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Browsing by discipline "Kasvatustiede (yleinen ja aikuiskasvatus)"

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  • Siljander, Anna Maija (2009)
    The goal of my research was to describe how adult students perceive professional knowledge and know-how, and how these diffuse among a group of students during a continuing education program. The goal was also to research the meaning of shared working life experience in improving the professional know-how of the students. My research is positioned in the field of supporting environments for adult learning with an emphasis on interaction between students in social networks. The participants of my research were 31 adult students taking part in continuing education program at the time of my study. I gathered the research data using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative network enquiry led me to do 9 theme interviews. I analyzed the data using a network analyzing program and a content analyzing method. I examined the whole community of students, the home groups of four students and the main actors who were central for the community. The analysis focused on the distribution network of professional knowledge and know-how, the distribution network of social support and the network of reciprocal interaction. Professional knowledge and know-how that diffuse between adult students in continuing education, is mostly hands-on tips and occupational experience. The factors that promote the distribution of professional experience and know-how are structural ones and factors that emphasize co-operation relationships. The structural factors are participation in adult education and in home groups and also organizational arrangements of learning. The factors that emphasize co-operation relationships are encouragement and doing learning assignments together. The central distributors of professional know-how are adult students who have long working life experience. The meaning of the diffusion of professional experience and know-how for improving professional know-how of a single adult student is in developing his professional identity and adding his social capital. In the social interaction networks, which I studied, more relations exist inside the home groups than between them, which is congruent with earlier researches. My research can be utilized by using its research methods and emphasizing its results in adult education planning and guidance.
  • Nilsson, Beata (2016)
    Wellbeing and satisfied employees is the fundament of a successful work place. It promotes health of employees, work atmosphere, engagement, development and productivity. The aim of the present study is to analyze job satisfaction among research and education personnel at The University of Helsinki. The job satisfaction was studied through analyzing the balance between effort and reward, the experience of job demands, control and social support and the effects of saving measures on work motivation. The data for the present study was gathered though an electronic survey and analyzed statistically during spring 2016. The measurement used was the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI), a questionnaire created on the theoretical base of the Job Demand, Control and Social support model (JDCS) and the job satisfaction questions were also created on a theoretical base. The results were analyzed with a statistical program, IBM SPSS Statistics 22. Results of the present study showed that the job satisfaction among the participated employees were very high. The employees also experienced somewhat high levels of demands, a high amount of control and social support. A very significant part of the respondents experienced a disadvantageous balance between effort and reward in their work. In addition almost 70 % pointed out that the saving measures had effected their work motivation negatively. There were statistically significant differences between men and women. Women experienced their work more disadvantageous than men. The teaching- and research personnel experienced a very high level of job satisfaction and their work could be characterized as an active type of work providing fruitful conditions for learning and development. On the other hand there were several factors that form a risk for the employees well-being and therefore causes a threat to the active nature of work if the present conditions continues unchangeable.
  • Ikonen, Jessica (2015)
    Purpose. The aim of this study was to introduce the perceptions and opinions Finnish teachers have about the supporting and the meeting of bilingual pupil's language identity in the Finnish-Swedish schools in the Helsinki metropolitan area; the intention was to examine how the Finnish teachers describes the Finnish-Swedish schools relation against bilingualism. The intention was also to examine the meaning and purposes Finnish teachers personally give to supporting of a bilingual identity in the Finnish-Swedish schools. The intention was also to examine how Finnish teachers relate to the discussion of the bilingual school. The study contributes to form a view of how the Finnish-Swedish school in the metropolitan area currently meets and works with the progressively increasing bilingualism and to introduce how the Finnish teachers sees the role of the Finnish-Swedish school as an supporter of all its pupils languages and identities. Method. The study is written from the perspective of Finnish teachers and the material is gathered by interviewing seven teachers. The interview method used is the qualitative semi-structured interview. The material was analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Results. From the results it appears that the meeting of bilingualism in the Finnish-Swedish schools in metropolitan area varies between schools and occurs either in a more or less secluding or integrative way so that bilingualism in some schools appear to be more of a negative and repressed and in some schools more of a positive and accepted phenomenon. Supporting bilingualism in the Finnish-Swedish schools in general are rather scarce and the bilingual identity and the Finnish receive slightly conscious or deliberate attention or place in the school. Finnish teachers advocates for a more active work around bilingualism in the Finnish-Swedish school and opinions that the Finnish-Swedish school should actively strive to improve both the work around and attitude against bilingualism in school. The Finnish teachers relates against the idea of the bilingual school with a certain reservation and do prefer a retention of the monolingual schools, but wants a more active working around bilingualism in the monolingual Swedish-speaking schools. The bilingual schools could not replace the monolingual schools as a national solution, but the bilingual school model is considered to act as an alternative for some language groups in some parts of the country.
