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Browsing by department "Pedagogiska institutionen"

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  • Suortti, Outi Elina (2008)
    Aims. The beginning point of this research was confusion between studies claiming, that children mature Metalinguistic to read at 6-7 of age, and the fact, that in Montessori playschools children easily start writing and reading at age 3 to 5. Aim was also find out how conception of slow Metalinguistic development has started, and if there is some evidence of phoneme awareness of reading of young children in the field of research of reading. Aim was also seek evidence of the sensitive period of reading as Montessori described it. The research also wanted to turn up, if phoneme awareness only develops in children, who work with graphemes and with reading, or could it be found in children, who do not. The mean was to research how the Montessori reading material supports child's Metalinguistic development, when child begins learning to read. The research plans to represent knowledge about how young children learn to write and read. Methods. Research performed in ordinary kindergarten and in Montessori playschool in Espoo. In kindergarten observed six children, age 3-4, at eight grapheme-rhyme sessions from January to April 2007, and conducting a test based on Chaney's (1992) study of phoneme awareness of young children. In Montessori kindergarten were observed 17 children about their phoneme awareness and reading competition from January 2007 to March 2008. Their developments in reading were also measured three times from 1.9.07 to 20.3.08 with classification constructed for this study, loosely based on Chall's (1983) reading stages. The Montessori reading material was analyzed about the influence they have to a child's Metalinguistic development. This was done based to theory and its concepts from the field of research of reading; phoneme awareness, morphological, syntactical and semantic consciousness. Results and conclusions. Research proved that children 3-5 have naturally developed phoneme awareness. In kindergarten and in Montessori playschool children between 2 and 4 could do phoneme synthesis, and in the latter they also could do phoneme segmentation of words. Montessori reading material guided children gradually, except to read, also to observe and absorb Metalinguistic knowledge. Children learned to write and read. At the last evaluating day almost 50 % of children write and read clauses or stories, and 82 % could read at least words. Children can develop Metalinguistic awareness, while using the Montessori materials for learning to write and read. To reach literacy is easy for children because of their phoneme awareness.
  • Siljander, Anna Maija (2009)
    The goal of my research was to describe how adult students perceive professional knowledge and know-how, and how these diffuse among a group of students during a continuing education program. The goal was also to research the meaning of shared working life experience in improving the professional know-how of the students. My research is positioned in the field of supporting environments for adult learning with an emphasis on interaction between students in social networks. The participants of my research were 31 adult students taking part in continuing education program at the time of my study. I gathered the research data using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative network enquiry led me to do 9 theme interviews. I analyzed the data using a network analyzing program and a content analyzing method. I examined the whole community of students, the home groups of four students and the main actors who were central for the community. The analysis focused on the distribution network of professional knowledge and know-how, the distribution network of social support and the network of reciprocal interaction. Professional knowledge and know-how that diffuse between adult students in continuing education, is mostly hands-on tips and occupational experience. The factors that promote the distribution of professional experience and know-how are structural ones and factors that emphasize co-operation relationships. The structural factors are participation in adult education and in home groups and also organizational arrangements of learning. The factors that emphasize co-operation relationships are encouragement and doing learning assignments together. The central distributors of professional know-how are adult students who have long working life experience. The meaning of the diffusion of professional experience and know-how for improving professional know-how of a single adult student is in developing his professional identity and adding his social capital. In the social interaction networks, which I studied, more relations exist inside the home groups than between them, which is congruent with earlier researches. My research can be utilized by using its research methods and emphasizing its results in adult education planning and guidance.
  • Ståhl, Tore (2001)
    The aim of the study was to explore why the MuPSiNet project - a computer and network supported learning environment for the field of health care and social work - did not develop as expected. To grasp the problem some hypotheses were formulated. The hypotheses regarded the teachers' skills in and attitudes towards computing and their attitudes towards constructivist study methods. An online survey containing 48 items was performed. The survey targeted all the teachers within the field of health care and social work in the country, and it produced 461 responses that were analysed against the hypotheses. The reliability of the variables was tested using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and t-tests. Poor basic computing skills among the teachers combined with a vulnerable technical solution, and inadequate project management combined with lack of administrative models for transforming economic resources into manpower were the factors that turned out to play a decisive role in the project. Other important findings were that the teachers had rather poor skills and knowledge in computing, computer safety and computer supported instruction, and that these skills were significantly poorer among female teachers who were in majority in the sample. The fraction of teachers who were familiar with software for electronic patient records (EPR) was low. The attitudes towards constructivist teaching methods were positive, and further education seemed to utterly increase the teachers' readiness to use alternative teaching methods. The most important conclusions were the following: In order to integrate EPR software as a natural tool in teaching planning and documenting health care, it is crucial that the teachers have sufficient basic skills in computing and that more teachers have personal experience of using EPR software. In order for computer supported teaching to become accepted it is necessary to arrange with extensive further education for the teachers presently working, and for that further education to succeed it should be backed up locally among other things by sufficient support in matters concerning computer supported teaching. The attitudes towards computing showed significant gender differences. Based on the findings it is suggested that basic skills in computing should also include an awareness of data safety in relation to work in different kinds of computer networks, and that projects of this kind should be built up around a proper project organisation with sufficient resources. Suggestions concerning curricular development and further education are also presented. Conclusions concerning the research method were that reminders have a better effect, and that respondents tend to answer open-ended questions more verbosely in electronically distributed online surveys compared to traditional surveys. A method of utilising randomized passwords to guarantee respondent anonymity while maintaining sample control is presented.
