Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Rantatulkkila, Jesper (2019)
    Video game-related user-generated content (UGC) is a relatively new phenomenon but has already proven to be an asset to gaming companies in the increasingly competitive gaming market. However, an active use of UGC by gaming companies can result in strained relationships between a player who has created UGC and a gaming company who have used it without compensation. Prior to playing a video game, the players have usually agreed to provide the gaming company at least a right to use any derivative works related to the video game that they have created by accepting the video game’s terms of use, but the terms of use do not clarify what such derivative works are. The purpose of this master’s thesis is to bring clarity to the situation. Therefore, it provides means to draw a distinction between new works that only the player has the right to dispose of and derivative works that the gaming company allegedly has a right to use. The method of the master's thesis is legal dogmatic as its main purpose is to study the current state of law in Finland. However, it also contains some comparative elements as a basis for the study is provided by the examination of judgments made by the US courts and discussions held among US scholars about copyright in UGC. The purpose of examining the US position is not to rely on it as a source of law but to get an overview of mainly technical issues related to UGC that might be relevant also in a Finnish context and to get an understanding of how one of the most significant countries with a relatively well-established state of law in the field of video games and UGC operates. In the latter respect, this master's thesis does point out the key differences between Finnish and US assessment on originality. Due to changes in the European landscape, this master's thesis does not only consider copyright in UGC from a traditional Finnish point of view but takes into account relevant judgments given by the Court of Justice of the European Union (the CJEU), as well as the discussion that has followed among legal scholars. Therefore, the master's thesis also considers to what extent the Finnish state of law has changed after the CJEU gave its judgment in Infopaq International A/S v Danske Dagblades Forening and how it has developed to what it is today through the subsequent cases on originality. In that respect, the master's thesis also considers whether the current tests applied in Finnish cases on originality are still valid and how the EU case law may have impacted on the national law even in areas which are not directly affected by the judgments given by the CJEU, such as in the case of parody. As UGC is often based on parts of video games, this master's thesis begins by studying how video games are protected. The US law is relatively well-established on the matter whereas the Finnish state of law regarding the classification of video games is rather ambiguous. The classification has significant implications which are elaborated on in this study. Although a definitive answer cannot be given, this master's thesis suggests that video games should be regarded as composite works under Finnish law rather than cinematographic works. Since UGC is a broad concept, the main objects of study are narrowed down to play objects, player-characters, user interface add-ons and comedies in order to make the study as comprehensible and detailed as possible. However, it should be noticed that since the copyright assessment is closely tied to the facts in a specific case, the main focus in this master's thesis is to identify factors that must be considered. These involve mainly factors regarding the technology used to create a specific type of UGC. This master's thesis demonstrates that the technical constraints combined with the limits set by the form in which an idea can be expressed may significantly affect the originality that a work may express. Each type of UGC examined differ from the others in respect to which considerations must be made. The UGC chosen for this master's thesis are some of the most common types of UGC that players create and are often located in a grey area as to their classification as works.
  • Turunen, Anna Kaarina (2023)
    Lack of finance is a major constraint for the smallholder soybean farmers in northern Ghana. The area is affected by soil degradation, poverty, and food insecurity, while a majority of the people in the area get their livelihood from agriculture. As a possible solution for the three problems, a natural biofertilizer and biocontrol agent, rhizobium bacteria, can be introduced to the rhizospheres of the soybean. This is usually done by applying rhizobium bacteria to the seeds of a legume prior to planting. This rhizobial inoculation technology improves plant growth, nutrient availability and uptake, as well as yields, thereby increasing the income and food security of the smallholder farmers. A credit to be invested in rhizobium inoculation technology would provide smallholder farmers with the opportunity to improve soil fertility and increase farm productivity, improving their food security and enabling them to earn additional income. The private market for rhizobial inoculants is nascent, but many of the farmers report financial constraints. To create a functioning market and to realise the social and environmental benefits of soybean cultivation and rhizobium inoculation technology, it is important to understand the causes of credit constraints of smallholder farmers and how to reduce them. In this thesis, I study the prevalence and the determinants of credit constraints among smallholder soybean farmers by applying a logistic regression model to a sample of 133 smallholder farmers in northern Ghana. I first define credit constrained status of the farmers and conclude that the prevalence of observable credit constraints in the sample is 57.1%. I conclude that there are two broad categories of variables affecting a farmer’s status as credit constrained. The first of these is the type of guarantees that a farmer can offer to the lender. Such guarantees are represented by membership in a farmers' association (and hence access to possible joint guarantees), existing assets such as ownership of cows, and a farmer's experience in soybean production (reflecting knowledge of good investment decisions in the sector). The second category relates to the supply of credit and the factors affecting it. The factors affecting credit supply identified in this study are regional disparities and loans targeted to a certain group, such as women. By influencing the supply and conditions of credit, the financial constraints of smallholder farmers can be alleviated. Such policy interventions, combined with other leverage points such as social learning and access to information, contribute to the adoption of desirable farming practices. Because of the many benefits of rhizobial inoculation in soybean production, its adoption could be promoted by offering credit directed particularly for the adoption of this technology. This would benefit not only the farmers but have broader benefits in the form of climate change adaptation and mitigation
  • Peussa, Aleksandr (2016)
    The major concern of lenders is to answer the next question: 'Who we lend to?' Until 1970s the traditional schema was used to answer this question. Traditional credit assessment relied on 'gut feel', which means that a bank clerk or manager analyses a borrower's character, collateral and ability to repay. Also, some recommendations from the borrower's employer or previous lender are used. The alternative approach is credit scoring, which is a new way to approach a customer. Credit scoring is one of the most successful applications of statistics in finance and banking industry today. It lowers the cost and time of application processing and gives flexibility in making trade off between risk and sales for financial institution. Credit scorecards are essential instruments in credit scoring. They are based on the past performance of customers with characteristics similar to a new customer. So, the purpose of a credit scorecard is to predict risk, not to explain reasons behind it. The purpose of this work is to review credit scoring and its applications both theoretically and empirically, and to end up with the best combination of variables used for default risk forecasting. The first part of the thesis is focused on theoretical aspects of credit scoring - statistical method for scorecard estimation and measuring scorecard's performance. Firstly, I explain the definition of the scorecard and underlying terminology. Then I review the general approaches for scorecard estimation and demonstrate that logistic regression is the most appropriate approach. Next, I describe methods used for measuring the performance of the estimated scorecard and show that scoring systems would be ranked in the same order of discriminatory power regardless the measure used. The goal of the second part is empirical analysis, where I apply the theoretical background discussed in the first part of the master's thesis to a data set from a consumer credit bank, which includes variables obtained from the application forms and from credit bureau data, and extracted from social security numbers. The major finding of the thesis is that that the estimated statistical model is found to perform much better than a non-statistical model based on rational expectations and managers' experience. This means that banks and financial institutions should benefit from the introduction of the statistical approach employed in the thesis.
