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# Browsing by study line "Matematik"

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• (2021)
This thesis surveys the vast landscape of uncertainty principles of the Fourier transform. The research of these uncertainty principles began in the mid 1920’s following a seminal lecture by Wiener, where he first gave the remark that condenses the idea of uncertainty principles: "A function and its Fourier transform cannot be simultaneously arbitrarily small". In this thesis we examine some of the most remarkable classical results where different interpretations of smallness is applied. Also more modern results and links to active fields of research are presented.We make great effort to give an extensive list of references to build a good broad understanding of the subject matter.Chapter 2 gives the reader a sufficient basic theory to understand the contents of this thesis. First we talk about Hilbert spaces and the Fourier transform. Since they are very central concepts in this thesis, we try to make sure that the reader can get a proper understanding of these subjects from our description of them. Next, we study Sobolev spaces and especially the regularity properties of Sobolev functions. After briefly looking at tempered distributions we conclude the chapter by presenting the most famous of all uncertainty principles, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.In chapter 3 we examine how the rate of decay of a function affects the rate of decay of its Fourier transform. This is the most historically significant form of the uncertainty principle and therefore many classical results are presented, most importantly the ones by Hardy and Beurling. In 2012 Hedenmalm gave a beautiful new proof to the result of Beurling. We present the proof after which we briefly talk about the Gaussian function and how it acts as the extremal case of many of the mentioned results.In chapter 4 we study how the support of a function affects the support and regularity of its Fourier transform. The magnificent result by Benedicks and the results following it work as the focal point of this chapter but we also briefly talk about the Gap problem, a classical problem with recent developments.Chapter 5 links density based uncertainty principle to Fourier quasicrystals, a very active field of re-search. We follow the unpublished work of Kulikov-Nazarov-Sodin where first an uncertainty principle is given, after which a formula for generating Fourier quasicrystals, where a density condition from the uncertainty principle is used, is proved. We end by comparing this formula to other recent formulas generating quasicrystals.
• (2022)
Tässä tutkielmassa esitellään lyhyesti PCP-teoreema, minkä jälkeen tutkielmassa pala palalta käydään läpi teoreeman todistamiseen tarvittavia työkaluja. Tutkielman lopussa todistetaan PCP-teoreema. Vaativuusluokka PCP[O(log n), O(1)] sisältää ne ongelmat, joilla on olemassa todistus, josta vakio määrän bittejä lukien probabilistinen Turingin kone kykenee ratkaisemaan ongelman käyttäen samalla vain logaritmisen määrän satunnaisuutta suhteessa syötteen kokoon. PCP-teoreema väittää vaativuusluokan NP kuuluvan vaativuusluokkaan PCP[O(log n), O(1)]. Väritys on funktio, joka yhdistää kuhunkin joukon muuttujaan jonkin symbolin. Rajoite joillekin muuttujille on lista symboleista, joita rajoite sallii asetettavan muuttujille. Jos väritys asettaa muuttujille vain rajoitteen sallimia symboleja, rajoite on tyytyväinen väritykseen. Optimointi-ongelmat koskevat sellaisten väritysten etsimistä, että mahdollisimman moni rajoite joukosta rajoitteita on tyytyväinen väritykseen. PCP-teoreemalla on yhteys optimointi-ongelmiin, ja tätä yhteyttä hyödyntäen tutkielmassa todistetaan PCP-teoreema. Tutkielma seuraa I. Dinurin vastaavaa todistusta vuoden 2007 artikkelista The PCP Theorem by Gap Amplification. Rajoiteverkko on verkko, jonka kuhunkin kaareen liittyy jokin rajoite. Rajoiteverkkoon liittyy lisäksi aakkosto, joka sisältää ne symbolit, joita voi esiintyä verkon rajoitteissa ja värityksissä. Tutkielman päälauseen avulla kyetään kasvattamaan rajoiteverkossa olevien värityksiin tyytymättömien rajoitteiden suhteellista osuutta. Päälause takaa, että verkon koko säilyy samassa kokoluokassa, ja että verkon aakkoston koko ei muutu. Lisäksi jos verkon kaikki rajoitteet ovat tyytyväisiä johonkin väritykseen, päälauseen tuottaman verkon kaikki rajoitteet ovat edelleen tyytyväisiä johonkin väritykseen. Päälause koostetaan kolmessa vaiheessa, joita kutakin vastaa tutkielmassa yksi osio. Näistä ensimmäisessä, tutkielman osiossa 4, verkon rakenteesta muovataan sovelias seuraavia osioita varten. Toisessa vaiheessa, jota vastaa osio 6, verkon kävelyitä hyödyntäen kasvatetaan tyytymättömien rajoitteiden lukumäärää, mutta samalla verkon aakkosto kasvaa. Kolmannessa vaiheessa, osiossa 5, aakkoston koko saadaan pudotettua kolmeen sopivan algoritmin avulla. Osiossa 7 kootaan päälause ja todistetaan lausetta toistaen PCP-teoreema.