  • Karjalainen, Tommi (2005)
    This study examines the leadership skills in municipal organisation. The study reflects the manager views on leadership skills required. The purpose of this study was to reflect the most important leadership skills currently and in the future as well as the control of these skills. The study also examines the importance of the change and development needs of the leadership skills. In addition, the effect of background variables on evaluation of leadership skills were also examined. The quantitative research method was used in the study. The material was collected with the structured questionnaire from 324 Kotka city managers. SPSS-program was used to analyse the study material. Factor analysis was used as the main method for analysis. In addition, mean and standard deviations were used to better reflect the study results. Based on the study results, the most important leadership skills currently and in the future are associated with internet skills, work control, problem solving and human resource management skills. Managers expected the importance of leadership skills to grow in the future. Main growth is associated with the software utilisation, language skills, communication skills as well as financial leadership skills. Strongest competence according to managers is associated with the internet skills. Managers also considered to control well the skills related to employee know-how and manager networking. In addition, significant development needs are required in leadership skills. Main improvement areas were discovered in software utilisation, work control, human resource management skills as well as skills requiring problem solving. It should be noted that the main improvement areas appeared in the leadership skills that were evaluated as most important apart from software utilisation. Position, municipal segments and sex were observed to explain most of the deviation in received responses.
  • Parkkinen, Kimmo (2002)
    Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin autismiluokan oppilaiden fyysisen väkivaltakäyttäytymiseen yhteydessä olevia oppilas- ja opetusympäristötekijöitä. Tutkimuksen kohderyhmänä oli kaikki Suomen autismiluokkien oppilaat ja vertailuryhminä oli EHA1- ja EHA2- luokan oppilaita. Tutkimusote oli kvantitatiivinen, tutkimusaineisto kerättiin kyselylomakkeilla. Tutkimuskyselyyn vastasivat luokkien opettajat. Aineiston käsittelyssä pääasialliset analyysimenetelmät olivat faktori-, varianssi- ja regressioanalyysi. Tutkimuksen pääongelmat: 1. Millaista on tutkituilla oppilailla esiintynyt fyysinen väkivaltakäyttäytyminen? 2. Millaiset oppilastekijät ovat yhteydessä fyysiseen väkivaltakäyttäytymiseen? 3. Miten luokkatoiminnot ja autismiluokan henkilökunnan toiminta ovat yhteydessä oppilaiden fyysiseen väkivaltakäyttäytymiseen? Tutkimustulokset osoittivat, että autismiluokan oppilaiden fyysinen väkivaltakäyttäytyminen oli huomattavasti vertailuryhmien (EHA1 Ja EHA2) oppilaita runsaampaa. Autismiluokan oppilaiden yleisimpiä fyysisen väkivaltakäyttäytymisen muotoja olivat toisiin kohdistuneet lyömiset, puremiset, raapimiset tukistamiset ja tönimiset. Itseen kohdistui eniten puremista ja lyömistä. Autistien akateemiset taidot olivat tutkimuksen mukaan selvästi heidän sosiaalisia taitojaan paremmat. Runsaimmin fyysistä väkivaltakäyttäytymistä raportoitiin olevan niillä autismiluokan oppilailla, joilla oli hyvät akateemiset, mutta heikot sosiaaliset taidot. Väkivaltakäyttäytymistä edeltävissä tilanteissa ja toiminnoissa korostui yleisimmin yllätys-, siirtymis- ja odottamistilanteet. Väkivaltaa edeltävät vuorovaikutustilanteet olivat pääosin henkilökunnan johtamia käskynantotilanteita. Näissä tilanteissa oppilasta ohjattiin vaatimuksilla tai kielloilla. Fyysiseen väkivaltatilanteeseen puuttumiseen käytetyistä välittömistä interventiomenetelmistä yleisin oli fyysinen ohjaaminen. Tällä ohjausmuodoilla oli heikoin oppilaan rauhoittumista edistävä vaikutus. Parhaimmat intervention vaikutukset saatiin huomiotta jättämisellä tai huomion siirtämisellä muualle. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys perustui pääosin Kauffmanin sosiaalis-kognitiiviseen väkivaltateoriaan ja Schoplerin autistien häiriökäyttäytymistä kuvaavaan malliin. Kokonaisotos autismiluokan oppilaista antoi hyvän kuvan koko Suomen autismiluokilla esiintyvästä fyysisen väkivallan ilmiöstä. Tutkimuksen käytäntöön sovellettavuus liittyy autistien opetuksen kehittämiseen, fyysisen väkivaltakäyttäytymisen ennaltaehkäisyn suunnittelutyössä ja opetushenkilökunnan väkivallan kohtaamisen tukemiseen
  • Tapio, Soile (2002)
