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Browsing by department "Metsätieteiden laitos"

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  • Jokinen, Minna (2017)
    Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) is an invasive alien species native to China and Korea. Asian longhorned beetle has been established on many European countries, United States and Canada. The pathway to the new environments is typically via solid wood packing material (SWPM) which is used especially to pack stoneware. The larva lives inside the trunk and chews tunnels. These tunnels may result in loss of turgor pressure and, by implication, to loss of leaves and finally to death of the tree. Eradication of this species is complicated due to a wide range of host species. The first introduced population in Finland was discovered in October 2015 in the municipality of Vantaa, near to Helsinki. Thus, we have a lack of knowledge in its habits in Finnish circumstances. The main objective of this thesis was to specify whether the Asian longhorned beetle is established also in Helsinki and which areas would be potential habitats for this species. Because no Finnish research about this pest has been published, also a literature survey about the species is provided. Areas, where stoneware originated to Asia is stored at the moment or was stored before, were considered as a potential habitats for the Asian longhorned beetle. The observations were conducted during the summer season 2016. The potential host trees were observed with binoculars. Inspections focused on searching round exitholes typical to the Asian longhorned beetle from the trunk and the main branches. Trees with suspicious holes were felled and investigated. No Asian longhorned beetles were found. However, there are several potential areas in Helsinki. In total, 35 potential areas were inspected. These areas were rich in broadleaved trees that belong to hosts of this pest. It can be assumed that Asian longhorned beetle would not have shortage in suitable host trees. The most common inspected tree species were silver birch, dawny birch, European aspen and goat willow. Ground inspection with binoculars is a common, but unreliable method. In summer time foliage layer may obscure the visibility to the trunk and the branches. On the other hand, trees with dead branches or a lack of foliage can be easily detected and thus special effort can be used to inspect these trees. It can be suggested that at least not very old or high density populations exist in Helsinki. The best way to avoid new introductions is to favor Finnish stoneware and avoid Asian wood packing material. The treatments of SWPM should be improved to prevent further spread of these pests. The omission of treatment should never happen. One option is to replace SWPM with more secure packing materials. Also the destruction of the packing material should be carried out properly and it should not be transported for example as a firewood to summer cottages. This study was carried out together with University of Helsinki and Public Works Department of the city of Helsinki. Cooperation was done also with the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira.
  • Partanen, Tommi (2012)
    Environmental issues have become an important part of today’s business. Some companies have made the decision to strive towards environmental friendliness of operation; others have decided to take a more reactive approach. Even though environmental issues have gotten much attention lately, the portion of green products out of total production is still very small. The purpose of this study is to find out using a single company case study if environmentalism adds value in the print business. From managerial perspective, the aim of the study is also to find out if the possible added value of environmentalism could be further enhanced. The main questions are: What are customers’ main selection criteria for making purchasing decisions? In what respect are customers’ purchasing decisions based on environmental values? Do customers feel that there is added value in environmentally friendly processes and materials? Data for the study is collected from thematic customer interviews, a newsletter survey and a literature review of previous research. Companies in the study include multinational, national and local ones. The study will use a mixed method approach with qualitative data from the interviews and quantitative data from the survey. By gathering data from two different sources with mainly qualitative and theory driven method of analysis, the reliability of the results is greater. Based on the results, environmental and sustainability issues are important issues for some customer companies in printing business, but not everyone wants to pay extra for environmental friendliness. Interestingly, there is clear evidence that also smaller companies are acknowledging the importance of environmental friendliness, so it is not only for large export-orineted companies. Some companies can be identified as proactively pursuing competitive advantages from sustainability and environmental friendliness. The results of the study are used to further develop the case company’s environmental marketing, for example by developing environmental management.
  • Soirinsuo, Juho (2007)
    The United States is the world s single biggest market area, where the demand for graphic papers has increased by 80 % during the last three decades. However, during the last two decades there have been very big unpredictable changes in the graphic paper markets. For example, the consumption of newsprint started to decline from the late 1980 s, which was surprising compared to the historical consumption and projections. The consumption has declined since. The aim of this study was to see how magazine paper consumption will develop in the United States until 2030. The long-term consumption projection was made using mainly two methods. The first method was to use trend analysis to see how and if the consumption has changed since 1980. The second method was to use qualitative estimate. These estimates are then compared to the so-called classical model projections, which are usually mentioned and used in forestry literature. The purpose of the qualitative analysis is to study magazine paper end-use purposes and to analyze how and with what intensity the changes in society will effect to magazine paper consumption in the long-term. The framework of this study covers theories such as technology adaptation, electronic substitution, electronic publishing and Porter s threat of substitution. Because this study deals with markets, which have showed signs of structural change, a very substantial part of this study covers recent development and newest possible studies and statistics. The following were among the key findings of this study. Different end-uses have very different kinds of future. Electronic substitution is very likely in some end-use purposes, but not in all. Young people i.e. future consumers have very different manners, habits and technological opportunities than our parents did. These will have substantial effects in magazine paper consumption in the long-term. This study concludes to the fact that the change in magazine paper consumption is more likely to be gradual (evolutionary) than sudden collapse (revolutionary). It is also probable that the years of fast growing consumption of magazine papers are behind. Besides the decelerated growth, the consumption of magazine papers will decline slowly in the long-term. The decline will be faster depending on how far in the future we ll extend the study to.