• (2021)
The topological data analysis studies the shape of a space at multiple scales. Its main tool is persistent homology, which is based on other homology theory, usually simplicial homology. Simplicial homology applies to finite data in real space, and thus it is mainly used in applications. This thesis aims to introduce the theories behind persistent homology and its application, image completion algorithm. Persistent homology is motivated by the question of which scale is the most essential to study data shape. A filtration contains all scales we want to explore, and thus it is an essential tool of persistent homology. The thesis focuses on forming a filtaration from a Delaunay triangulation and its subcomplexes, alpha-complexes. We will found that these provide sufficient tools to consider homology classes birth and deaths, but they are not particularly easy to use in practice. This observation motivates to define a regional complement of the dual alpha graph. We found that its components' and essential homology classes' birth and death times correspond. The algorithm utilize this observation to complete images. The results are good and mainly as could be expected. We discuss that algorithm has potential since it does need any training or other input parameters than data. However, future studies are needed to imply it, for example, in three-dimensional data.
• (2022)
In the thesis ”P-Fredholmness of Band-dominated Operators, and its Equivalence to Invertibility of Limit Operators and the Uniform Boundedness of Their Inverses”, we present the generalization of the classical Fredholm-Riesz theory with respect to a sequence of approximating projections on direct sums of spaces. The thesis is a progessive introduction to understanding and proving the core result in the generalized Fredholm-Riesz theory, which is stated in the title. The stated equivalence has been further improved and it can be generalized further by omitting either the initial condition of richness of the operator or the uniform boundedness criterion. Our focal point is on the elementary form of this result. We lay the groundwork for the classical Fredholm-Riesz theory by introducing compact operators and defining Fredholmness as invertibility on modulo compact operators. Thereafter we introduce the concept of approximating projections in infinite direct sums of Banach spaces, that is we operate continuous operators with a sequence of projections which approach the identity operator in the limit and examine whether we have convergence in the norm sense. This method yields us a way to define P-compactness, P-strong converngence and finally PFredholmness. We introduce the notion of limit operators operators by first shifting, then operating and then shifting back an operator with respect to an element in a sequence and afterwards investigating what happens in the P-strong limit of this sequence. Furthermore we define band-dominated operators as uniform limits of linear combinations of simple multiplication and shift operators. In this subspace of operators we prove that indeed for rich operators the core result holds true.