  • Saarinen, Juho (2013)
    Creep is time dependent plastic malformation of solids, that happen in static stress and temperature when threshold values are met. Creep occurs at high temperature, meaning temperature more than 30% of material's absolute melting temperature (this limit is a little lower with plastics, and higher in ceramics). The malformations it causes can lead to rupture, which usually happen in a short time compared to the duration of the whole process. The creep effect itself is known from already the 19th century, and for metals it's quite clear that diffusion is always present in creep (Coble and Nabarro-Herring creep), and that dislocations can increase the rate of creep strain. Effects of creep can be seen e.g. in power plants and engines, where turbine blades, turbines, pipes and vessels are all the time at high temperature and stress. Also creep relaxation is often 'loosening' bolts which needs to be retightened. In regular office creep can be seen in paper clips, especially in plastic ones, which relax and lose grip fast because of the low melting point of plastics. Creep, because it usually needs long time to be visible, has been part of accidents, too, e.g. in '9/11'. Creep appears in 3 stages (primary (transient), secondary (steady-state), tertiary), and depending on the application, either secondary or tertiary is the most important one. The secondary creep is important for displacement-, buckling- and relaxation-limited situations, and tertiary for the rupture-limited ones.
  • Ek, Marko (2016)
    Kansainvälisten rikostuomioistuinten perussäännöissä luetellaan joukko vakavia rikostekoja, jotka ovat rikoksia ihmisyyttä vastaan silloin, kun ne tehdään osana siviiliväestöön kohdistettua laajamittaista tai systemaattista hyökkäystä. Rikosten ihmisyyttä vastaan rikostunnusmerkistöön sisältyvä yksittäisten rikostekojen luettelo päättyy säännökseen, joka täydentää rikosluetteloa kriminalisoimalla muutoin erikseen lueteltujen rikosten lisäksi ’muut epäinhimilliset teot’, jotka tehdään osana laajamittaista tai systemaattista hyökkäystä siviiliväestöä kohtaan. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on selvittää rikosten ihmisyyttä vastaan ’muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ kiellon sisältöä ja ulottuvuutta osana kansainvälistä rikosoikeutta. Ilmaisun ’muut epäinhimilliset teot’ ollessa lähtökohtaisesti melko epätäsmällinen ja laaja-alainen, tarkastellaan kieltoa erityisesti rikosoikeudellisen laillisuusperiaatteen näkökulmasta. Tutkielmassa pyritään kokoamaan ja systematisoimaan ’muihin epäinhimillisiin tekoihin’ liittyvää säädännäisaineistoa ja oikeuskäytäntöä sekä tarkastelemaan normin sisältöä osana kansainvälistä tapaoikeutta. Historiallisen näkökulman kautta pyritään esittelemään ’muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ oikeudellista sisältöä eri aikoina ja kiellon yhteensopivuutta laillisuusperiaatteen kanssa rikostunnusmerkistön eri kehitysvaiheissa. ’Muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ kielto on pyritty asettamaan osaksi laajempaa oikeudellista kontekstia ja tulkitsemaan kieltoa soveltuvien oikeusperiaatteiden, etenkin laillisuusperiaatteen ja kansallisista rikosoikeusjärjestelmistä johdettavissa olevien periaatteiden valossa. ’Muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ kielto on sisällytetty kaikkien kansainvälisten rikostuomioistuinten perussääntöihin ja sitä on sovellettu laajalti oikeuskäytännössä. Kriminalisoinnin tunnusmerkistö ja ulottuvuus on täsmentynyt merkittävästi oikeuskäytännön kautta. ’Muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ tunnusmerkistön asteittaisesta kehityksestä ja eri määritelmien eroavaisuuksista huolimatta voidaan kiellon katsoa tulleen määritellyksi kansainvälisessä tapaoikeudessa kansainvälisen rikostuomioistuimen (ICC) perustamisasiakirjoista ilmenevällä tavalla. Rajanvedossa ’muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ ja mahdollisten muiden vakavaa kärsimystä tai vakavan vamman aiheuttavien tekojen välillä muodostuu tärkeäksi ’muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ samanlaisen luonteen ja vakavuuden toteaminen suhteessa muihin rikoksiin ihmisyyttä vastaan. Tutkielmassa katsotaan, että mahdollisten ’muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ luonnetta arvioitaessa tulee kiinnittää huomiota etenkin ihmisoikeusperiaatteisiin ja kansallisista oikeusjärjestelmistä johdettavissa oleviin tietyntyyppisten vakivallantekojen rikollista luonnetta koskeviin periaatteisiin. ’Muista epäinhimillisistä teoista’ tuomittaessa tulee kiinnittää erityistä huomiota laillisuusperiaatteeseen ja tutkia rikosvastuun toteuttamisen yhteensopivuus laillisuusperiaatteen kanssa tapauskohtaisesti.