    Tutkimuksen tehtävänä oli selvittää Helsingin yliopiston Heila-tietojärjestelmän kehitysprojektin kulkua vuosina 1994-1999. Toisena tutkimustehtävänä oli selvittää minkälaisia ongelmia projektissa oli esiintynyt. Tutkimuksen aineisto oli projektin dokumentaatio, jossa pääaineistona olivat projektin johto- ja projektiryhmien kokouspöytäkirjat, tilanneraportit ja muut määrämuotoiset projektidokumentit. Lisäksi käytettävissä oli muuta aineistoa, kuten Heila-projektia käsitteleviä sähköpostiviestejä ja yleisönosaston kirjoituksia. Tutkimuksessa aineistoa kuvattiin kertomuksellisesti, projektin tapahtumat kirjattiin kertomukseksi kronologisessa järjestyksessä. Aineistoa analysoitiin toisen tutkimustehtävän mukaisesti sisällön analyysillä, ja tästä tuloksena oli projektin ongelmien luokittelu. Lopuksi tarkasteltiin projektin etenemiskertomuksen ja ongelmien luokittelun suhdetta. Kohteena ollut projekti viivästyi aikataulustaan kaikissa vaiheissa: toteutus- ja käyttöönotot viivästyivät useita kuukausia. Projektissa ilmeni resurssipulaa, välillä toimittajan ja välillä asiakkaan eli Helsingin yliopiston puolella. Lisäksi ohjelman sisältöalue oli niin monimutkainen, että se aiheutti vaikeuksia toteutuksessa ja käytössä. Järjestelmän suorituskyky ei vastannut sovittua, käyttöönottojen jälkeen jopa yksinkertainen tallennustoiminto saattoi kestää useita minuutteja, eikä normaaleja työtoimintoja saatu hoidettua. Helsingin yliopisto teki useita kirjallisia huomautuksia ja korvausvaatimuksia toimittajalle. Ongelmat jakautuivat toimintatapoihin liittyviin ongelmiin ja teknisiin ongelmiin. Toimintatapoihin liittyvät ongelmat sisälsivät käyttäjien huomiointiin ja projektin läpivientiin liittyviä ongelmia. Tekniset ongelmat jakautuivat kolmeen alakategoriaan: suorituskyvyn ongelmat, ohjelman ominaisuuksiin liittyvät ongelmat sekä yhteyksiin liittyvät ongelmat. Kukin alakategoria jakautui luokkiin. Projektin etenemistä arvioitiin suhteessa sen toteuttamista ohjanneeseen Helsingin yliopiston yhteistyöprojektien laatuohjeeseen, sekä Niemen (1993) malliin tietojärjestelmäprojektien läpiviennistä. Ongelmien luokittelua verrattiin Niemen (1993) arvioon projektien ongelmista. Projektin onnistumista arvioitiin Saarisen ja Sääksjärven (1992) projektin onnistumisen teorian avulla. Tulosten perusteella on mahdollista tarkastella muita projekteja, ja ongelmaluokitusten perusteella havaita potentiaaliset ongelmat. Siten voidaan parantaa työskentelyolosuhteita ja onnistumisen edellytyksiä tietojärjestelmäprojekteissa.
  • Santanen, Kaisa (2007)
    This study examined the fundamental question of what really matters when selecting a new employee. The study focused on tacit knowledge used by personnel recruiters when interviewing employees. Knowledge was defined as the best view available, which helps one not to act haphazardly. Tacit knowledge was also defined as a positive concept, and it was seen as a part of personnel recruiters' improving proficiency. The research topic was chosen based on the observed increase in the amount of employment interviews and their importance in society. As recruiting is becoming a more distinct profession, it was reasonable to approach the topic from an educational point of view. The following research problems guided the examination of the phenomenon: 1) Where does the interviewer seek tacit knowledge from during the employment interview? 2) How is tacit knowledge achieved during the employment interview? 3) How does the interviewer defend the significance of the tacit knowledge gained as knowledge that has influence on the selection decision? The research data was collected by interviewing six personnel recruiters who conduct and evaluate employment interviews as part of their work responsibilities. The interview themes were linked to some recently made selection decision in each organization and the preceding employment interview with the selected candidate. In order to conceptualize tacit knowledge, reflective consideration of the interview event was used in the study. The lettered research data was analyzed inductively. As a result of the study, the objects of tacit knowledge in the context of an employment interview culminated into three areas: the applicant's verbal communication, the applicant's non-verbal communication and the interaction between interview participants. Observations directed toward those objects were shown to be intentional and three schemes were found behind them: experiences from previous interviews, applicant's application papers and the aptitude for the work responsibilities. The question of gaining knowledge was answered with the concept of procedural knowledge. Personnel recruiters were found to have four different, but interconnected ways to encounter knowledge during an employment interview: understanding, evaluative, revealing, and approving knowing. In order to explain the importance given to tacit knowledge, it was examined in connection with the most prevalent practices in the personnel selection industry. The significance of knowledge as the kind of knowledge that has an impact on the decision was supported by references to collective opinion (other people agree with it), circumstance (interview's short duration), or using some instrument (structured interview). The study revealed new aspects of employment selection process through examining tacit knowledge. The characteristics of the inductive analysis of the research data may also be utilized, when applicable, in tacit knowledge research within other contexts.