  • Sydänmaa, Lilli (2014)
    Metsähallituksen luontokeskukset ja -talot ovat asiakaspalvelupisteitä, joiden tehtävänä on jakaa tietoa ja neuvoa luonnonsuojelu- ja retkeilyalueille menijöitä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli lisätä ymmärrystä niissä tapahtuvasta oppimisesta. Syvällisempi ymmärrys oppimisesta mahdollistaa asiakaspalvelupisteiden toiminnan ja niissä esillä olevien materiaalien kehittämisen niin, että ne tukevat paremmin kävijöiden oppimista. Tutkimus rajoittui Tunturi-Lapin alueella sijaitseviin luontokeskuksiin ja luontotaloon sekä näiden asiakaspalvelupisteiden yli 15-vuotiaisiin kävijöihin. Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin vain luonto-, retkeily- ja saamelaiskulttuuritietojen oppimista. Tutkimuksessa hyödynnettiin luontokeskus Kellokaan, Pallastunturin luontokeskuksen, Tunturi-Lapin luontokeskuksen ja Kilpisjärven luontotalon viimeisimpiä asiakastutkimusaineistoja. Kyseiset asiakastutkimukset on toteutettu vuosien 2004 ja 2011 välillä. Aineisto koostui yhteensä 1546 täytetystä kyselylomakkeesta. Tilastollisessa analyysissä käytettiin ristiintaulukointia ja lineaarisia regressiomalleja. Analyysi pohjautui pitkälti museo-oppimista koskevissa tutkimuksissa saatuihin tuloksiin, erityisesti Falkin ja Dierkingin museokokemusmalliin, jonka mukaan museokokemus rakentuu persoonallisesta, sosiaalisesta ja fyysisestä kontekstista sekä välittömästä toimintakontekstista. Kävijöiden neljä yleisintä syytä vierailla luontokeskuksessa olivat tiedonsaanti, näyttelyt, ostokset ja kahvila. Tiedonsaannista kiinnostuneet kävijät hakivat luontokeskuksesta ennen kaikkea luontoon liittyvää tietoa. Valtaosa kävijöistä oppi vierailun aikana luontoon ja retkeilyyn liittyviä tietoja. Kävijät myös pitivät tiedonsaantia keskimäärin hyvänä. Tietojen oppimiseen vaikuttivat voimakkaimmin elämykset sekä näyttelyn kiinnostavuus ja laatu. Mitä elämyksellisempänä kävijät kokivat vierailun ja mitä kiinnostavampana tai laadukkaampana he pitivät pysyvää näyttelyä, sitä paremmaksi he keskimäärin arvioivat tiedonsaannin. Asiakaspalvelupisteissä esitettävien video- ja diaesitysten katsominen paransi hieman kävijöiden luontotiedonsaantia. Tunturi-Lapin luontokeskuksen Vuovjjuš - Kulkijat -näyttelyyn tutustuminen lisäsi selvästi kävijöiden tietoja saamelaiskulttuurista. Tulosten perusteella luontokeskukset ja -talot onnistuvat jo nykyisellään melko hyvin tehtävässään jakaa tietoa. Kävijöiden oppimista olisi kuitenkin mahdollista parantaa panostamalla elämysten tarjoamiseen, selvittämällä kävijöiden kiinnostuksen kohteet näyttelyitä uudistettaessa, esittämällä näyttelyissä käsiteltävät asiat selvästi ja riittävän yksinkertaisesti sekä houkuttelemalla yhä useammat kävijät katsomaan video- tai diaesitys.