  • Hemgård, Julia (2017)
    Along with the technological development, and the transition to knowledge society, our way working has changed. Due to digital solutions and advanced technology employees have the ability to work in a much more flexible work environment. Activity-based working gives employees the opportunity to choose how and where they work. At activity-based workplaces, no one has their own desk. Instead, the concept of free seating is used. Activity-based working creates options and independence for employees, but at the same time activity-based working can be perceived as challenging. In the thesis, a phenomenographic approach was used, and as a researcher, I focused on employees' different conceptions of activity-based working. The purpose of the study was to get a deeper understanding about employees' conceptions of activity-based working, and moreover, how the way of working influences the organisational culture and work identity. The theoretical framework consisted of earlier studies about activity-based working, as well as theories regarding organisational culture and work identity. The data were gathered during spring 2017, and involved 9 interviews with 9 employees, who work at activity-based organisations. The method of analysis was the phenomenographic approach. The employees sense, that activity-based working influences organisational culture, and work identity positively, as well as negatively. It appeared that employees find activity-based working as motivational. In addition, the employees find that activity-based working bring openness to the work culture, and enhance the communication. The employees also sense that activity-based working affects work identity, and that the work role becomes more dynamic and task orientated. However, some employees perceived activity-based working as challenging, and that it causes a formal work environment, constructed by unintended social structures. The results also showed conceptions of activity-based working causing anonymous work identity. Over all, the study proves that the conceptions of activity-based working, and how it affects organisational culture and work identity, differ. Yet, even though the results reveal conceptions of activity-based working coursing formal work environment, and anonymous work identity within the workplace, the employees value activity-based working and the ability to choose where and how they work.
  • Holmström, Camilla (2013)
    According to previous research many preservice teachers are not sufficiently educated for teaching in multicultural classrooms. It is also known that preservice teachers often fail to give adequate definitions of multiculturism and multicultural education and that they lack an understanding of how these aspects could be included in the curriculum. The aim with this study is to explore the understanding of what is meant with cultural diversity in the classroom and multicultural education among preservice teachers. The research questions are: how conscious are the preservice teachers about their own cultural identity and its significance for the interaction with students? How do preservice teachers understand the meaning of cultural diversity in the classroom? What is their understanding of the meaning of multicultural education? What kind of demands do preservice teachers believe that multicultural schools places on them as teachers? The research was conducted as a qualitative interview study. The data was inductively analyzed using content analysis. The study drew on the theoretical framework of critical multicultural education. Data was collected by conducting semi-structured interviews with open questions. Thirty informants, both class teacher students and teachers of a special subject were recruited in connections with their Master's thesis seminars. The results of the study clearly indicate that the understandings of the preservice teachers can be characterized by a lack of complexity and critical thinking. Multicultural teaching was commonly associated with immigrant children and knowledge about foreign cultures. There was a strong belief in individualism among the preservice teachers, along with a negation of the impact of social class on the lives of the pupils in school. Religion, language and partly gender were seen as significant aspects of cultural diversity in the classroom. The majority of preservice teachers considered the demands on them in multicultural classrooms as heavier compared to traditional teaching. They also considered their knowledge of how to implement multicultural perspectives in their teaching as insufficient. As a result of the research the study also indicated a lack of awareness of the importance of the personal sociocultural background in the interaction between teachers and students. In order to reach a deeper understanding of multicultural issues, a greater effort on both theory and didactics related to multicultural education should be made in the preservice teacher education. Preservice teachers would also benefit from reflection on personal knowledge constructs and assumptions associated to a pluralistic society and culturally diverse "others".