  • Godhwani, Yvonne (2008)
    Workplace bullying is a topic of current interest in Finland. Workplace bullying is found in all professions, including the artistic ones. This thesis aims to explore workplace bullying from the view of the Finland-Swedish actors as a phenomenon that within dramatic art is difficult to define due to the fact that the body and emotions of an actor constitute his or her working tools. The research aims to deepen the understanding of the actors' working situation, and particularly of the difficulties and problems actors face when exercising their job. The research problems are: What forms of bullying are the actors exposed to? Who is bullying? How is the bullying received by the actors, and what are the possible consequences? The theoretical orientation of this thesis is based upon dialogical philosophy where phenomenology, hermeneutics and dialog meet in an orientation where the unseen is emphasized and made visible. Artistic leadership should be based upon a pedagogic understanding that by an open and equal dialog with the Other recognizes human diversity. The narrative research was undertaken by using an interview guide for the interviews with eleven actors, six women and five men with the voice of a sixth man represented by an article. The interviews, each on average 118 minutes, were recorded and transcribed. The method of discursive analysis was initiated by numerous reflective readings based on analytic induction. The inductive part of the analysis consisted of mapping out the individual experiences of bullying where after the process of finding connecting common features in the extensive material took place. The coded data was then deductively grouped together according to the research problems, and subgroups were formed for deeper description. The research findings show that workplace bullying is an everyday occurrence within the field of dramatic art. Actors are bullied by theatre managers and directors as well as by colleagues and other personnel. The main areas of bullying is depreciation of one's professional skills, the existing jargon, sexual harassment, collective bullying and bullying because of personal qualities. A significant finding concerning this problem was the existing culture of silence. Even if actually seeing and hearing a colleague being bullied, few stood up to defend the person being bullied because of fear of retaliation. Even the person actually being the object for bullying found it difficult to take any actions.
  • Tuominen, Heta (2002)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the connection between teachers' burn-out and professional development. In addition, the study aimed at clarifying teachers' conceptions of the significance of in-service training on work-related well-being. The theoretical starting points of the study were based on a model of burn-out (Kalimo & Toppinen1997) and a model of teachers' professional development (Niemi 1989). Present study can be seen as an independent follow-up study for a working ability project called "Uudistumisen eväät" that was followed through in Kuopio. The study was carried out in two phases. First, the connection between teachers' burn-out and professional development was charted with the help of a quantitative survey study. 131 teachers participated in the survey. Some of them were from schools that participated in the working ability project and the remainder were from other schools in Kuopio. The questionnaire consisted of self-constructed instruments of burn-out and professional development. According to the results, burn-out and professional development were strongly correlated with each other. Burn-out was summed up in three factors: emotional exhaustion, feelings of depersonalization and low feelings of personal accomplishment. Professional development was summed up in four factors: personality and pedagogical skills, learning-orientation, social skills and confronting change. Personality and pedagogical skills and skills of confronting change were correlated strongest with burn-out and its symptoms. A teacher, who has not found his/her own personal way of acting as a teacher and who considers change as something negative, is more likely to become exhausted than a teacher, who has developed his/her own pedagogical identity and who regards change more positively. In the second phase of this study, teachers' conceptions of the significance of in-service training on well-being was investigated with the help of group interviews (n=12). According to the results, the importance of in-service training was significant on the well-being of teachers. It appeared that in-service training promotes well-being by providing teachers with motivation, professional development and the possibility of taking a break from teaching and cooperating with other teachers. It has to be based on teachers' own needs. It has to be offered to teachers frequently and early enough. If teachers are already exhausted, they will neither have enough resources to participate in training, nor will they have the strength to make good use of it in practice. Both professional development and well-being are becoming more and more essential now that society is changing rapidly and the demands set on teachers are growing. Professional development can promote well-being, but are teachers too exhausted to develop themselves? Professional development demands resources and teachers may regard it as a threat and an additional strain. When the demands are so high that teachers cannot cope with them, they are likely to suffer stress and see reduction of commitment to their work and its development as a means to survive. If teachers stop caring about their work and their own development, how can we expect them to promote pupils' learning and development? It should be considered in the planning and implementation of in-service training and in arranging teachers' working conditions, that teachers have enough time and resources to develop themselves.