  • Ryhti, Kira (2016)
    Finnish energy production is producing around 1.5 million tons ashes annually. The aim is to utilize ashes instead of landfilling as well as to replace the use of exhaustible natural materials. Wood and peat ashes can be used, for example, in field and forest fertilization and land construction. In road construction and rehabilitation, ash can be used to replace expensive aggregates and achieve better load capacity features. This study was part of the Natural Resources Institute Finland’s (formerly the Finnish Forest Research Institute) project: "New technologies as assistance for the lower road network construction and maintenance". The purpose of this research was to investigate the leaching of heavy metals, nutrients and salts from ash treatments by collecting infiltrate waters with zero-tension lyzimeters, taking water samples from nearby ditch waters and clarify influencing factors. The plots were established in Jämsä on the old forest roads, which are rehabilitated with mixed wood and peat ash in the autumn 2011. The site consists of two forest roads, which had four types of ash treatments and control treatment. For each plot, six zero-tension lysimeters (0.1 m2) were installed every 20 meters, tree to the roads surface and tree to deeper levels. In addition to lysimeters, water samples were taken from nearby ditches. Water samples were collected during 2012 – 2014 once a month from May onwards for 6-8 months. The relations between the substances were tested for statistical correlations (Pearson) and the effects of treatments to leaching were tested with the Tukey HSD-test. Concentrations of 32 elements, ions and compounds were determined from lyzimeter and ditch water samples. Heavy metal concentrations were during the entire follow-up period mainly low. There were no elevated heavy metal concentrations in ditch waters either. The content of nutrients and salts in the water samples were higher from ash treatments than from control treatments. The content of nutrients and salts were also higher in ditch water samples compared to control ditch. Several soluble substances from the ashes had a statistically significant positive correlation (p <0.01) with each other. The results varied a lot progressively, between plots and between the lysimeters of the same plot. Significantly higher concentrations were measured from two lysimeters for number of elements compared to the other lysimeters in other plots (p <0.05). In most cases, the results were very mixed and there was no clear difference between the control and ash treatments. The study yielded valuable information about the leaching of substances from ash structures. A three-year follow-up period is short, for example, compared to the long-term forest fertilization experiments that can last for decades. The pH of the ash decreases in time and decrease in pH could increase solubility of heavy metals. The average concentrations of many elements in water samples from lysimeters and ditch waters were at the same level than in soil waters in forest. Although during the monitoring period, there were no increases in heavy metal concentrations in ditch waters, the accumulation of elements to nearby aquatic ecosystems is difficult to assess in the long-term if leaching behavior changes with time. Ash seems to be a promising material for road construction, as long as the ash quality is suitable to this particular purpose.
  • Hovi, Aarne (2011)
    Understory trees often emerging beneath dominant tree layer in even-aged stands have significance for timber harvesting operations, forest regeneration, landscape and visibility analysis, biodiversity and carbon balance. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has proven to be an efficient remote sensing method in inventory of mature forest stands. Recent introduction of ALS to operational forest inventory systems could potentially enable cost-efficient acquisition of information on understory tree layer. In this study, accurate field reference and discrete return LiDAR data (1–2 km flying altitude, 0.9–9.7 pulses m-2) were used. The LiDAR data were obtained with Optech ALTM3100 and Leica ALS50-II sensors. The field reference plots represented typical commercially managed, even-aged pine stands in different developmental stages. Aims of the study were 1) to study the LiDAR signal from understory trees at pulse level and the factors affecting the signal, and 2) to explore what is the explanatory power of area-based LiDAR features in predicting the properties of understory tree layer. Special attention was paid in studying the effect of transmission losses to upper canopy layers on the obtained signal and possibilities to make compensations for transmission losses to the LiDAR return intensity. Differences in intensity between understory tree species were small and varied between data sets. Thus, intensity is of little use in tree species classification. Transmission losses increased noise in intensity observations from understory tree layer. Compensations for transmission losses were made to the 2nd and 3rd return data. The compensations decreased intensity variation within targets and improved classification accuracy between targets. In classification between ground and most abundant understory tree species using 2nd return data, overall classification accuracies were 49.2–54.9 % and 57.3–62.0 %, and kappa values 0.03–0.13 and 0.10–0.22, before and after compensations, respectively. The classification accuracy improved also in 3rd return data. The most important variable explaining the transmission losses was the intensity from previous echoes and pulse intersection geometry with upper canopy layer had a minor effect. The probability of getting an echo from an understory tree was studied, and differences between tree species were observed. Spruce produced an echo with a greater probability than broadleaved trees. If the pulse was subject to transmission losses, the differences were increased. The results imply that area-based LiDAR height distribution metrics could depend on tree species. There were differences in intensity data between sensors, which are a problem if multiple LiDAR data sets are used in inventory systems. Also the echo probabilities differed between sensors, which caused minor changes in LiDAR height distribution metrics. Area-based predictors for stem number and mean height of understory trees were detected if trees with height < 1 m were not included. In general, predictions for stem number were more accurate than for mean height. Explanatory power of the studied features did not markedly decrease with decreasing pulse density, which is important for practical applications. Proportion of broadleaved trees could not be predicted. As a conclusion, discrete return LiDAR data could be utilized e.g. in detecting the need for initial clearings before harvesting operations. However, accurate characterization of understory trees (e.g. detection of tree species) or detection of the smallest seedlings seems to be out of reach. Additional research is needed to generalize the results to different forests.