• (2022)
Pólyan lauseen mukaan verkon Z^d symmetrinen satunnaiskävely on palautuva, jos d < 3 ja poistuva, jos d ≥ 3. Alunperin Georg Pólyan todistamalle lauseelle on ajan kuluessa muodostunut erilaisia todistusmenetelmiä. Tässä tutkielmassa syvennytään näistä kahteen toisiaan täydentävään menetelmään ja todistetaan Pólyan lause niiden avulla. Luvussa 5.1 Pólyan lauseelle esitetään laskennallinen todistus, joka tarjoaa yksinkertaisen ja konkreettisen tavan tutkia säännöllisen verkon satunnaiskävelyn käyttäytymistä. Luvussa 5.2 esitettävän virtauksen teorian avulla voidaan Pólyan lauseen lisäksi tutkia satunnaiskävelyn käyttäytymistä laajemmin eri verkoissa. Tarvittavat taustatiedot verkosta, Markovin ketjusta ja satunnaiskävelystä esitetään luvuissa 2 ja 3. Pólyan lauseen todistus on jaettu kahteen eri lukuun. Lauseen todistus alkaa luvusta 5.1, jossa verkon syklien ja polkujen lukumääriä tutkimalla Pólyan lause osoitetaan verkolle Z^d, missä d ≤ 3. Kombinatorinen todistus on idealtaan yksinkertainen, mutta siinä tehtävä arvio vaatii syvällisempää perustelua. Tutkielmassa tämä arvio toteutetaan Robbinsin kaavalla, joka on tarkempi arvio kirjallisuudessa useammin käytetylle Stirlingin kaavalle. Robbinsin kaava osoitetaan luvussa 4. Luvussa 5.2 esitetään verkon virtauksen teoria, jonka avulla Pólyan lause todistetaan verkolle Z^d, missä d > 3. Verkon virtauksen ja satunnaiskävelyn yhteys löytyy virtaukseen liittyvästä energian käsitteestä. Osoittautuu, että verkon virtauksista energialtaan pienimmän virtauksen energia riippuu verkon satunnaiskävelyn käyttäytymisestä. Tulos osoitetaan ensin äärelliselle verkolle, josta se johdetaan koskemaan ääretöntä verkkoa verkkoon liittyvän kontraktion käsitteen avulla. Luvussa 6 Pólyan lauseen merkitys korostuu, kun virtauslauseen avulla osoitetaan, että satunnaiskävelyn poistuvuus säilyy verkkojen kvasi-isometriassa. Tätä varten esitetään virtauslauseen seurauksia ja tarvittavat taustatiedot kvasi-isometriasta
• (2021)
This thesis is motivated by the following questions: What can we say about the set of primes p for which the equation f(x) = 0 (mod p) is solvable when f is (i) a polynomial or (ii) of the form a^x - b? Part I focuses on polynomial equations modulo primes. Chapter 2 focuses on the simultaneous solvability of such equations. Chapter 3 discusses classical topics in algebraic number theory, including Galois groups, finite fields and the Artin symbol, from this point of view. Part II focuses on exponential equations modulo primes. Artin's famous primitive root conjecture and Hooley's conditional solution is discussed in Chapter 4. Tools on Kummer-type extensions are given in Chapter 5 and a multivariable generalization of a method of Lenstra is presented in Chapter 6. These are put to use in Chapter 7, where solutions to several applications, including the Schinzel-Wójcik problem on the equality of orders of integers modulo primes, are given.
• (2021)
Plane algebraic curves are defined as zeroes of polynomials in two variables over some given field. If a point on a plane algebraic curve has a unique tangent line passing through it, the point is called simple. Otherwise, it is a singular point or a singularity. Singular points exhibit very different algebraic and topological properties, and the objective of this thesis is to study these properties using methods of commutative algebra, complex analysis and topology. In chapter 2, some preliminaries from classical algebraic geometry are given, and plane algebraic curves and their singularities are formally defined. Curves and their points are linked to corresponding coordinate rings and local rings. It is shown that a point is simple if and only if its corresponding local ring is a discrete valuation ring. In chapter 3, the Newton-Puiseux algorithm is introduced. The algorithm outputs fractional power series known as Puiseux expansions, which are shown to produce parametrizations of the local branches of a curve around a singular point. In chapter 4, Puiseux expansions are used to study the topology of complex plane algebraic curves. Around singularities, curves are shown to have an iterated torus knot structure which is, up to homotopy, determined by invariants known as Puiseux pairs.