  • Vainikka, Heini (2017)
    This thesis examines collaboration in construction industry. Collaboration practices are affected with the emergence of new technologies, as new technologies require new practices. Building Information Modelling (BIM), used for digital 3D modelling of buildings, is such an emerging technology, influencing collaboration. The topic is approached socio-constructively and -culturally, and through the theory of hybrid practices in construction. The thesis addresses the following questions: 1) how BIM is described to influence collaboration practices, and 2) how is collaboration in BIM construction projects conceptualised. The data was collected in 13 individual and group interviews. Content analysis and discourse analysis were used. BIM is found to influence collaboration through emerging hybrid practices, and BIM-based collaboration is conceptualised through four interlinked but conflicting discourses. The results confirm the need for more established collaboration practices in BIM projects. The thesis contributes to the narrow focus given to human perspective and conceptions in collaboration research in construction.
  • Litonius, Anna (2018)
    Since 2002, it has been possible for same-sex couples in Finland to register their partnership. In March 2017, same-sex marriage was legalized. The new law also gave same-sex couples equal parental rights. In the healthcare processes concerning pregnancy and parenthood, previous studies have shown that same-sex couples feel they have a good interaction with healthcare staff, but feel discriminated and offended by the healthcare processes and routines that have no preparedness for other forms of sexuality than heterosexuality. The purpose of this study is to examine how the concept of "family" is presented in the material given to prospective parents, and see whether the material projects an ideal of "family". Of interest is whether there is a heteronormative assumption that excludes all other forms of parenthood as aberrant. Methodologically, the study is based on a discourse-theoretical perspective, and the theoretical ground relates to educational research for social justice, with a link to critical family research and a queer-feminist research field, where the focus is on studying normative processes and power relations. The studied material consists of texts produced by the National Pension Institution (FPA) and the Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) in 2009-2017 and recommended to prospective parents. A total of nine guides, brochures and pamphlets were examined. The material constitutes government interpretations of a phenomena or, in cases where they are produced by other organizations, interpretations of phenomena that are socially approved. When authorities publish and distribute information sheets and pamphlets, they manage what is being presented and from what perspective the matter is discussed. The subject matter is governed by expert and professional perceptions of what is central knowledge and what parents are expected to know. They also strongly contribute to how the concept of family is perceived in the public space. In the material, the family is created in the process of becoming and being a parent. There are clear expectations and demands on parenthood, and heterosexuality is the dominating norm. Families and roles that challenge and break what is presented as normative are viewed as aberrant. Thus, in relation to the theoretical starting points, one can interpret the family by heteronormative processes, and those presented are assigned roles and "the right ones" are those closest to an assumption of a "natural heterosexuality".