  • Laaksonen, Satu (2018)
    Aikoinaan ojitettujen soiden vedenpinta on ollut huomattavasti alempana kuin luonnontilaisten soiden. Aikoinaan ojitet-tujen soiden vedenpinnan lasku on aiheuttanut muutoksen suon toiminnoissa ja sen seurauksena lopulta jopa useiden lajien ja suotyyppien vaarantumisen. Kaikki ojitetut suot eivät ole osoittautuneet menestyksekkäiksi puuston kasvatuk-sessa. Metsähallitus päätti 1993, että ojitetut suoalueet ennallistetaan, sikäli kuin se on mahdollista ja taloudellista. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten vedenpinnantaso nousee ennallistetuilla soilla ja miten se vaikuttaa vii-dessä vuodessa kohteella olevaan elävään ja kuolleeseen puustoon sekä taimiin. Tutkimuksen kohteina oli ennallistetut rehevät ja keskiravinteiset korvet, karut rämeet ja sararämeet sekä vastaavat luonnontilaiset suot. Tutkimuksen aineisto-na on käytetty Metsähallituksen valtakunnallisten soiden ennallistamisprojektin kasvillisuuden seuranta-aineistoa sekä kasviruutujen nurkkakepeistä tehtyjä veden syvyyden mittauksia. Seurannassa tutkitaan, miten ojitus ja ennallistaminen vaikuttavat soiden kasvillisuuteen ja palautuvatko ennallistetut suot luonnontilaisten kaltaiseksi. Aikaisemmissa tutkimuksissa on käynyt ilmi, että ennallistaminen ojia tukkimalla ja patoamalla, on saanut aikaan positii-visen muutoksen suon toiminnoissa, vedessä ja kasvillisuudessa. Toimintojen ja kasvillisuuden palautuminen luonnon-tilaisen kaltaiseksi edellyttää veden pinnan nousemista lähelle luonnontilaista tasoa. Ensimmäisenä kasvillisuudessa palautuvat rahkasammaleet. Ennallistamisessa puuston määrä vaikuttaa etenkin avoimilla soilla, missä puusto voi haih-duttaa vettä niin runsaasti, ettei vedenpinta pääse nousemaan tarpeeksi. Vastaavaa ongelmaa ei ole havaittu niinkään puustoisilla soilla. Tutkimustulokset osoittivat, että viiden vuoden aikana vedenpinta nousi ennallistetuilla kohteilla luonnontilaisten soiden tasolle. Elävän puuston määrä väheni jokaisella suotyypillä viiden vuoden aikana ennallistumisen alettua, eniten keski-ravinteisissa korvissa ja sararämeillä. Vastaavasti kuolleen puuston määrä kasvoi eniten sararämeillä. Puuston läpimitta näytti hieman kasvaneen niin elävien kuin kuolleiden puiden kohdalla. Taimien määrä oli runsain rehevissä korvissa jo ennen ennallistamista, ja kun ennallistamisesta on kulunut kaksi vuotta, määrä oli lähes tuplaantunut. Viiden vuoden kuluttua ennallistamisen alkamisesta taimien määrä oli romahtanut. Muilla suotyypeillä taimien määrissä ei tapahtunut yhtä suuria muutoksia ja taimien määrät olivat jo lähtökohtaisesti pienemmät. Tutkimustulokset antavat viitteitä siitä, että ennallistaminen ojia tukkimalla saa veden pinnan nousemaan luonnontilais-ten soiden tasolle. Viidessä vuodessa vedenpinnan nousu näyttää vaikuttavan elävän puuston ja taimien määrään vä-hentävästi sekä kuolleen puuston määrää lisäävästi. Viiden vuoden mittauksessa puuston läpimitta näyttää yhä kasvavan enemmän ennallistetuilla aloilla kuin luonnontilaisilla verrokeilla. Kuten aikaisemmissa soiden ennallistamiseen liittyvissä tutkimuksissa on todettu, tarvitaan lisää pitkäaikaisia tutkimuk-sia. Jos kasveille ei riitä 10 vuoden tutkimusjakso, niin puuston kannalta viisi vuotta on vasta alku.
  • Pape-Mustonen, Terhi (2013)
    The goal of this research is to map different leadership experiences within Finnish logging companies which are constituent of a new organisation model for tree harvesting. In this model, entrepreneurs have extensive service contracts and often utilise networks of smaller labour units. Finnish harvesting companies have traditionally been small and therefore these new responsibilities can add stress. This work describes attitudes towards both leadership and leadership practices. The method used in this research is theme interviews. The interviewed entrepreneurs were participating in the Menestyvä alueyrittäjä- project. There were 15 interviewees. Interviews were recorded and the recordings added up to 25 hours. The interviews were analysed and practices and attitudes classified according to theories of leadership. The interviews revealed that the client has a big impact on the strategic choices made by these companies. The most time consuming leadership task is planning. The telephone is the most used communication device and this has not been affected by the adoption of newer IT devices. Both official and casual communication is conducted over the phone. District company leaders don’t think of themselves primarily as executives. They appreciate independence and concrete results in their work. The use of information technology is generally straightforward for them. The entrepreneurs believe that their employees particularly appreciate equality and respectful, trusting relationships. Supporting employees is seen as important and entrepreneurs want to use more time in personnel management. Most of the entrepreneurs don’t use harvesting machine data to determine their employees’ pay, although this could make supervision more efficient. More successful employees are generally better paid. According to the entrepreneurs, recruiting is difficult and good employees hard to find. The interviews in this work indicate that the most difficult aspects of leadership are personnel management and the utilisation of financial information.