  • Fred, Minna (2008)
    This research has its background on Knowledge Practices Laboratory (KP-Lab) research project. One of the aims of KP-Lab is to create virtual and technological tools to support the interventionist who use the Change Laboratory method as a developmental tool. In this research I studied the interventionists' mirror material practices which are context and theory bound and for that reason they pose challenges on the development of new tools. I focused on the gathering and working on the mirror material. The purpose of this study was to find out what kind of user knowledge does the research on narratives of mirror material practices in Change Laboratory provide to the developers of virtual tools? I answered this question by three sub questions: 1. What kind of mirror material the interventionists gather and analyze in different phases of developmental cycle of Change Laboratory project? 2. What kind of knowledge the different mirror materials contain and how is the knowledge transformed when the mirror material is analyzed and worked on? 3. What kind of tools the interventionists use and create when gathering and working on the mirror material? What wishes do the interventionists have on tools? I interviewed five interventionists in four different projects. I created narratives from the document supported interviews. Then I analyzed the narratives in three steps: first I placed the mirror materials in the developmental cycle. Secondly, I analyzed the mirror materials by placing them in a table by the form of the knowledge. Thirdly, I examined the tools the interventionists had used and created and what wishes they had on virtual tools. This research showed that different user groups of Change Laboratory method have different needs. All interventionists transform knowledge from one form to another so they seem to need especially tools by which they can analyze and transform knowledge. It seems that standardized model of gathering and analysing mirror material is not meaningful because mirror material is constructed in accordance with the object developed. This research also shows that the mirror material has a social function. This finding should be also noted when developing virtual tools together with actual users.
  • Korhonen, Satu-Mari (2004)
    I studied discussions during development project. Aim of the study was to analyse, what way workers represented their work: how normalized way of interpretation - myths - appeared in discourse and what consequences these utterances caused to drift of discussion. Change laboratory, which is a development method, is based to developmental work research methodology. Development is designed to be successful by learning activity and learning acts. Preventing factors of learning have been studied widely. Research has leaned to concept of resistance to change. Phenomenon of learning has been interpreted to be successful only if everybody has an agreement about the situation. There is also a new kind of concept of resistance. Resistance can be seen as a part of learning, normal processing of the learning activity. Another preventing factor can be seen as disorders of discourse, which are verbal ways of telling something that aren t real. Theoretically I consider these verbal ways as myth interpretations, which can be used as argumentative tools. I used analysis of discourse as an analytical method. Results of analysis revealed four different myth interpretations in workers discussions. Character of work was been described with myths "unforeseen situations" and "disturbances are normal". Work was also described to be functional with myths "system works" and "workers cause disturbances". Change laboratory discussions can be described as different social languages, which caused diverse perspectives to workers and researchers representations. Social languages also affected the way people analysed disturbances and system. Critical phase of change laboratory method seems to be analysis of disturbances and planning new mode of action. Myth utterances were used to reject ways of developing, analysis of system level and need of development. Myth utterances worked three different ways: ineffective, active or passive.
  • Kynkäänniemi, Heli (2008)
    There has been a change in university's position in society during the last of decades from traditional university to result-based university. Result-based is considered as a steering mechanism. The context in this study is the period when the New Salary System was introduced. In the New Salary System salary is based on the performance appraisal made by the supervisor. The purpose of the study was to understand the discussion of the New Salary System and how this discussion should be interpreted. The research task had two parts. In the first part the objective was to identify how the academic work was conceptualised. In the second part I analyzed how one related to the New Salary System and how this was interpreted in relation to representation of academic work. The research material consisted of webblogs from the year 2005. Webblogs were located in the internet and one had free access to them. Mostly employees from Finnish universities wrote to them. Besides the salary system writers discussed the university and the academic work. Two different ways of talking about the academic work were found in research material. In the first one the academic work was based on community and in the second one on individuality. When community was emphasized writers discussed also science and research and academic traditions such as peer review. When individuality was emphasized writers discussed individual performance and the importance of salary according to one's performance. The analysis shows that the New Salary System was opposed and supported. Opposition was based on arguments for the traditional university; peer review, truth, academic profession, academic community and university's autonomy are the most important arguments. Supporters used arguments such as the need to make individual's performance visible and breaking the existing power structures.