  • Kivistö, Kanerva (2022)
    Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an emerging, tick-borne viral pathogen. Found on three continents, it is the most widespread of all tick-borne pathogens, but accurate geographical limits and epidemiology in Africa are still mostly unknown. Ticks act as both vectors and reservoirs, and the transmission cycle involves both wild and domestic animals and may occasionally spill over to humans. Further healthcare-related infections from human to human are common. With a high mortality rate and no cure or vaccine, CCHF is considered a major public health threat in endemic countries. This licentiate thesis consists of a literature review and an experimental work section. The literature review covers the basics of tick ecology, tick-borne diseases and viral haemorrhagic fevers with a focus on Africa and Kenya. These are used as foundations to understand CCHF in detail, encompassing virology, epidemiology, diagnostics, symptoms, treatment and prevention. The experimental work entails PCR-screening of ticks collected from South-eastern Kenya for the CCHF virus. The main objective of the study was to find whether CCHF is circulating in free-roaming ticks collected from two conservancies in the Taita Hills area. Taita Hills are located in Taita-Taveta county, near the Helsinki University research centre in Wundanyi. The ticks were collected by the Vapalahti virology team in 2018. This thesis involved the RNA extraction and measurement from the ticks and screening for CCHF virus with RT-qPCR. The results were negative for all 57 units of ticks processed. The study was a part of a larger research project, “Preparedness for emerging zoonotic infections in Kenya”. Previous publications on CCHF are lacking from this part of Kenya, so this study was a valuable part of primary research to establish the geographical limits and members of the enzootic cycle in Taita Hills. It would be essential to continue examining ticks from animal sources in addition to human serology, to further establish evidence of possible CCHF occurrence in the area. Mapping the prevalence and epidemiology of zoonotic and tick-borne pathogens is especially critical now, when climate change and diminishing biodiversity stir and alter disease emergence in an unprecedented manner.
  • Kylä-Harakka, Paula (2008)
    Pro gradu –tutkielman aiheena on kulttuurin ominaispiirteiden kääntäminen. Teksteissä kulttuurin jälki voi näkyä monin eri tavoin. Tutkielman kohteena ovat erityisesti käännösstrategiat, joita kääntäjät käyttävät kohdatessaan kulttuurisidonnaisia viittauksia. Tutkielma nostaa esiin myös niitä tekijöitä, jotka vaikuttavat siihen, minkälaisia käännösstrategioita kääntäjät valitsevat. Näistä tekijöistä tutkielma keskittyy kääntämisen normeihin. Tutkielma pureutuu kulttuurisidonnaisten viitteiden kääntämiseen tarkastelemalla kahta suomalaista kaunokirjallista teosta ja niiden käännöksiä. Tutkielman aineistona ovat Matti Yrjänä Joensuun kaksi rikosromaania ja näiden käännökset. Teoksista toinen on vuonna 1983 suomeksi julkaistu Harjunpää ja poliisin poika, jonka englanninkielinen käännös Harjunpaa the stone murders julkaistiin vuonna 1986. Toinen teos on vuonna 2003 julkaistu Harjunpää ja pahan pappi ja sen käännös The Priest of Evil vuodelta 2006. Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää, minkälaisia kulttuurisidonnaisia viittauksia romaanit sisälsivät, minkälaisia käännösstrategioita kääntäjät käyttivät kääntäessään näitä viittauksia ja mikä voisi selittää heidän strategisia valintojaan. Tutkielma pyrkii vastaamaan kysymykseen siitä, voisiko jonkin kääntämistä koskevan normin olemassa olo selittää kääntäjien strategisia valintoja. Tutkielman tavoitteena on myös selvittää, suositaanko kääntämisessä englannin kieleen niin kutsuttuja kotouttavia käännösstrategioita ja ovatko käännösstrategiat ja kääntämistä koskevat normit muuttuneet kahdenkymmenen vuoden aikana. Näihin kysymyksiin vastaamiseksi suomenkielisistä teksteistä on etsitty kaikki kulttuurisidonnaisia viittauksia sisältävät tekstinkohdat. Näitä vastaavat kohdat on sitten etsitty käännöksistä ja suomen- ja englanninkielisiä kohtia on vertailtu keskenään. Molemmat suomenkieliset romaanit sisältävät runsaasti kulttuurisidonnaisia viittauksia. Suurimman kulttuurisidonnaisten viittausten ryhmän muodostivat molemissa romaaneissa henkilöiden nimet. Romaanin sisälsivät myös runsaasti viittauksia maantieteeseen, erityisesti kulttuurimaantieteeseen, ja yhteiskuntaan. Sitä vastoin viittaukset suomalaiseen kulttuuriin ja historiaan olivat vähäisempiä. Tutkielma osoittaa, että kääntäessään suomesta englannin kielelle suomalaisen rikoskirjallisuuden kääntäjät saattavat käyttää enemmän vieraannuttavia strategioita kuin kotouttavia strategioita ja että he suosivat vieraannuttavia strategioita kasvavassa määrin. Harjunpään ja pahan papin kääntäjä käytti enemmän vieraannuttavia strategioita kuin Harjunpään ja poliisin pojan kääntäjä kaksikymmentä vuotta aikaisemmin. Tutkielman tulokset eivät tue väitettä siitä, että käännettäessä englannin kielelle suosittaisiin kotouttavia strategioita. Näyttää siltä, että vieraannuttavia strategioita on käytetty enemmän ja käytetään yhä enenevässä määrin. Lisääntyvän vieraannuttamisen taustalla voi olla useita syitä, kuten suomalaisen kulttuurin lisääntynyt tunnettuus maailmalla, rikosromaanin genren vaatimukset tai muutokset kääntäjäyhteisön arvoissa. Tutkielman tulosten perusteella näyttää siltä, että ainakin muutoksia normeissa ja arvoissa on tapahtunut. Lisätutkimuksen avulla voitaisiin selvittää, pätevätkö tutkielman tulokset muihin romaaneihin ja niiden käännöksiin tai muihin genreihin käännettäessä suomesta englantiin. Lisätutkimus voisi nojautua laajempaan ja erilaisia tekstejä kattavaan aineistoon. Jatkotutkimus voisi myös sisältää kääntäjien haastatteluita tai kyselyitä kääntäjille. Näiden avulla voitaisiin saada lisäselvyyttä syistä heidän strategisille valinnoilleen. Asiasanat: Käännöskirjallisuus – kaunokirjallisuus Kääntäminen – suomen kieli – englannin kieli Kääntäminen – strategia Kääntäminen - normi
  • Koponen, Anni (2023)