• (2022)
In this work, I prove the theorem of Bröcker and Scheiderer for basic open semi-algebraic sets. The theorem provides an upper bound for a stability index of a real variety. The theory is based on real closed fields which generalize real numbers. A real variety is a subset of a real closed field that is defined by polynomial equalities. Every semi-algebraic set is defined by a boolean combination of polynomial equations and inequalities of the sign conditions involving a finite number of polynomials. The basic semi-algebraic sets are those semi-algebraic sets that are defined solely by the sign conditions. In other words, we can construct semi-algebraic sets from the basic semi-algebraic sets by taking the finite unions, intersections, and complements of the basic semi-algebraic sets. Then the stability index of a real variety indicates the upper bound of numbers of polynomials that are required to express an arbitrary semi-algebraic subset of the variety. The theorem of Bröcker and Scheiderer shows that such upper bound exists and is finite for basic open semi-algebraic subsets of a real variety. This work aims to be detailed in the proofs and represent sufficient prerequisites and references. The first chapter introduces the topic generally and motivates to study the theorem. The second chapter provides advanced prerequisites in algebra. One of such results is the factorial theorem of a total ring of fractions. Other advanced topics include radicals, prime ideals, associative algebras, a dimension of a ring, and various quotient structures. The third chapter defines real closed fields and semi-algebraic sets that are the fundamental building blocks of the theory. The third chapter also develops the theory of quadratic forms. The main result of this chapter is Witt’s cancellation theorem. We also shortly describe the Tsen-Lang theorem. The fourth chapter is about Pfister forms. Pfister forms are special kinds of quadratic forms that we extensively use in the proof of the main theorem. First, we define general Pfister forms over fields. Then we develop their theory over the fields of rational functions. Generally, Pfister forms share multiple similar properties as quadratic forms. The fifth chapter represents one- and two-dimensional examples of the main theorem. These examples are based on research that is done on constructive approaches to the theorem of Bröcker and Scheiderer. The examples clarify and motivate the result from an algorithmic perspective. Finally, we prove the main theorem of the work. The proof is heavily based on Pfister forms.
• (2022)
A convex function, which Hessian determinant equals to one, defined in a convex and bounded polygon is called a surface tension. Moreover at the boundary of the given polygon it is demanded that the function is piece-wise affine. This setting originates from the theory of dimer models but in this thesis the system is studied as such. The boundary condition gives us points of interest i.e. the corners of the polygon and so called quasi-frozen points, where the boundary function is not differentiable. With a suitable homeomorphism one can map the unit disc to the polygon in question. In this setting an explicit formula for the gradient of the surface tension is derived. Furthermore the values of the gradient in corner and quasi-frozen points are derived as limits from, which as a corollary the directed derivatives of the surface tension are studied.
• (2021)
HMC is a computational method build to efficiently sample from a high dimensional distribution. Sampling from a distribution is typically a statistical problem and hence a lot of works concerning Hamiltonian Monte Carlo are written in the mathematical language of probability theory, which perhaps is not ideally suited for HMC, since HMC is at its core differential geometry. The purpose of this text is to present the differential geometric tool's needed in HMC and then methodically build the algorithm itself. Since there is a great introductory book to smooth manifolds by Lee and not wanting to completely copy Lee's work from his book, some basic knowledge of differential geometry is left for the reader. Similarly, the author being more comfortable with notions of differential geometry, and to cut down the length of this text, most theorems connected to measure and probability theory are omitted from this work. The first chapter is an introductory chapter that goes through the bare minimum of measure theory needed to motivate Hamiltonian Monte Carlo. Bulk of this text is in the second and third chapter. The second chapter presents the concepts of differential geometry needed to understand the abstract build of Hamiltonian Monte Carlo. Those familiar with differential geometry can possibly skip the second chapter, even though it might be worth while to at least flip through it to fill in on the notations used in this text. The third chapter is the core of this text. There the algorithm is methodically built using the groundwork laid in previous chapters. The most important part and the theoretical heart of the algorithm is presented here in the sections discussing the lift of the target measure. The fourth chapter provides brief practical insight to implementing HMC and also discusses quickly how HMC is currently being improved.