  • Stolze, Markus (2019)
    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to evaluate the reliability of forest products forecast information produced by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe member States. The study also aims to answer which dimensions of data quality are the most important when producing these predictions This study is carried out as quantitative research and it focuses on the predictions made by the 27 member States, produced between 2002 and 2017. This research aims to find out what methods are used by different member States and which methods produce the most reliable results. This research also aims to find out if there are any differences in reliability when assessing different product flows (removals, production, exports or imports) of the various products analyzed. There were clear differences visible between different products in the results of this research. In some products, almost all member States had managed to produce reliable predictions, while for others majority of member States didn’t manage that. There were also differences between member States and some were clearly more reliable than others. The biggest factor affecting reliability was volume: for most parts, bigger volumes meant more reliable predictions. Production and removals were more reliable product flow than imports or exports. This is due to the nature of imports and exports, as they are more easily affected by outside impacts. Although all member States were able to be sorted into four groups based on how different product flows looked like, no clear patterns were visible when observing how different member States produce predictions. Almost all of the interviewed representatives of member States reported that they were using almost or exactly the same methods to produce predictions.
  • Wan, Minli (2009)
    China's primary wood processing industry and wood consuming sectors have experienced rapid growth in recent years. Industries like sawnwood and plywood have developed very quickly. The purpose of this study is to: 1) provide an overview of the demand, supply, imports and exports of raw wood and primary wood products in the China market between 1993 and 2007, 2) present quantitative estimates of the relative importance of factors influencing the demand, supply and exports of Chinese plywood, 3) draw conclusions about China's potentials and challenges for foreign enterprises, including Finnish companies. The information, analyses and findings presented in this study can give a reference for wood processing companies, especially for sawnwood and plywood firms, and governmental agencies in China. In addition, the study provides a basis for further study and research. Even though much information has been published in China, academic research in the Chinese woodworking market is scarce, and especially, time-series data is missing and unreliable. This study tries to fill this gap. It is based on secondary data collected from various sources, including literatures, journals, magazines, consulting reports, industry analysis, news, and so on. The annual time-series data obtained for variables in models are mainly gathered from original official Chinese sources. The study increases the information and understanding on the Chinese wood products markets by using descriptive and explanatory methods to analyze the data for background information, markets and empirical modeling. By employing econometric models, based on the elasticity estimates, Chinese plywood demand seems to be income elastic but price inelastic, Chinese plywood supply would be highly elastic with raw material price but scale inelastic, and Chinese plywood exports appear to be highly income elastic.
  • Xu, Yuan (2013)
    The increasing recognition of eco-friendly packaging in the packaging industry makes paperboard one of the most promising green packaging materials. The global demand for paperboard has increased rapidly in the past two decades. The purposes of the study are: firstly, to provide an overview of the consumption, production, imports and exports of paperboard products in different regions worldwide between 1992 and 2010. Secondly, as the Finnish paperboard industry has been highly export-oriented, the study also aims to provide quantitative analysis of the main determinants influencing the demand for Finnish paperboard exports in its main destinations-Germany and Russia by applying economic models from the first quarter of 1995 to the third quarter of 2011. Finally, trends projection for the future development of Finnish paperboard is presented based on results of analysis. The research is both descriptive and explanatory based on secondary data collected from various databases. The regional analysis of paperboard market from 1992 to 2010 revealed that North America and Western Europe’s paperboard production exceeded the consumption, where Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America’s consumption exceeded the production. The consumption and production growth was extremely fast in Asia and it has been the largest consumer and producer of paperboard products since 2000s. Western Europe has been the largest exporter and importer throughout the years. The empirical modeling of Finnish paperboard export demand showed that the export demand for Finnish paperboard in Germany was highly affected by the total paperboard imports of Germany and its GDP. It also has high sensitivity to the income changes of Germany in long term, but the price effect was not significant. The export demand for Finnish paperboard in Russia has low income elasticity and the price effect was statistically significant. Oil price has also significant influence on Finnish paperboard export demand to Russia. According to the linear trends projection for Finnish paperboard market to 2020, the consumption and imports will grow very slowly or even stagnate, but the production and exports will continuously increase at a faster pace.
