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Browsing by Author "Taanila, Olli"

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  • Taanila, Olli (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2008)
    One of the unanswered questions of modern cosmology is the issue of baryogenesis. Why does the universe contain a huge amount of baryons but no antibaryons? What kind of a mechanism can produce this kind of an asymmetry? One theory to explain this problem is leptogenesis. In the theory right-handed neutrinos with heavy Majorana masses are added to the standard model. This addition introduces explicit lepton number violation to the theory. Instead of producing the baryon asymmetry directly, these heavy neutrinos decay in the early universe. If these decays are CP-violating, then they produce lepton number. This lepton number is then partially converted to baryon number by the electroweak sphaleron process. In this work we start by reviewing the current observational data on the amount of baryons in the universe. We also introduce Sakharov's conditions, which are the necessary criteria for any theory of baryogenesis. We review the current data on neutrino oscillation, and explain why this requires the existence of neutrino mass. We introduce the different kinds of mass terms which can be added for neutrinos, and explain how the see-saw mechanism naturally explains the observed mass scales for neutrinos motivating the addition of the Majorana mass term. After introducing leptogenesis qualitatively, we derive the Boltzmann equations governing leptogenesis, and give analytical approximations for them. Finally we review the numerical solutions for these equations, demonstrating the capability of leptogenesis to explain the observed baryon asymmetry. In the appendix simple Feynman rules are given for theories with interactions between both Dirac- and Majorana-fermions and these are applied at the tree level to calculate the parameters relevant for the theory.