    The so-called 2015 ‘European migrant crisis’ brought the systematic flaws of the Common European Asylum System to the forefront of public debate and the subject of sharing protection responsibilities has become one of the most divisive topics on the EU agenda in the past years. With prior attempts to allocate protection costs or asylum applications more fairly between the Member States, the lack of solidarity has previously dominated the debate around migration management. Announced in 2020, the European Commission’s New Pact on Migration and Asylum aims to reform the Union’s migration management by 2024. In this study, I analyze the Asylum and Migration Management Reform (AMMR), which is one of the New Pact’s legislative proposals. The significance of AMMR is in its attempt to replace the Dublin Regulation, which determines the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application. Based on this criteria of responsibility, certain Member States particularly on the Union’s borders became inundated with asylum claims as the first-entry countries back in 2015. Utilizing Ulrich Beck’s risk society theory as my framework, I examine the role of the ‘crisis’ in policymaking with an assumption that migration is constructed as a risk (policy problem) that requires measures of migration management (policy solution) in the examined proposal. By using Carol Bacchi’s What’s the Problem Represented to Be? (WPR) method, I analyze how migration and migration management are problematized in AMMR. This method is based on six interrelated questions that aim to answer: 1) what the ‘problem’ is represented to be, 2) what assumptions underlie this ‘problem’ representation, 3) how it came to be, 4) what is left unproblematic in it, 5) what effects are produced by it, and 6) where the ‘problem’ representation has been produced and how it could be challenged. Based on the analysis, I identify two ‘problem’ representations in the AMMR. There is a shift from the lack of solidarity to the lack of EU coordination ‘problem’ (1). With the assumption that there is political will to offer solidarity (Q2), the Commission’s role is to assess future situations of migratory pressure and coordinate support accordingly. With failed past attempts to re-define the criteria for determining responsibility, the move onto more choice-based solidarity measures is understandable (Q3). However, what is left unproblematic is whether the Member States will voluntarily provide a variety of solidarity measures, especially in the area of relocation of sharing costs (Q4). Because essential criteria for responsibility is preserved, we can expect future situations of migratory pressure in Member States on the Union’s borders and on popular migration routes (Q5). This dynamic will likely continue to polarize the subject of migration management. Without clear definitions for migratory pressure or expectations on sharing protection responsibilities, Member States are likely to disagree how to manage migration effectively (Q6). The lack of EU coordination ‘problem’ begins to widen the scope of migration management to external border protection, the fight against migrant smuggling, and forming partnerships with third countries for return and readmission of applicants. This in turn begins to shape migration as a risk (Q1), where irregular migration is presented to be an administrative burden to asylum systems. The focus on effective return procedure as a policy solution stems from the assumption that a significant number of applicants are not entitled to international protection (Q2), and insufficient return rates have been present in the Commission’s communications since the 2015 crisis (Q3). At the same time, there are varying recognition rates between Member States, appealed decisions, and a rise in more complex cases since 2015 (Q4). A general effect of this ‘problem’ representation is the growing suspicion towards applicants seeking international protection, particularly from countries of lower recognition rate (Q5). Unless protection standards are harmonized, an increase in the return of applicants could be called into question (Q6).
  • Pörsti, Elina (2018)
    The capability to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from somatic cells provides remarkable possibilities for regenerative medicine. However, prior to clinical applications the process of reprogramming should be optimized and carefully characterized. The purpose of this study was to get insight in reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency using CRISPR-dCas9 activator system (CRISPRa). CRISPRa is a RNA guided bacterial nuclease system that has been modified for gene expression control. The study had two subprojects. The aims of the first subproject were 1) to reprogram hNESCs to pluripotency with CRISPRa in 2D culture, 2) to determine the efficacy of reprogramming and 3) to study whether CRISPRa-mediated pluripotent reprogramming pathway involves a mesendoderm-resembling intermediate state. The aim of the second subproject was to explore the possibility of CRISPRa-mediated endogenous gene activation and reprogramming to pluripotency also in 3D cell cultures. I performed the reprogramming in 2D and 3D cell cultures by using a dCas9 activator to induce different combinations of endogenous pluripotency reprogramming factors OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4), SOX2 (Sex determining region Y-box 2), NANOG, c-MYC, KLF4 (Krüppel-like factor 4) and LIN28. I analysed the results of the reprogramming at protein level, using alkaline phosphatase staining and immunocytochemistry, and at mRNA level, using qRT-PCR. The 2D reprogramming served as a proof-of-principle for reprogramming with CRISPRa. This study shows, that CRISPRa can be used to reprogram human neural stem cells to iPSC with different combinations of pluripotency reprogramming factors or by inducing a single master-regulator gene, OCT4. In addition, the reprogramming process was very efficient. I did not detect mesendodermal intermediate state in CRISPRa-mediated reprogramming to pluripotency, in contrast to published results from transgene- and small molecules-based reprogramming studies. Thus, this result suggests that the pathway leading to pluripotency differs between CRISPRa-mediated reprogramming and the two other reprogramming methods. CRISPRa can be used to initiate reprogramming also in 3D cell culture. However, in 3D cell culture the cells were not fully reprogrammed. Based on these findings, I postulate that CRISPRa serves as an alternative method for generating human iPSC. In addition, CRISPRa can be further developed into a platform for direct reprogramming of organoids for in vitro disease modelling in 3D.