  • Quiñónez Montiel, Juan Pablo (2016)
    India is a fast growing economy with a high rate of gross domestic product that has improved the local spending power and has turned the country into a potential player in the global economy. In terms of wood products, India has been a net importer and currently is one the largest consumers of hardwood sawnwood in the world. The demand for sawnwood is rapidly growing in India and due to this situation, the country is a potential destination for Finnish and foreign exporters able to reach this market. The research attempted to increase the understanding of the importance of the demand for sawnwood in India. Thus, the purposes of this study are to: 1) provide a general description about the market environment of sawnwood in India and its situation at global level; 2) model and estimate potential factors impacting the demand level for Indian imports of sawnwood; 3) draw general conclusions about key opportunities and challenges for Finnish and major foreign exporters of sawnwood in the Indian market. Despite there is valuable information published about India’s wood market, empirical research on the Indian sawnwood market is scarce and unreliable. Hence, based on descriptive and explanatory methods, this study gathered secondary data from official and international sources for background and statistical information. The purpose was to analyze the sawnwood market through empirical modelling. Thus, econometric time-series modeling, for the period of 1992-2013, was used to explain the demand for imports of sawnwood in the Indian market by testing the conventional demand model, for income and price variables, and ad hoc models, for several explanatory variables. In addition, Engle and Granger, MacKinnon and Johansen methods were used to test cointegration among variables. The results suggest that the demand for imports of sawnwood is positively related to consumer income and negatively to prices. In addition, it depends on other factors such as population density, unemployment and economic openness. However, based on the elasticity estimates, the Indian sawnwood demand seems to be income and price elastic. The knowledge obtained in this study provides a valuable tool for foreign wood-based industries searching for market prospects to export their products as well as for public authorities involved in formulating forest and economic policies. However, further modelling is left for future research in this area.
  • Tang, Tiantian (2009)
    The objective of this thesis is to assess the recreational value (access value) provided by Yuelu Mountain Park in China applying travel cost method (TCM) which is commonly used to estimate non-market benefits. Also, a fee that would maximize the entrance fee income is tentatively calculated. The potential trips to be lost next year are estimated based on local respondents visiting intentions among different age groups. The travel cost demand function is estimated by using basic count data travel cost model-Poisson regression, and survey data collected on-site. Average access values per trip were estimated to be € 0.75 for local and € 64.52 for non-local individuals producing aggregate annual access value of € 20.43 million. Based on the travel cost demand function, an entrance fee of € 5.43 would maximize the revenue collected from the visitors. This would mean more than doubling of the present entrance fee. The result could potentially be utilized when deciding on the entrance fees. It is also suggested that the park management could further study visitors' intentions and reasons either to visit or not to visit the park in the future. Estimated consumer surpluses as well as suggested entrance fee must however, be considered with caution because truncation of the on-site survey data is not accounted for in the Poisson model estimations of this study.
  • Rusanen, Katri (2019)
    This study aimed at discovering whether using a Virtual Reality (VR) educational platform can result in better learning outcomes compared to a more traditional form of instructional technology, video. In addition, this study aimed at providing information of VR’s ability to transmit credibility, and especially to transmit trustworthiness, competence, and sense of goodwill. Several studies regarding the use of VR and more traditional technologies in education provided the theoretical foundation for this thesis. Additionally, credibility and affordance related theories were involved in the theoretical background. This experimental study was executed as a quantitative study that employed randomized, controlled crossover experiments within test subjects. Three forestry related contents (1) Harvester head, (2) Tree cell, and (3) Laser scanning point clouds, were exposed to test subjects and questionnaires were used to gather information of the experiment and to measure i.a. credibility, affordances and other variables. Pre- and post-test were used to measure learning. The data consisted of N=100 test subjects of which 49 experienced video treatment and 51 experienced VR treatment. Learning results were not better in VR treatments. Conversely, learning results were significantly better in video treatments. There was a significant difference in learning results between the Harvester head content and the other two contents. In Harvester head content test subjects gained significantly better learning results in VR and video conditions. Credibility of the experts was perceived equally high in both VR and video treatments. However, Competence and Goodwill were perceived higher in VR treatments. The expert in the Harvester head content was perceived least competent in both treatments. Finally, the results indicated the chosen affordances (Opportunities, Multi-sensory, Three-dimensionality, and Commitment and Motivation) were significantly more suitable to VR treatments than video. In the light of the obtained results, adapting a VR technology to educational or training purposes should be done with a careful consideration. VR enables visualization in an immersive way that increases motivation and engagement towards the content taught. However, compelling visuals nor the novel media alone do not necessarily result in better learning results. Focusing on presenting specific contents and tasks in VR will enhance its use for educational and training purposes. In the future studies, attention should be paid to avatar credibility and VR’s ability to transmit sense of Competence and Good-will better than traditional media. Additionally, based on the results of this study, the interactive functions of VR ought to be emphasized when focusing on promoting learning.
