range, which is where the expected peak sensitivity of LISA lies. The confusion noise appears to be less of a distraction to our observations than the instrument noises, which set limits in the extremes of the LISA frequency range.
  • Halkoaho, Johannes (2022)
    The primordial perturbations created by inflation in the early Universe are known to be able to produce significant amount of primordial black holes and gravitational waves with large amplitudes in some inflationary models. Primordial black holes are produced by primordial scalar perturbations and gravitational waves are partly primordial tensor perturbations and partly produced by scalar perturbations. In this thesis we review some of the current literature on the subject and discuss a few inflationary models that are capable of producing primordial scalar perturbations large enough to create a significant amount of primordial black holes. The main focus is on ultra-slow roll inflation with a concrete example potential illustrating the dynamics of the scenario followed by a briefer treatment of some of the alternative models. We start by explaining the necessary background theory for the understanding of the subject at hand. Then we move on to the inflationary models covered in this thesis. After that we explain the production of the primordial black holes and gravitational waves from scalar perturbations. Then we consider primordial black holes as a dark matter candidate and go through the most significant known restrictions on the existence of primordial black holes with different masses. We discuss some of the possible future constraints for the remaining possible mass window for which primordial black holes could explain all of dark matter. We then briefly discuss two planned space-based gravitational wave detectors that may be able to detect gravitational waves created by inflation.
  • Veltheim, Otto (2022)
    The measurement of quantum states has been a widely studied problem ever since the discovery of quantum mechanics. In general, we can only measure a quantum state once as the measurement itself alters the state and, consequently, we lose information about the original state of the system in the process. Furthermore, this single measurement cannot uncover every detail about the system's state and thus, we get only a limited description of the system. However, there are physical processes, e.g., a quantum circuit, which can be expected to create the same state over and over again. This allows us to measure multiple identical copies of the same system in order to gain a fuller characterization of the state. This process of diagnosing a quantum state through measurements is known as quantum state tomography. However, even if we are able to create identical copies of the same system, it is often preferable to keep the number of needed copies as low as possible. In this thesis, we will propose a method of optimising the measurements in this regard. The full description of the state requires determining multiple different observables of the system. These observables can be measured from the same copy of the system only if they commute with each other. As the commutation relation is not transitive, it is often quite complicated to find the best way to match the observables with each other according to these commutation relations. This can be quite handily illustrated with graphs. Moreover, the best way to divide the observables into commuting sets can then be reduced to a well-known graph theoretical problem called graph colouring. Measuring the observables with acceptable accuracy also requires measuring each observable multiple times. This information can also be included in the graph colouring approach by using a generalisation called multicolouring. Our results show that this multicolouring approach can offer significant improvements in the number of needed copies when compared to some other known methods.
  • Normo, Sanna (2023)
    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large eruptions of magnetized plasma from the solar corona. Fast CMEs can drive shock waves which are capable of accelerating charged particles to high energies. These accelerated particles emit electromagnetic radiation, including radio emission. Studying radio emission associated with CME-driven shocks offers a way to remotely investigate shock-accelerated electrons as well the shock itself. Solar radio bursts are transient events where the radio emission of the Sun rises above the background level. A classical division based on their appearance in a dynamic spectrum divides solar radio bursts into five categories: types I-V. Of these five different types, type II and type IV radio bursts are most commonly associated with CMEs. Occasionally, type II radio bursts exhibit a bursty fine structure known as herringbones. These are regarded as signatures of individual electron beams accelerated by CME-driven shocks. This thesis studies the radio emission associated with a CME that erupted on 1 September 2014. White-light imaging of the CME revealed a prominent shock wave. Simultaneously, the dynamic spectrum exhibited spike-like radio emission resembling herringbones. The aim of the study presented in this thesis is to find the source location of this radio emission relative to a three dimensional reconstruction of the shock. The source location of the radio emission can be used to conclude the likely origin of the electrons responsible for it. Additionally, in situ electron flux measurements are investigated in an attempt to connect the remote and in situ detections of energetic electrons. Using interferometric radio observations of the Sun and reconstructing the CME shock in three dimension revealed the location of the radio emission to be at the flank of the CME-driven shock. Such location suggests that the spike-like radio emission observed in the dynamic spectrum originates from shock-accelerated electrons. The location of the radio emission at the flanks of the CME shock was also used to get an estimation of the lateral expansion of the CME. Although the in situ electron flux measurements detected high-energy electrons, their inferred release time at the Sun did not coincide with observed radio emission.