• (2020)
Several extensions of first-order logic are studied in descriptive complexity theory. These extensions include transitive closure logic and deterministic transitive closure logic, which extend first-order logic with transitive closure operators. It is known that deterministic transitive closure logic captures the complexity class of the languages that are decidable by some deterministic Turing machine using a logarithmic amount of memory space. An analogous result holds for transitive closure logic and nondeterministic Turing machines. This thesis concerns the k-ary fragments of these two logics. In each k-ary fragment, the arities of transitive closure operators appearing in formulas are restricted to a nonzero natural number k. The expressivity of these fragments can be studied in terms of multihead finite automata. The type of automaton that we consider in this thesis is a two-way multihead automaton with nested pebbles. We look at the expressive power of multihead automata and the k-ary fragments of transitive closure logics in the class of finite structures called word models. We show that deterministic twoway k-head automata with nested pebbles have the same expressive power as first-order logic with k-ary deterministic transitive closure. For a corresponding result in the case of nondeterministic automata, we restrict to the positive fragment of k-ary transitive closure logic. The two theorems and their proofs are based on the article ’Automata with nested pebbles capture first-order logic with transitive closure’ by Joost Engelfriet and Hendrik Jan Hoogeboom. In the article, the results are proved in the case of trees. Since word models can be viewed as a special type of trees, the theorems considered in this thesis are a special case of a more general result.
• (2020)
Spectral theory is a powerful tool when applied to differential equations. The fundamental result being the spectral theorem of Jon Von Neumann, which allows us to define the exponential of an unbounded operator, provided that the operator in question is self-adjoint. The problem we are considering in this thesis, is the self-adjointness of the Schr\"odinger operator $T = -\Delta + V$, a linear second-order partial differential operator that is fundamental to non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Here, $\Delta$ is the Laplacian and $V$ is some function that acts as a multiplication operator. We will study $T$ as a map from the Hilbert space $H = L^2(\mathbb{R}^d)$ to itself. In the case of unbounded operators, we are forced to restrict them to some suitable subspace. This is a common limitation when dealing with differential operators such as $T$ and the choice of the domain will usually play an important role. Our aim is to prove two theorems on the essential self-adjointness of $T$, both originally proven by Tosio Kato. We will start with some necessary notation fixing and other preliminaries in chapter 2. In chapter 3 basic concepts and theorems on operators in Hilbert spaces are presented, most importantly we will introduce some characterisations of self-adjointness. In chapter 4 we construct the test function space $D(\Omega)$ and introduce distributions, which are continuous linear functionals on $D(\Omega).$ These are needed as the domain for the adjoint of a differential operator can often be expressed as a subspace of the space of distributions. In chapter 5 we will show that $T$ is essentially self-adjoint on compactly supported smooth functions when $d=3$ and $V$ is a sum consisting of an $L^2$ term and a bounded term. This result is an application of the Kato-Rellich theorem which pertains to operators of the form $A+B$, where $B$ is bounded by $A$ in a suitable way. Here we will also need some results from Fourier analysis that will be revised briefly. In chapter 6 we introduce some mollification methods and prove Kato's distributional inequality, which is important in the proof of the main theorem in the final chapter and other results of similar nature. The main result of this thesis, presented in chapter 7, is a theorem originally conjectured by Barry Simon which says that $T$ is essentially self-adjoint on $C^\infty_c(\mathbb{R}^d)$, when $V$ is a non-negative locally square integrable function and $d$ is an arbitrary positive integer. The proof is based around mollification methods and the distributional inequality proven in the previous chapter. This last result, although fairly unphysical, is somewhat striking in the sense that usually for $T$ to be (essentially) self-adjoint, the dimension $d$ restricts the integrability properties of $V$ significantly.