  • Herrala, Merituuli (1999)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää Teknillisen korkeakoulun Tuotantotalouden osaston jatko-opintojenohjauksen nykykäytännöt ja kartoittaa jatko-opiskelijoiden kokemuksia jatko-opintojen ohjauksesta. Lisäksi haluttiin kehittää ohjauksen käytäntöjä. Tutkimusote oli kvalitatiivinen ja pääasialliset tutkimusmenetelmät olivat grounded theory ja teemahaastattelu. Jatko-opiskelijoita haastateltiin yhteensä 18 Tuotantotaloudenosaston kaikilta jatkokoulutuslinjoilta: perinteiseltä linjalta, valtakunnallisesta tohtoriohjelmasta ja teollisuuden tohtoriohjelmasta ExIMasta. Tutkimuksen teoriapohjana olivat konstruktivistinen oppimiskäsitys ja sosiaalikonstruktivismi. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin löytämään tutkimuksen teon elementit ja selvittämään, kuinka tutkijankoulutusprosessia tulisi konstruktivistisen oppimiskäsityksen mukaisesti tukea. Tieteellisen tiedon tuottamista sosiaalisena prosessina ja ryhmän tukea tutkimuksen teossa käsiteltiin sosiaalikonstruktivistisen teorian avulla. Tutkimuksen päätulokseksi saatiin, että jatko-opiskelijan tutkimusprosessin ohjaamiseen kaivataan suunnitelmallisuutta ja struktuuria. Tutkimuksen tuloksena esitetyn ohjausmallin mukaan opiskelija halutaan aktivoida pohtimaan omia tavoitteitaan ja tutkimuksen teon etenemistä sekä ohjaustarpeitaan jatahoja, joista ohjausta voi hakea. Tämän prosessin tueksi sekä jatko-opiskelijan ja ohjaajan avuksi tutkimuksessa esitetään käytännön työkalu, ohjaussuunnitelma. Yksilöohjauksen järjestäminen on kaikilla jatkokoulutuslinjoilla opiskelijan omalla vastuulla, ja usein ohjaustilanteiden järjestäminen koetaan vaikeaksi. Jatko-opiskelijoilla on useita ohjaustahoja, esimerkiksi oman korkeakoulun ja muiden korkeakoulujen professorien lisäksi tutkijakollegat ja teollisuuden edustajat. Yksilöohjaus on menetelmä- ja sisältötukea, henkistä tukea, kannustusta, keskustelua, ideoita ja ajatusten jäsennystä. Vertaisohjaukseen kuuluu näiden lisäksi samassa tilanteessa olevien ihmisten tuki, palaute ja kritiikki. Hyvän ohjauksen elementtejä ovat kannustaminen ja innostaminen, neuvominen ja jäsentäminen sekä seuranta ja säännöllisyys. Ohjauksessa tulisi lisäksi ottaa huomioon jatkotutkinnon erilainen merkitys eri opiskelijoille. Jatkotutkinto merkitsee joillekin ajokorttia akateemiseen maailmaan, toisille ammatillista kehitystä teollisuudessa. Tutkimuksen teon eri vaiheissa tarvitaan erilaista ohjausta: alkuvaiheessa tiukkaa ohjausta, jotta tutkimuksen oikeat urat löytyvät, raakatyön vaiheessa tukea ja kannustusta, jotta aineistonkeruu ja analyysi onnistuvat, ja loppuvaiheessa tutkimusraportin kommentointia. Tutkimuksessa todetaan lisäksi, että tieto- ja viestintätekniikkaa hyödyntäen voidaan hoitaa joitakin ohjausalueita paremmin kuin nykykäytännöillä. Tutkimuksen tärkeimpiä lähteitä olivat grounded theoryn osalta Strauss & Corbinin(1990) teos, ohjauksen osalta Aittolan (1995), Aittolan & Määtän (1997, 1998) tutkimukset ja Ackerin,Hillin & Blackin (1994) tutkimukset sekä konstruktivismin osalta von Wrightin (1996) ja Tynjälän (1999) tutkimukset.
  • Koivisto, Outi (2008)
    Changes in governance in the public sector made it possible to give the power to the level of service production. In Finland schools were diversified. They wanted to be as attractive as possible. In her dissertation (2006) Piia Seppänen studied parental choice and schools choice policies in Espoo, in Kuopio, in Lahti, inTurku and in some levels in Helsinki too. After her study was done there has been some changes in school choice policy in Espoo. The catchments areas changed radically; earlier every school did have its own catchment area. But now three or even five school has the same catchment area. On the base of the Seppänen's dissertation I wondered who's choice it really were? Is the choice maker customer or producer of the service? In my study I tried to understand those processes where pupils were selected for the 7th grade in lower secondary schools in the spring in 2006. To make the picture clear, I have to study the history of pupil selection and the changes of it in the 21st century. I also have to study the geography of the town which is quite special in comparison with the normal cities with one central area. This has its own effects on the pupil selection system as well as in the whole study. In my study I try to present what kind of process the pupil selection is in Espoo and how it was done actually in the spring of 2006. The empirical data of my study were statistical data, documents of different kind, conversations with principals, local authorities and politicians. I also interviewed one politician and observed a few information meetings about the pupil selection process. Based on this large variety of data I tried to draw a picture of the way of speaking (writing) about the ability of the choice. Furthermore, how this pupil selection is done in reality. The ability to apply to special instruction in f. e. music, graphic arts or maths and sciences or to language based instruction (bilingual and immersion teaching) depends on the district you live. Because there is one catchment area which has no special or language based instruction available. Also the poor public transport system might have some effects on the parental choice. According to my study, 20 % of the 7th grade pupils were selected with criteria of different kind to special classes. Because the ability to get special or language based instruction depends on your district, there is a big risk for a selection based on the pupils' socio-economic background.