  • Lohva, Henri (2016)
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a popular organism in the production of biofuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This is thanks to a good understanding of its metabolism, GRAS status and the ease of modification. Traditionally its genetic modification has been based on the use of selectable markers. Modifying multi gene pathways has required a sequential process consisting of multiple single gene disruptions together with marker recycling. Additionally, many industrial S. cerevisiae strains are polyploid and lack the same tools for their modification as laboratory strains. In this study we sought to develop CRISPR/Cas9 based genetic engineering method for the modification of industrial S. cerevisiae strains. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is based on the adaptive immunity system of bacteria. It makes use of the Cas9 endonuclease which produces double stranded DNA brake to any location determined by a gRNA molecule. This causes the activation of DNA repair mechanisms which can be utilized to for the genomic integration of a template DNA. This makes transformation events much more likely and thus enables producing multiple modifications at once and removes the need for the of use selectable markers. In our approach Cas9 and gRNA were transformed into the cell in a plasmid together with a separate template DNA molecule. We used this method to remove lyp1, ura3 and can1 genes from diploid and polyploid industrial S. cerevisiae strains multiple genes at a time. Simultaneously we evaluated the effect of the NHEJ repair mechanism on CRISPR/Cas9 by repeating the tests with a deletion strain missing the ku70 gene required by NHEJ. Finally the method was used for the metabolic engineering by integrating the five gene violacein metabolic pathway into two loci in a single transformation event. This study demonstrated the CRISPR/Cas9 method is well suited for the modification of industrial S. cerevisiae strains and is capable of modifying up to three loci at a time in a polyploid yeast strain.
  • Huhdanmäki, Tuukka (2021)
    CRISPR-Cas9 is one variant of newly emerging technologies utilizing targeted mutagenesis based on Cas family proteins and guide RNA that enable binding and modifying selected target sequence. The aim of the master’s thesis was to compare different methods of CRISPR-Cas9 induced gene editing in the genus Nicotiana and other secondary protocols necessary to identify successful mutations. PDS1 and PDS2 genes coding phytoene desaturase in plants were selected as target genes as mutant genotype produce visually identifiable photobleaching phenotype. CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complex mediated transformation uses separately produced Cas9 protein and guide RNA that when combined perform transient gene editing in cell. This method was planned to be used but Cas9 protein was challenging to produce in soluble form and final transformation was not achieved. This study suggests that acquiring ready-to-use Cas9 protein might be preferable choice when targeting only few transformations with CRISPR-Cas9 RNP-complex. Agrotransformation is well established method for genus Nicotiana and using Single Transcriptional Unit CRISPR-Cas9 system it is straightforward procedure from plasmid design to transformation. Successfully transformed plants were redeemed from transient agroinfiltration and stable agrotransformation experiments. Off-target mutations are possible and selective outbreeding may be needed. This method lacks the several advantages of CRISPR-Cas9 RNP-complex such as instant gene editing in cell, avoiding RNA interference and transformation over species boundaries, but is simple and functional in genus Nicotiana. Successful mutations were detected using commercial T7E1 and with natural CEL I endonuclease from celery extract. Celery extract can be used as cost-effective alternative to T7E1 for verifying or replicating previously confirmed results.
  • Mosalam, Mohamed (2021)
    The objectives of the study were to assess the efficiency of transient expression of sgRNA/Cas9 construct in Petunia V26, where sgRNA targeted a cytosine deaminase gene (CodA) that converts 5-fluorocytosine into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil. Disrupting CodA by transient expression of sgRNA/Cas9 introduced a conditional negative selection system that allowed plants with mutated CodA to regenerate on media containing 5-fluorocytosine. The single transcriptional unit vector pMOH2 was designed to carry two amplified sgRNAs guiding Cas9 targeting at HinfI cutting sites. The expression vector was transformed into Petunia V26 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pGV2260). Successful mutations were detected on 62.5 mg/L 5-fluorocytosine. Large numbers of in vitro shoots were regenerated from the transformed leaves on a modified MS-media containing 1 mg/L zeatin. The study revealed that transient expression of the sgRNA/Cas9 construct is efficient and can be used to target other genes in Petunia V26. pMOH2 targeted its sites successfully, and proved that CodA can be used as a conditional negative selection marker to detect cells with an edited genome.
  • Alajoki, Reetta (2023)
    Uterine leiomyomas (ULs) are common benign tumors that originate from the smooth muscle cells of the uterine wall known as the myometrium. Around 70% of pre-menopausal women are affected by these tumors. The high prevalence of ULs is a significant public health issue and ULs are the leading cause for hysterectomy. Many tumors remain asymptomatic, but 15-30% of affected women develop symptoms ranging from pain and heavy menstrual bleeding to pregnancy complications and infertility. Despite their common occurrence, the underlying mechanisms of UL genesis are still largely unknown. Based on mutually exclusive recurring genetic alterations, ULs can be divided into molecular subclasses. Three main molecular subclasses have been established: MED12 mutated tumors, HMGA2 overexpressing tumors and tumors with biallelic FH inactivation. Combined, these three subclasses represent around 90% of ULs, indicating that additional smaller molecular subclasses also exist. Recently, novel mutations associated with ULs have been identified in genes encoding for subunits of the SRCAP chromatin remodeling complex that deposits histone variant H2A.Z onto chromatin. These included loss-of-function mutations in YEATS4, DMAP1 and ZNHIT1, and resulted in deficient H2A.Z loading in the tumors. The detailed functional consequences of these driver mutations need to be further investigated to fully understand their significance in UL genesis. This work aimed to elucidate the effects of YEATS4 mutations by characterizing previously established CRISPR-Cas9 edited immortalized human myometrial cell models carrying heterozygous mutations in YEATS4 using various molecular biology methods. Subcellular fractionation and western blot analysis was used to detect chromatin bound H2A.Z from cell lysates. Quantitative PCR was performed to determine relative YEATS4 expression levels in mutated and wild-type cells. No significant reduction of chromatin bound H2A.Z or YEATS4 expression was observed in the studied heterozygous mutants when compared to wild-type immortalized myometrial smooth muscle cells. Additional myometrial cell models were created by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. Objective was to achieve homozygous YEATS4 mutations to better reflect the changes previously reported in ULs. One homozygous YEATS4 mutant cell line was achieved. Understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms behind UL genesis will be instrumental for developing curative non-invasive therapies in the future. Insight into dysregulated pathways and identification of UL biomarkers could improve diagnostic accuracy and help design personalized targeted therapies effective for specific UL subclasses. Characterization of each molecular subclass offers a unique opportunity to understand UL genesis.