  • Wasström-Måsabacka, Linn (2016)
    Studies about wellbeing on the workplace have shown that engagement, motivation and social capital affects and have significance for work satisfaction. The aim of the present study is to analyze the engagement on a bilingual (fi, swe) workplace, and to further explore the aspects that can be associated with it. The specific questions are how engaged, how internally motivated and how high the workers social capital is and also whether the intrinsic motivation and the social capital predict the engagement. The research questions are analyzed regarding to the sociodemographic variables: age, gender and educational level and other background variables: work experience, department, department language and position. Central theories in the present study are Self determination theory by R. Ryan and E. Deci and Herzberg's two-factor theory. The study was analyzed statistically and data was collected through an electronic survey in spring 2016. The survey consisted of questions from the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS), a Finnish measurement about the social capital and also some self formed questions based on the theories about social capital. The respondents also answered questions about their background and where given a chance to express their engagement. A total of 252 workers (33 %) answered the survey. The Software program IBM SPSS Statistics 22 was used for the analysis of the respondent's answers. The results of this study show that the employees experienced a high engagement, a high intrinsic motivation and a high social capital. Significant correlations and differences were found e.g. a higher engagement and a higher intrinsic motivation was experienced by the Finnish speaking workers. The age correlated positively and significantly with the experience of engagement and intrinsic motivation. In addition, the supervisors experienced a higher social capital. Furthermore the intrinsic motivation and the department language predicted the engagement. A correlation between the social capital and engagement was found, but the social capital didn't predict the engagement. The results were mostly in line with previous research on the field.
  • Vaalasmaa, Teemu (2017)
    Goals In this study, a week-long digital storytelling project was conducted in a labour market training course in adult education. The study problem was: how collaborative learning was present in the groups in the labour market training course and what it contributed to producing digital storytelling videos? The theoretical background in this study is Global Sharing Pedagogy -model and the collaborative learning aspect of it. For collaboration, the theoretical background are the central concepts of Hakkarainen's studies and the productive agency by Schwartz & Lin. Methods This was a case-study. The subjects in this study consisted of two labour market training groups that were united for the purposes of this study and ages of participants were from 20 to 50 years old. They were split into four smaller groups which were used as cases in this study. The smaller groups had members between four and seven. The project lasted for one week and there was from three to six hours of work each day. At the end of week, the digital stories were reviewed together. The data for this study consists of field diary during the working phase, group interviews with the groups and the finished digital stories. Each group was a separate case and the descriptions from both observation and interviews were searched for signs of collaborative learning. Each case was also compared to other cases to find differences and similarities. Results and conclusions The descriptions of learning in groups had clear aspects of collaborative learning. Each group had some aspects but three of four groups, the dedicated, the independents and the supported had significant collaborative learning present in every part of the project while the wanderers had lesser collaborative learning present. The results reveal that digital storytelling is a good tool to use in adult education to promote both collaborative learning and 20th century skills in students.
  • Breitenstein, Selma (2016)
    This Master's thesis is part of a project on marginalisation in school. The main focus of this study is to review how eighth-graders, reflect on and challenge structures of gender, gender roles, sexuality and heteronormativity in school. Although the school as an institution should be safe, inclusive and equal, structures that are problematic exist. The thesis used a feminist poststructuralist approach and gender was an important theme. The theoretical framework of the thesis described gender, sex and sexuality through both a societal perspective and a school perspective. The material for the study was collected from 2013 to 2014. The sample in this thesis consisted of 11 individual interviews and 4 group interviews with students in the eighth grade in a school in the capital area in Finland. The method of analysis was qualitative content analysis. How students challenge gender roles, heteronormativity and sexuality is something that there is not much research about. Hence, it was central to analyse what kind of structures exist in the school. It emerged that the students have to put up with stereotypical gender roles, threats of violence, appearance requirements, offensive name-calling, and a pressure to select a suitable hobby. Boys behave violently towards girls to a greater extent than the other way around. The results also indicate that the school is a very unsafe place for students with a non-heterosexual orientation. In school there is in general very little discussion about heteronormativity and sexuality. There were students in school who challenged the norms. There was a group of girls that explicitly challenged the structures. They questioned girl- and boy colours, and that educational materials, practices and environments in the school were heteronormative and gender-divided. Although there has been a change from previous research in that students are challenging structures, results indicate that gender roles and heteronormative structures still exist in school, which is problematic. Overall the thesis demonstrates that it is very hard to be a student in the eighth grade today. Bullying and excluding structures in school are common. The schools should actively review their own practices. Students who challenge the structures give hope to that despite everything, small changes in the everyday life in school are possible.