  • Korpela, Jenni (2009)
    Workshops can be seen as a one kind of occupational model in the field of the social employing. The objective of social employing is to support the employment of those persons who are in a weak labour market position and to maintain their ability to function. The objectives of the workshops, which are offering work experience and learning of life management, maintain the same goal as social employment. Workshop services in Finland are relatively little scientifically studied in spite of their fairly long history. The workshop as a concept is still quite sparsely defined and also an unknown occupational model to the large part of people. The starting point for this study was to clarify what the workshops are like, what the services are like and how learning can be seen from the point of view of the workshop services. The objective of this study was to analyse how the apprentices experience the workshop services as well as learning in the workshops and thus describe how the workshops are shaped at the youth workshops. According to earlier studies the apprentices have experienced the workshops as useful periods in their lives and also they believe that other people in society appreciate the experience that apprentices have been received from the workshops. This study can be described as a qualitative study. Its methodological foundation is in phenomenology and especially in existential phenomenology. The research material consisted of seven individual interviews and two group interviews. In the group interviews five apprentices were those who had also participated in the individual interviews and one apprentice who did not participate. The interviewees' ages were between 17-22 years. The interviews were carried out as semi-structured interviews. The method which was utilised in the analysis of the research material is developed by Juha Perttula (2000). This analyse method is based on existential phenomenology. The apprentices considered that significant experiences in the workshop services were the entry to the workshop, the form of activity of the workshop, workshop community, the achieving of life management and work experience, the understanding of the significance of the education and the planning of the future. Regarding to learning the attitude, on-the-job learning, the importance of the mentors, the new information and new skills achieved were significant experiences at the workshop for the apprentices. The apprentices' experiences reflect well the achievement of the objectives which are set for the workshop services. Results of this study are also compatible to the results of earlier studies of apprentices' positive experience of the workshop services. The results can be utilised in developing the workshop services to offer more versatile experiences than before and to improve learning conditions on the workshops. The arranging of the on-the-job learning and the significance of the actions of mentors should also be noticed.
  • Pekkarinen, Virve (2007)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of high-quality university teaching among the teachers of the University of Helsinki. Furthermore, the relation of university pedagogical training to development of teaching was analyzed. This study introduces a new perspective to the research of quality of university teaching by considering quality from the teaching development perspective. The individual level examination was done from teacher's perspective. The development of high-quality university teaching was approached through three factors of teaching development defined by Biggs (2003). These factors are 1) the level of thinking about teaching on which the teaching development is based on (can also be called the quality model), 2) the methods for and 3) the impediments to teaching development. The research of Trigwell and Prosser (1996), Lindblom-Ylänne, Nevgi and Postareff (2004) and Postareff, Lindblom-Ylänne and Nevgi (2007) and the ideas of Ramsden (1992) have been central sources to this study. Methods. This study was a survey study. The data was collected with an electronic questionnaire in the spring of 2007. The sample consisted of 655 person of which some had and some had not university pedagogical training. Total of 251 answered the study. The data was mainly analyzed with SPSS statistical programme. Item analysis, principal component analysis, nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, correlation and crosstabulation were the methods used to analyze the data. Results and conclusions. According to the results it seems that the teachers of the University of Helsinki have good basis for developing high-quality university teaching. The 3rd level of thinking about teaching, which emphasizes student-centred features, could be identified on majority of the teachers. The use of teaching development methods was comprehensive. Most frequently used methods were related to the enhancement of content knowledge. In general the impediments to teaching development were not considered to be very significant. The most significant impediments were the factors related to lack of appreciation of teaching and factors related to lack of time meant for the planning and developing of teaching. Differences were found according to sex, teaching experience, degree, position and faculty. This study also showed that university pedagogical training seems to have a positive relation to the development of high-quality university teaching among the teachers of University of Helsinki. According to the results when the amount of teachers' university pedagogical training increased, the 3rd level of thinking about teaching could be identified more often. Teachers also used more often teaching development methods related to cooperation and active participation and enhancement of pedagogical skills. Furthermore, they considered the factors related to lack of pedagogical skills and motivation to be lesser impediments to teaching development.
  • Kurkinen, Tuula (1998)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on ollut kuvata pian valmistuvien sairaanhoitaja- ja laboratoriohoitajaopiskelijoiden teoreettista työnhallintaa kliinisen mikrobiologian alaan kuuluvien potilasnäytteiden ottamisessa. Tutkimuksessa haluttiin selvittää, miten peruskoulutus ja työelämän harjoittelujaksot ovat vaikuttaneet näytteenottovalmiuksien syntymiseen sekä minkälainen käsitys valmistuvilla hoitajilla on omista mikrobiologisista näytteenottotaidoistaan. Syy tutkimuksen tekemiseen oli tarve arvioida ammatillisen koulutuksen tuloksellisuutta sekä hakea mikrobiologian opetusalueelta tutkimustietoa opetuksen kehittämiseen ja sisältöjen suuntaamiseen. Tutkimukseen osallistui 21 laboratoriohoitajaopiskelijaa ja 27 sairaanhoitajaopiskelijaa. Opiskelijat olivat viimeiseltä lukukaudelta ja valmistuivat keväällä 1998. Tiedonkeruumenetelmänä oli kyselylomake, jonka alkuosa koostui neljästä mikrobiologisesta näytteenottotilanteesta. Opiskelija vastasi toimintatapansa kertoen ja perustellen, miten hän ottaisi näytteet näissä tilanteissa. Vastaukset ryhmiteltiin käyttäen luokitteluun mukaeltua Solo-taksonomiaa. Koulutusta ja opiskelijan käsityksiä kartoittavat kysymykset olivat joko puolistrukturoituja tai avoimia. Laboratoriohoitajaopiskelijoiden tiedollinen työnhallinta sijoittuu tulosten perusteella tyydyttävän ja hyvän välimaastoon. Sairaanhoitajaopiskelijoiden tietotaso oli heikko ja osin hyvin heikko. Laboratoriohoitajaopiskelijat arvioivat koulutuksen antamia mikrobiologisen näytteenoton valmiuksia pääasiassa hyviksi tai tyydyttäviksi; sairaanhoitajaopiskelijat pitivät opetuksesta saamiaan valmiuksia heikkoina. Näytteenoton arvostusta pidettiin kaiken kaikkiaan matalana, ja tietoa laadukkaasta näytteenotosta arvioitiin puuttuvan työelämässä laajasti. Tutkimuksen perusteella näyttää siltä, ettei valmistuvilla sairaanhoitajilla ole tiedollisia ja taidollisia valmiuksia suoriutua edes perusnäytteenotosta niin, että saatu näyte edustaisi laadukkaasti potilaan tilaa näytteenottohetkellä. Näytteenotto on koko laboratoriotyön prosessin kriittisin vaihe. Jos näyte on otettu, säilytetty tai kuljetettu väärin, paraskaan analyysitekniikka ei pysty tuottamaan siitä potilaan hoitoa oikeaan suuntaan ohjaavaa tulosta. Kaikkien laboratorionäytteiden oton siirtäminen laboratoriohoitajille ja runsaan lisäkoulutuksen anto tälle ammattiryhmälle voisi tuottaa parannuksen vallitsevaan tilanteeseen.