  • Nedeczey-Ruzsák, Petra Dalma (2023)
    Normal sex differentiation depends largely on the healthy development of the bipotential gonad, which is identical in both sexes during early stages of embryonic development. Sex differentiation towards the female phenotype is initiated by the expression of pro-ovarian genes, among which Forkhead Box L2 (FOXL2) is an important regulator. Moreover, FOXL2 was found to be one of the genes most widely implicated in female disorders of sex development (DSD). However, there is a lack of understanding regarding its precise role during ovarian differentiation and development. In order to study the gene during early gonadal development, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were used as a model. An inducible FOXL2 activation line was generated in vitro, by applying the CRISPR/Cas9 technique in combination with the tetON and destabilized DHFR systems. The cells were also subjected to gonadal differentiation, based on a previously established protocol. The results showed that the establishment of the activation line was successful, and expression of FOXL2 could only be observed in cells that were treated with trimethoprim and doxycycline. Similar findings were observed in the differentiated activator cells, as again only the induced cells expressed FOXL2. On the other hand, both induced and non-induced differentiated cells showed expression of bipotential gonadal marker genes LHX9, EMX2, GATA4 and WT1. However, in the induced cells a lower relative expression of these markers could be observed. Therefore it seems that relative expression of bipotential gonadal markers was affected by FOXL2 activation. The expression of female gonadal marker genes RSPO1, FSHR, WNT4, AMH and FST was not influenced by FOXL2 activation during gonadal differentiation, as most of the markers showed similar levels of expression in both induced and non-induced cells. Therefore further research needs to be conducted to determine optimal time point of FOXL2 activation during differentiation. Nevertheless, an in vitro model could be generated, which could help in the future to further study the role of FOXL2 in gonadal differentiation, and to better understand pathological mechanisms underlying female DSDs.
  • Hakosalo, Vili (2021)
    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurogenerative disease. There are no drugs available to halt the progression of PD. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been identified as a potential drug candidate against PD because of its protective properties on dopaminergic neurons, which are an especially vulnerable cell population in PD. It has been recently shown that GDNF can also attenuate aggregation of phosphorylated α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons, which is one of the most important pathologies of PD. Phosphorylated α-synuclein is a primary component of Lewy bodies, which in turn, are vastly studied intracellular inclusions with a high correlation towards neurodegenerative diseases. GDNF signals through its main receptor RET and activates downstream signalling cascades. RET is indispensable for the effect of GDNF against α-synuclein aggregation. Importance of the downstream molecules Src, AKT and PI3K have been also pharmacologically demonstrated. However, complete mechanism of GNDF’s action and individual importance of downstream signalling molecules has been yet to establish. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tool has revolutionized the gene manipulation in biological research. In this thesis work, CRISPR/Cas9 guides were designed to target and mutate the c-Src, Akt1 and NURR1, which are important proteins of the GDNF/RET pathway. As a delivery system for the Cas9 enzyme and individual guides, lentiviral vectors were produced according to the protocols previously established in our laboratory and proved to be high efficiency. Modelling of α-synuclein aggregation in neurons was performed with pre-formed fibrils of α-synuclein, which induce the formation of intracellular Lewy body-like inclusions with the phosphorylation of α-synuclein at serine 129. In this study, primary dopaminergic neuron cultures from E13.5 mouse embryos were cultured in 96-well plates. For each of the target genes, I designed two guide variants, cloned them in lentiviral transfer vectors and produced lentiviral particles for neuronal transduction. My data shows that targeting Akt1 and c-Src impaired the protective mechanism of GDNF against Lewy body-like inclusions. For the importance of NURR1 more studies are needed for coherent conclusions. I also showed that targeting of NURR1 impaired the GDNF/RET signalling at least in one guide construct. The 15-day long cultivation did not affect to the dopaminergic cell numbers in any of the groups. Still the confirmation of successful CRISPR-induced genetic mutations by sequencing as well as the detailed mechanism of how GDNF prevents the formation of Lewy body-like inclusions will be a subject of future studies. This thesis provides important information for the molecular mechanism of attenuation of α-synuclein aggregation by GDNF through its main receptor RET.
  • Beletski, Roman (2019)
    It has long been the starting point in international law that a sovereign state is entitled to exclusively have control over the activity taking place on its soil, and that states should abstain from attempts to intervene in such internal affairs of each other. However, increasing globalisation and the advent of internet have shaken up this status quo – a traditional territorial approach to the regulation of novel phenomena in the online world is simply no longer sufficient. At the same time, overly broad extraterritorial claims by one state can be seen unacceptable by other states that are also interested in regulating the matter themselves. As it is discussed in this work, the contrast between these two approaches is highly relevant in the field of protection of personal data. The aim of this work is to (1) examine the extent of the extraterritorial mechanisms of the EU General Data Protection Regu-lation, after which (2) a critical assessment of these mechanisms will be performed from the perspective of international law. Both of these questions will be reviewed from a mainly doctrinal point of view, with certain additional sociological argu-ments being presented in relation to question (1). When examining question (2), the doctrinal method will take on a critical dimension, as the assessment of reasonableness of the extraterritorial mechanisms of the GDPR will be performed using principles of public international law as a normative framework. In order to establish said framework, a review of the con-cepts of sovereignty, jurisdiction and extraterritoriality will take place in the beginning of the work. Due to the political nature of extraterritoriality, political viewpoints will also be considered, where relevant. The GDPR employs several different mechanisms that stretch the Regulation’s effects beyond the borders of the EU. Some of these effects are more direct than the others. First of all, the GDPR has a rather broad territorial scope under Article 3, pursuant to which the Regulation applies to non-EU controllers and processors that either have an establishment in the EU or target data subjects in the EU. In addition, the GDPR has an effect on controllers and processors receiving personal data from a data exporter in the EU, even if they would not be otherwise subject to the Regulation under its territorial scope. Furthermore, the European influence abroad is visible through the European Commission’s adequacy decisions, bilaterally and multilaterally negotiated instruments, the Regulation’s Brussels effect and even the public awareness concerning privacy matters that has been affected, at least indirectly, by the strict requirements of the EU data protection law. In order to critically assess these mechanisms, a novel approach that accounts for all relevant factors when evaluating an extraterritorial assertion is assumed. While it is not possible to definitively claim that an extraterritorial claim is unacceptable, an overall assessment considering the principles of comity and sovereign equality can be helpful in order to establish whether certain extraterritorial assertions are questionable and to find alternative regulatory solutions that would be better in line with international law. Therefore, considering multiple factors, such as fairness, proportionality, justification, and predictability, it is concluded that certain extraterritorial mechanisms of the GDPR can be considered overly broad, especial-ly when there is no real chance that they could be enforced. For this reason, the study suggests that special emphasis should be given to those extraterritorial mechanisms that are enforceable within the EU and to mechanisms that require no enforcement action in order to function. Additionally, a proper balance between the interests between the EU and other independent regulators needs to be sought when determining the extent of the requirements of the GDPR, as it was cau-tiously implied in the recent CJEU judgment in C-507/17 – Google.