  • Lehtonen, Sofia (2017)
    Aim. The aim of this Thesis was to find out what kind of needs for well-being the working-age Finns have and how they experience work-engagement. The Research problem was that even though the well-being need have been proved to be universal it is motivated to study the connection between well-being and work-engagement out of a subjective perspective on needs. The Classical Well-being model the Subjective Well-being Theory, SWB and Self-Determination Theory, SDT were used as the Theoretical Reference frame of this Thesis. Methods. The study was conducted in a qualitative manner. Eight people took part in this study and were interviewed. The respondents were interviewed and filled in a questionnaire regarding their background information. The interviews were conducted using a half-structured theme interview. The data was coded with the Atlas.ti programme and analyzed with the theory bound content analysis method. Results. The results confirmed that the pursuit of well-being is a value of great meaning to the respondents in this study. The results showed that well-being according to the respondents consists mainly of the satisfaction of basic needs like nurture and rest - but also of satisfying the higher level needs like self-fulfillment. Part of the basic needs were seen even as important as the higher-level needs hence, diet and working out were given a lot of attention. Work engagement was mostly affected by how one sees oneself or how other people see oneself. The results even showed that most of the working-aged people have experienced exhaustion or burnout at some point of their lives.
  • Rawlings, Anna (2014)
    Aims. The Behavioural Inhibition/Behavioural Approach System (BIS/BAS) is a neurological approach-avoidance system, where BIS depicts inhibition, anxiety, and fear of failure. The BAS system was in this study divided into BAS Inter (seeking social approval and rewards), BAS Impulse (impulsivity, immediate rewards), and BAS Intra (excitement at novel situations, own successes as a reward). Achievement goal orientations describe motivational tendencies to choose certain types of goals in a learning situation. Of the achievement goal orientations, mastery intrinsic describes the aim to learn with subjective, and mastery extrinsic with absolute criteria of success, performance approach the aim to outperform others and performance avoidance to avoid situations where one can fail. The avoidance orientation describes a disinterest in academic achievements and the goal of exerting as little effort as possible on school. The aim of the study was to examine how dispositional sensitivities affect the motivational aims of students. The research hypothesis is that BIS/BAS sensitivities predict the achievement goal orientations students adopt and exhibit. The research task is to examine how the Motivation and Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment questionnaire (MSRP) not yet used in published research succeeds in defining and measuring aspects of BIS/BAS. Method. The data was collected from five classes of eighth-graders in a school in Helsinki (N=78) in 2008 as a self-response survey, where BIS/BAS was measured using the new MSRP questionnaire, and achievement goal orientations with the achievement goal orientation questionnaire. The effects of BIS/BAS on the achievement goal orientations were examined by means of regression analyses. The MSRP was evaluated by examining the construct validity of the measurement, considering its descriptive capacity in relation to the background theories, and comparing the results with those from research conducted with other instruments. Results. The MSRP functioned relatively well. The mastery orientations were related to a tendency for low impulsivity, mastery intrinsic also to sensitivity to enjoy novel situations and challenges. The performance-approach orientation was predicted by the tendency to seek social approval, and performance-avoidance was connected to the punishment-sensitive inhibitory system. The avoidance orientation was linked with high impulsivity and low levels of excitement in personal successes and novelty in situations. Dispositional tendencies and sensitivities have a predictive effect on motivational achievement goal orientations, and generalised attitudes towards learning at school are to some degree affected by individuals' inherent qualities. These effects should be considered in school practices, to support and meet the needs of students of all dispositions.