• (2021)
The goal of the thesis is to prove the Dold-Kan Correspondence, which is a theorem stating that the category of simplicial abelian groups sAb and the category of positively graded chain complexes Ch+ are equivalent. The thesis also goes through these concepts mentioned in the theorem, starting with categories and functors in the first section. In this section, the aim is to give enough information about category theory, so that the equivalence of categories can be understood. The second section uses these category theoretical concepts to define the simplex category, where the objects are ordered sets n = { 0 -> 1 -> ... -> n }, where n is a natural number, and the morphisms are order preserving maps between these sets. The idea is to define simplicial objects, which are contravariant functors from the simplex category to some other category. Here is also given the definition of coface and codegeneracy maps, which are special kind of morphisms in the simplex category. With these, the cosimplicial (and later simplicial) identities are defined. These identities are central in the calculations done later in the thesis. In fact, one can think of them as the basic tools for working with simplicial objects. In the third section, the thesis introduces chain complexes and chain maps, which together form the category of chain complexes. This lays the foundation for the fourth section, where the goal is to form three different chain complexes out of any given simplicial abelian group A. These chain complexes are the Moore complex A*, the chain complex generated by degeneracies DA* and the normalized chain complex NA*. The latter two of these are both subcomplexes of the Moore complex. In fact, it is later on shown that there exists an isomorphism An = NAn +DAn between the abelian groups forming these chain complexes. This connection between these chain complexes is an important one, and it is proved and used later on in the seventh section. At this point in the thesis, all the knowledge for understanding the Dold-Kan Correspondence has been presented. Thus begins the forming of the functors needed for the equivalence, which the theorem claims to exist. The functor from sAb to Ch+ maps a simplicial abelian group A to its normalized chain complex NA*, the definition of which was given earlier. This direction does not require that much additional work, since most of it was done in the sections dealing with chain complexes. However, defining the functor in the opposite direction does require some more thought. The idea is to map a chain complex K* to a simplicial abelian group, which is formed using direct sums and factorization. Forming it also requires the definition of another functor from a subcategory of the simplex category, where the objects are those of the simplex category but the morphisms are only the injections, to the category of abelian groups Ab. After these functors have been defined, the rest of the thesis is about showing that they truly do form an equivalence between the categories sAb and Ch+.
• (2022)
The topic of thesis is the wave equation. The first chapter is introduction, the overview of the thesis is presented. The second chapter treats the transport equation, which is needed to solve the wave equation. In the third chapter we discuss the d’Alembert formula, and we prove the existence and uniqueness of solution. We treat the domain of dependence and region of influence. The last chapter concentrates on solving wave equations in high dimensions by Kirchhoff’s formula, method of descent and methods of spherical means.
• (2022)
Wolfe’s Theorem states that there is an isometric isomorphism between the space of flat k-cochains and the flat differential k-forms in R^n . The flat forms are the space of essentially bounded differential forms with an essentially bounded weak exterior derivative. The flat cochains are the dual space of the flat chains which are geometric objects based on finite linear combinations of k-simplices. In this sense, Wolfe’s Theorem connects geometry and analysis. After proving Wolfe’s Theorem, we give two corollaries: that the isomorphism from Wolfe’s Theorem can be concretely approximated by convolution with smooth mollifiers, and a version of Stokes’ Theorem for flat chains. Our method for proving Wolfe’s Theorem involves isometrically embedding the flat chains, as well as a predual of the flat forms, into the space of flat currents. By way of some approximation theorems in the space of flat currents, the images of these two embeddings coincide. Thus, the flat chains are isomorphic to that predual. This isomorphism lifts to their dual spaces giving Wolfe’s Theorem.