  • Isola, Jenni Susanna (2012)
    This graduate thesis studies the foreign- and security politics of the United States through the formation of national identity. It specifically investigates the country's foreign policy towards the United Nations, and changes in it, during two presidential terms. The thesis observes the second term of President George. W. Bush (from 2005 to 2008) and the first term of President Barack Obama (from 2009 to 2012). The subject matter is relevant in the field of world political studies for multiple reasons: The hegemonic status of the United States in an increasingly interconnected world, the unilateral tendency of the country tied to the attitude towards and the meaning of the UN, and the concepts of security and danger tied to the current discussion on the relevance of a nation-state as the main actor in responding to the common threats the world faces today. The method of critical identity and discourse analysis is used when approaching the subject. The basis for the US foreign policy formation is understood as coming from domestic structures and challenges instead of from outside threats, and for that reason the main empirical material for analysis is the State of the Union- speeches by the presidents. After analyzing the rhetoric of these speeches, the thesis indicates changes in concrete policy decisions by both presidents. The beginning hypothesis is that as the presidency shifts from the republican party to the democratic party, some changes in the foreign policy paradigm should occur. This is closely tied to the nature of the US political structure of Constitutional and Presidential democracy. The main discourses emerging from the analysis are danger and unilateralism for President Bush, and responsible leadership and multilateralism for President Obama. The strongest discourse, however, is determined as the discourse of American exceptionalism, and that serves both presidents. The presidential rhetoric shows a wide array of changes in the foreign and security- policy paradigms of the presidents, but the concrete decision-making indicates more continuity than change. The thesis concludes that even though President Bush was seen unfavorably by the international community at the end of his presidency, and much hope and expectations were placed on the shoulders of President Obama, have many at the end of Obama's first term expressed feelings of disappointment towards his achievements and indicated a lack of delivery. The results of the research show that the dominant backbone behind the US foreign policy, the identity of American exceptionalism, has not changed with the presidential shift. The foreign and security political paradigm still reflects domestic struggles with the national identity and aim towards the continuity of the country's hegemonic status in the world order. The research concludes that only through changes in the national political identity can the US reform its attitude towards the international community and act as a visionary in world politics.
  • Saari, Eeva-Kaisa (2012)
    The thesis is a study of journalists ethics in health and beauty field. The research is aiming to answers questions as follows. Firstly, how do PR agencies get publicity for their clients and their products by using journalists as a tool? Secondly, how does it affect journalists ethics when a PR company wants to achieve the best results for their clients project? Thirdly, how do journalists experience objectivity towards readers when dealing with PR practitioners? Advertisers influence in the process is also taken into account. The starting point for the study is the hypothesis that British journalists are more biased than their Finnish colleagues because the industry is bigger in the UK and they get more gifts from public relations machinery. My view changed towards the end of the research; the study results indicate that both countries are in a similar situation. The readers are one of the main reasons why this study was conducted. They are the ones that suffer from unethical journalism. Journalism industry has its own code of conduct in both countries and the thesis examines the impact on journalists attitudes. The study is qualitative and the method used is thematic interviews. For this study seven journalists from Finnish and six from British monthly magazines were interviewed. The interview questions were designed to find out what is the public relations practitioners impact on journalists work. The theory of the thesis includes theories of ethics, journalism, journalism ethics and public relations. The concept of ethics used n this research is western. Thematic analysis is used in order to find out research results. Main result is that it is not the amount of gifts that affects journalists ethics but rather the relationship between the journalist and a public relations practitioner. Journalists get harassed by the public relations practitioners to the point that a journalist gives in just that she can have a peace of mind. The relationship between PR people and journalists can also be extremely friendly and as a result a journalist might feature their products. Advertisers play a key role on editorial content. They have power to tell what to feature and which launch event a journalist should attend. The results were similar in both Finland and in the UK other than one exception. A publisher in the UK has its own ethical rules that employees have to obey. The concept is more helpful when resolving ethical issues comparing to codes of conducts that are issued from an institution such as National Union of Journalists.