  • Awan, Hafiz Umair Masood (2017)
    The biodegradation of wood by fungi in natural forest environment is of vital importance for carbon and nutrient replenishment. Additionally, the ecological functions, maintenance of biodiversity and fungal succession in forest ecosystems is partly dependent on the availability of utilizable organic substances. The fungal group of basidiomycetes are known to play important functional roles in these processes. There is however scarcity of information on how co-cultures of multiple fungi affect wood biomass decomposition as well as the consequent effect of interspecific interaction on niche colonization and substrate utilization. This study investigated and evaluated the role and efficiency of interspecific fungal interaction on biodegradation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. (H) Karst) and birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh) wood. Five fungal isolates were selected for the test in co-cultivation assay: Antrodia sinuosa P. Karst, Bjerkandera adusta (Willd.) P. Karst, Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Wulfen) P. Karst, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref, and Phlebiopsis gigantea Jülich (Basidiomycota). The results revealed that antagonistic and competitive fungal interaction does not largely appear to speed up wood decay process. However, the rare combination of Phlebiopsis, Antrodia and Gloeophyllum had significant positive effect on degradation of spruce wood whereas Heterobasidion, Phlebiopsis, and Gloeophyllum had synergistic effect on pine wood decay. It is therefore likely that in nature, wood decay by fungi is mostly facilitated by parallel niche colonization and by fungal succession.
  • Cheng, Zhuo (2015)
    Risk management is essential in forest management planning. However, decision making with risk analysis is rarely done in forestry. This study presents an example of the application of conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) as a decision tool and optimizes the management planning problem from a risk perspective. Stochastic programming is used to solve the problem. The model contains four different types of risk using an assumed probability distribution and quantifies these risks, namely, inventory errors, growth model errors, price uncertainty and policy uncertainty. The results suggest that forest owners’ risk tolerance, i.e., their willingness and ability to assume risk determines to the greatest extent the return potential. When the expected first period income is maximized, the subsequent period always experiences a loss that is the greatest of the entire management horizon. The proportion of carbon subsidy in the first period is also the highest. With this model it is possible to hedge some risks or to use it as means to assess the amount of insurance to purchase in order to transfer risks. The use of CVaR in forest management planning can be seen as a useful tool to manage risk and to assist in the decision making process to assess forest owners’ willingness and ability to tolerate risks.
  • Cheng, Yun (2016)
    Furniture is one of the most important necessities in people’s daily life. The development of furniture industry can also be regarded as the progress of society. China is the world’s biggest furniture manufacturer and exporter. After the rapid development in past few decades, the production, technology and quality of furniture has already mature. However, the traditional marketing models are showing disadvantages. It is important for furniture companies to explore profitable marketing models to grasp the market demands and obtain competitive advantages. In recent years, China's e-commerce saw a rapid development and is being used in different sectors such as clothes, shoes, books and beauty products. E-commerce platform is based on the internet, and it decreases the costs and makes shopping more convenient without the limitations on space and time. Chinese Premier Li Keqiang first landed out “Internet Plus” strategy in his government work report in 2015. The aim of this strategy is to promote the transformation of traditional manufacturing industries by using cloud computing, big data and internet of things based on the e-commerce platform. As a new concept, researchers seldom mention the operation of the e-commerce based internet plus strategy in the furniture industry. To fill this gap, this study was based on the perspective of companies, making practical explanations on internet plus and analyzed its application in furniture industry. In the methodology part, the business model canvas was applied to make qualitative analysis on the industrial level. Case study was also adopted to give quantitative support with the market data. Conclusion and discussions raised suggestions for future development and further studies.
  • Miller, Cary (2017)
    With a land tenure structure dating back to the Mexican Revolution of 1910, Mexico is second only to Papua New Guinea in proportion of forest land under community ownership. While many communities have successfully formed community forestry enterprises (CFEs) producing value-added goods and generating income and social benefits for community members, many more remain minimally involved with forest management or do not harvest timber. As such, this study sought to collect and analyze the opinions and experiences of groups and individuals involved in the forest sector, with the aim of providing a greater understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the Mexican forestry model, the most important factors facilitating or undermining the development of CFEs, and opportunities for the advancement of community forestry in the future. This study is based on semi-structured stakeholder interviews which were conducted in four states with members of both harvesting and non-harvesting communities, members of Mexico's National Forestry Commission (CONAFOR) and Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT), various experts with ties to the forest sector, and foresters serving the communities interviewed. The results indicate that communities face a number of significant developmental challenges. Community organization was found to be an essential internal factor, and successful CFEs have in common a strong internal cohesion and collective decision making capacity, while failure is often linked to indecision, internal divisions, or corruption. Will and ability to invest in the CFE are also crucial, and sources suggested that communities are often impeded by their lack of 'entrepreneurial mentality' when it comes to investment. For those that are interested in investing in the CFE, lack of available capital is often problematic. In part because of these challenges the Mexican forest sector relies largely on obsolete practices and technology, resulting in elevated costs of production relative to foreign competitors, and foreign competition has taken a toll on the industry in Mexico. In some areas declining industrial consumption has made it more difficult for communities to find buyers for forest products and may limit future production potential. The quality of technical services available to the communities is another factor that is both critical and inconsistent, and the important role of private foresters in aiding CFE development was emphasized by a number of sources. Government intervention has also had an important impact on the sector and CONAFOR has played a key role in its development in recent years. On the other hand, forestry is a heavily regulated activity and there appears to be a consensus that regulations could or should be simplified. It was also suggested that government agencies may not have the resources to process the paperwork they demand in a timely manner. Overall, community forestry in Mexico represents an important and environmentally sustainable source of rural livelihoods, and a great deal of potential remains for the expansion of the sector. While some challenges facing CFEs may not have clear solutions, there are some steps that could be taken to improve conditions in the future. Technological advance will be critical if Mexico is to compete on international markets, and there is work to be done both in terms of finance and in promoting 'business mentalities' and investment. Likewise, a thriving forest industry may require strong policy support from the federal government and efforts to ensure that technical services available to communities are adequate. Finally, it will be important to evaluate the regulatory balance between environmental protection and development of the sector moving forward, to create conditions that are both sustainable and conducive to growth.