  • Leino, Sanna (2009)
    This study examined year seven students' proactive coping, self-efficacy and social support seeking. Proactive coping was defined as a behaviour where obstacles are seen as a challenge. In proactive coping, individuals set goals, build up resources and regulate their behaviour to achieve the goals. Self-efficacy can be seen as people's beliefs about their capabilities. Social support seeking was divided into instrumental support seeking and emotional support seeking. According to the theoretical frame of this study self-efficacy and social support seeking were seen as resources to proactive coping (Greenglass 2002). The participants were 445 year seven students (Mo= 13 years) from seven secondary schools. The data was collected in March-May 2008. The survey consisted 37 Likert-scaled items from the Proactive Coping Inventory and from the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The survey consisted of four scales: Proactive Coping, Instrumental Support Seeking, Emotional Support Seeking and General Self-Efficacy. The participants' age, gender and studying in specialist streams were asked as background information. As a result, most of the participants (62 % girls, 38 % boys) reported fairly strong proactive coping: they can see obstacles as a challenge and they set goals and regulate their behaviour to achieve the goals. Most of the participants reported that they seek instrumental and emotional support when having troubles. Girls reported more social support seeking than did boys and the mean difference was statistically significant. Most of the participants had fairly high sense of self-efficacy. However, 4 % of the participants reported that they don't believe in their capabilities. Some of these participants reported that they neither use proactive coping nor seek informational or emotional support when having troubles. Proactive coping correlated positively with self-efficacy and with social support seeking. In this study self-efficacy and social support seeking explained 47 % of proactive coping. It was discussed that children's high sense of self-efficacy and social relationships can act as protective factors in transition to secondary school. When supporting children's self-efficacy and social relationships one also assists children's proactive coping. Proactive coping can be seen to support children's personal growth.
  • Raiskio, Sanna (2005)
    Widespread changes in the travel industry means an upheaval for business practices. Of concern to this particular study, which is based on activity research, is the work of business travel consultants and their training needs. At first glance it seems best to investigate individuals’ training needs as primary points of research. On further reflection, training needs per se are insufficient, even misleading, owing to the fact that they do not necessarily mirror the contextual demands of work. For one thing, work is not conducted according to a pre-conceived script. For another, training needs are usually defined individualistically, without consideration of the developmental needs a community. For a more authentic investigation the research evolved to the phenomenon of learning needs. The richness of the topic was revealed in several important ways: from an historical case analysis of a particular Finnish travel organization and its work and changes from the 1970’s until 2003, from a thematic analysis of the problems consultants encounter in everyday work, and from investigations into the images of the future of the organization from a managerial perspective. The methods for investigating the learning challenges of this particular organization were developed and validated. Three workshops with consultants were conducted during which time consultants analyzed their work, learning positionality and future in a collective and cumulative manner. Moreover, three managers were interviewed until saturation was achieved. The data were analyzed qualitatively for thematic construction and six distinct themes relating to learning challenges emerged. They reflect the contradictions between the old working ways and the new, as the travel industry changes irreversibly in technological, economic, sociological, and cultural ways. Learning challenges relate to demands associated with contextual changes, such as when business travel services are purchased from a travel agency, when a division of labor is reorganized, when knowledge transfer within the organization is rechanneled or when common rules become uncommon. During times of organizational disruption, survival is paramount, both for an individual and for an organization itself. Those challenges can certainly be met, provided mechanisms for instilling flexibility and building a sense of community are available. The analysis offered in this research serves as the basis from which an organizational readiness and development model can be formed. How we gain ongoing information regarding organizational learning depends on the extent to which workers analyze and develop their own work. The unique methodology presented here, and the subsequent examination of learning challenges, creates a framework to inspire stakeholders of an organization to discuss and discover common developmental challenges.