  • Gill, Sukhman (2023)
    Two Abstracts
  • Poutanen, Timo (2021)
    Tutkielmani keskittyy tieteiskirjallisuudessa esiintyviin utopioihin ja niiden ongelmallisiin piirteisiin, kuten ihmisten sijoittamiseen alueille, joissa heillä ei ole mahdollisuutta elää luonnon keskuudessa, kolonialistiseen ja imperialistiseen vallankäyttöön ja ympäristön hyväksikäyttöön. Tutkin näitä ongelmia Aldous Huxleyn Brave New World (suomeksi Uljas Uusi Maailma) ja Arthur C. Clarken Imperial Earth kirjan kautta, koska ne edustavat kahta erilaista utopiaa. Huxleyn Brave New World esittää lukijalle maailman, jossa ihmisiltä on otettu pois heidän mahdollisuutensa valita oma tulevaisuutensa, minkä ohella heille on luotu maailma, jossa heillä ei ole mitään mitä he haluaisivat. Clarken Imperial Earth sen sijaan edustaa pintapuolisesti positiivisempaa utopiaa, jossa maassa asuvat ihmiset ovat päässeet eroon monista maailmaa kohtaavista ongelmista, kuten saasteista, sodasta, ja nälänhädästä. Tämä ei välttämättä siltikään tarkoita, että luontoa taikka kaikkia ihmisiä kohdeltaisiin yhdenmukaisesti, ja ne ihmiset, jotka asuvat maapallon ulkopuolella, joutuvat elämään vaarallisessa ja epäluonnollisessa ympäristössä. Analyysini on jaettu eri osiin, joista ensimmäinen kohdistuu kolonialismiin utopioissa ja siihen, miten siirtomaavallat ylläpitävät itseään ja kansalaisiaan. Tutkin tässä osiossa, miten Huxleyn Brave New World kirjassa ilmaantuvia ”villien” reservaatteja on luotu yhteiskuntaan, jossa muuten kaikilla sen kansalaisista on kaikkea mitä he haluavat, mutta heille on jätetty vain rippeet hyvästä maasta ja teknologiasta. Tämä edustaa tapaa, jolla siirtomaavallat käyttävät hyväksensä vähäosaisempia ja osoittaa paralleelien kautta, miten siirtokuntien asukkaiden ja suurien valtioiden kansalaiset ovat loppujen lopuksi samanlaisessa hierarkkisessa asemassa kuin ne kansanryhmät, joiden he katsovat olevan heitä alhaisempia. Tähän analyysiin heijastaen tutkin Clarken Imperial Earth kirjan avaruussiirtokuntien tilannetta, erityisesti sitä, miten niissä esiintyy erittäin samanlaisia kolonialistisia hyväksikäytön elementtejä, kuten heikot elinympäristöt ja luonnonvarojen kuluttaminen siirtomaavallan hyväksi. Tähän asiaan liittyen tutkin myös kirjojen päähenkilöitten statusta ulkopuolisina molemmista siirtokuntalaisista ja siirtomaavaltojen kansalaisista ja tutkin, mitä heidän asemansa edustaa molemmissa yhteiskunnissa ja mitä se kertoo ulkopuolisten hyväksynnästä. Seuraavassa osiossa tutkin, miten siirtomaavallat hyväksikäyttävät siirtokuntia ja niissä asuvia ihmisiä huolimatta siitä, miten se vaikuttaa heidän elämäänsä ja ympäristöönsä. Tällaista hyväksikäyttöä esiintyy molemmissa kirjoissa, ja näiden siirtomaavaltojen asukkaat eivät näe hyväksikäytössä minkäänlaista ongelmaa, koska nämä ratkaisut ovat olleet rahallisesti ja paikallisen ympäristön puolesta hyödyllisiä. Analyysini keskittyy siihen, miten vähän mahdollisuuksia siirtokunnissa asuvilla on ja kuinka heidän elinympäristönsä on minimaalinen siirtomaavaltaan verrattuna. Clarken Imperial Earth kertoo Saturnuksen kuun Titanin siirtokunnasta, joka kerää Maalle vetyä ainoana rahan lähteenänsä. Monet siellä asuvat eivät pysty päättämään, haluavatko he pysyä siirtokunnassaan vai ei, koska heillä ei ole varaa muuttaa takaisin Maahan, joten heihin kohdistuu koko elämän kestävää epäoikeudenmukaisuutta, mihin heillä ei olet mitään sanomista. Huxleyn Brave New World taas näyttää miten siirtomaavallat pitävät niitten ulkopuolisia alueita kurissa, jotta ne voivat hyväksikäyttää niitä jopa kaikkien luonnonvarojen hupenemisen jälkeen viihteenä, ja miten siirtomaavaltojen johto myy matkoja käymään näillä reservialueilla. Lopuksi tutkin, miten ihmiskunta hyväksikäyttää luontoa ja miten se näkee luonnon nautinnon lähteenä. Molemmissa kirjoissa kerrotaan, että suuresta osasta ympäristöongelmia, kuten saasteesta on päästy eroon, mutta silti kummassakin ilmenee, että luonto on täysin ihmisen kontrolloima. Huxleyn Brave New World näkee luonnon resurssina ja siinä esiintyvät siirtomaavaltojen johtajat pitävät omaa kansaansa iloisina luomalla heille suotuisan ja kauniin ympäristön heidän kaupunkiympäristöönsä. Luonto on aina kaunista ja sen ylläpidolla maksimoidaan sen esteettinen arvo. Samalla sen oma yhteiskunta on kaukana luonnosta geenimanipulaation kautta, joka on antanut heille pitkän, terveellisen elämän, joka alkaa ja loppuu etänä muista ihmisistä. Clarken Imperial Earth ylistää, miten Maahan on tuotu takaisin alkukantaiset metsät ja eläimistö; se kuvailee, miten jotkut näkevät sen maailman erittäin puhtaana. Samalla tiedemiehet manipuloivat kasveja keräämään kultaa taikka tuomaan takaisin edesmenneitä eläinlajeja. Molemmissa kirjoissa ihmiskunta on teknologian avulla saavuttanut tason, jolla ihminen on kaiken luonnon herra. Tutkielmani osoittaa, miten ihmisten ja ympäristön hyväksikäytön takia kumpikaan kirjojen maailmoista ei voi olla utopia, vaikka niitten omat asukkaat näkisivät ne utopioina. Molemmat kirjat sisältävä samanlaisia elementtejä, vaikka niitten maailmat kuvastavat täysin erilaisia asioita. Tämä osoittaa, että utopian muoto tai sen motiivi eivät edusta sen statusta positiivisena tai negatiivisena tulevaisuutena. Huxleyn Brave New World seuraa Thomas Moren Utopian satiirista perinnettä, kun taas Clarken Imperial Earth edustaa modernia utopiaa, jossa nykyajan ongelmat ovat ratkaistu, mutta silti molemmat kirjat sisältävät epäoikeudenmukaisuuksia monella tasolla.