  • Tuovinen, Mauri (2015)
    The European Union has emphasized the usage of bioenergy by increasing the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption in its member states. The more biomass is utilized in energy production, the more biomass ashes are produced. Different ashes such as wood ash have been studied ecologically a lot, but more business and market research should be conducted on wood ash. The purpose of this study is to describe, analyze and interpret ash fertilization stakeholders´ perceptions of their external environment. The research questions are the following: 1) How do the ash fertilization stakeholders perceive their external environment? 2) What barriers hinder wood ash fertilization? 3) How is wood ash recycling perceived to influence the stakeholders´ external environment? 4) What kind of Environmental Scanning practices do the stakeholders have? This study is a qualitative study which employs the guided/focused interview method. The data consists of 18 interviews conducted in 15 organizations. The approach to the data is abductive. The data is processed, described and analyzed thematically. The ash fertilization stakeholders consider their environment complex and not fully developed. The waste tax act has influenced the structure of the market and worked as a major push-force. It has created various business models in the external environment, which have made some stakeholders adopt an unorthodox code of conduct within the external environment. Few fertilization-based companies operate on ash fertilization. Instead, most of the stakeholders emphasize wood ash utilization. The logistical challenges including the high transport and spreading costs were considered the most influential barrier hindering ash fertilization usage. However, the creation of economically sustainable business models and the incapability to create value to the customer hinder the development of the market, which weakens the competitiveness of ash fertilizers. Other barriers identified were the lack of suitable ashes for fertilization, the insufficient knowledge level of the buyers as well as poor marketing communications. There seems to be an entry barrier to the ash fertilization market, which consists of the low profitability of the ash fertilization business and the high knowledge requirements. Ash recycling was perceived positively by the stakeholders although their knowledge of the concept varied significantly. They connected ash recycling with either nutrient flows or ash utilization as a raw-material for various end-uses. The implementation of ash recycling was regarded as questionable since the stakeholders were uncertain about its effects on the external environment. They considered ash recycling to be influenced by the development of energy policies and legislation both in Finland and in the EU, which they found unpredictable. The stakeholders had difficulty defining ash recycling as a process and perceiving whether it is more connected with forest or energy industries. The majority of the stakeholders did not conduct Environmental Scanning (ES). Only four stakeholders conducted ES, although this perception is interpretive. The stakeholders were categorized in ES modes according to their perceptions of external environmental intrusiveness, analyzability as well as information needs, information seeking and information use. The degree of complexity of the external environment was found high and the rate of change was considered low. Altogether, there are two stakeholder groups operating in the external environment: 1) the market-oriented stakeholders and 2) the utilization/waste oriented stakeholders. The utilization view is currently more dominant, due to the developments in the ash fertilization market. The external environment is still under the stage of development, and there is possible future rivalry between the two views. Ash recycling could be a viable option combining wood ash utilization with business. More market-oriented stakeholders are needed in the ash fertilization market.
  • Nykänen, Harri (2016)
    Nowadays, the companies all over the world have increased the importance of customer measurement. However, in most cases, the measuring methods are only concentrating on the customer satisfaction. Furthermore, those companies are also developing services and products, in hopes of improving the satisfaction of their customers. Although these developments are aiming a customer orientated business, it is difficult to make profit if expanded the services and products are not projecting the final price and the customer profitability. The constant adaption of the needs of every customer leads to very inefficient result and a low productivity which won’t generate in the best possible outcome. This thesis is concentrating on the first part of the managing customer profitability, measuring how much each customer segment is using resources from the company. That is put into perspective on how much each customer segment is profitable. When both incomes and costs can be targeted to each customer group, the customer profitability can be measured. Furthermore, the customer satisfaction is compared to how much one has used resources from the company. When the company has knowledge on how to satisfy their customers, it can develop this satisfaction and additional operations can be terminated. This will improve the efficiency and productivity, leading to a better profitability. This is a public version of the final work where all confidential information concerning actual business figures has been removed.