  • Heir-Lindström, Mirjam (2016)
    The penetration of digital media has had a big impact on life in modern society. The new national core curriculums for the Finnish basic education and general upper secondary education (from year 2014 and 2015) are therefore emphasizing the importance of media literacy for practicing one's citizenship. On the basis of John Dewey, social scientist and pedagogue, the aim of this study is to examine a group of Swedish speaking teachers' perception of the media education responsibility of schools. Furthermore, the aim is to review these teachers' experiences of taking part in the media education project Yle Nyhetsskolan. The research questions are: How do the teachers understand the media literacy responsibility of the schools? Besides Yle Nyhetsskolan, how do the teachers conduct media education and what are the challenges? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the project Yle Nyhetsskolan? Eight teachers, from five different basic or general upper secondary schools in the Swedish speaking part of Finland, participated in the study. All teachers had taken part in the project Yle Nyhetsskolan during year 2014. They were interviewed, based on a semi-structured model and open questions. A phenomenological approach was applied and the answers were transcribed and analyzed in three stages. The answers were categorized in order to describe the essence of the teachers' reflections. The teachers had an evident engagement for media literacy and an understanding of the importance of developed media skills in the digital society of today. The teachers found it challenging to define and integrate media literacy education and they urged for more time and shared responsibilities among colleagues. The lack of time, pedagogical tools and technical skills form the main challenges for media literacy education. There is a need for teachers training, especially focusing on pedagogical methods for integrating media literacy in the education. The teachers found the project Yle Nyhetsskolan to be authentic, exciting and rewarding. Taking part in the project was, on the other hand, challenging because projects do not always fit into the non-flexible school day and because news as a genre is difficult, to both teachers and students. Yle Nyhetsskolan should be developed into a project with an even lower threshold concerning both timescale and desired result.
  • Tarkiainen, Virpi (2013)
    Goals: The purpose of the study was to describe and analyse the content of online discussions and shared experiences among parents of children who suffer from epilepsy as well as parents' experiences with online peer support and its development. The goal was to deepen understanding of online peer support and the experiences of parents, and to develop the online activities of the Finnish Epilepsy Foundation based on the information gained. Previous studies about peer support have included group manifestations, personal experiences and peer support in community discussions. More and more peer support is available online, which has been seen in peer support studies from 2000 2009. Online peer support has been reported as both supporting and hindering empowering experiences. Previous studies have highlighted the significance of personal experiences. In this study, the concept of "experience" is defined from the standpoint of Dewey. Peer support is approached in the framework of empowerment. The study addresses four research questions. 1) What do parents of children with epilepsy write in online discussions? 2) What kind of experiences do they share in it? 3) What kind of experiences have parents had with online peer support, and which experiences further parents' empowerment? 4) How should online discussions be developed among parents? Methods: Study data was drawn from online discussions written by parents of children with epilepsy (the first message posted and the following message chain) and interviews with six (N = 6) parents who agreed to theme interviews. Web materials were written 15 June 13 December 2012. Data from theme interviews were gathered in February 2013 by interviewing parents by phone or in person. Web postings and interview content were handled using abductive content analysis, such that high rankings in the analysis utilised concepts of Siitonen's empowerment model (1999). Results and conclusions: The Internet offered parents of ill children an opportunity to share their experiences with other parents in similar life situations. In online discussions, parents shared their experiences about their children becoming ill, epilepsy treatments, support they had experienced as well as their emotions and mental images of the future. The significance of experiential data was highlighted in what parents wrote. Parents experienced the discussion environment as friendly, open, matter-of-fact and empathetic. From the standpoint of empowerment, it was significant that parents had the strength to support one another even in very difficult everyday life situations. The significance of experiences was affected by the environment of the online discussion, its content, parents' pre-conceived expectations as well as sharing emotional experiences and mental images of the future. Factors in the development of online discussions were related to briefing of the service, improved availability as well as active facilitation.
  • Vilhunen, Milla Helena (2015)
    The aim of this master's thesis is to examine the formation of special in the speech of teachers. The theoretical framework is based on the stance that people try to make sense of the world by perspective of normal. However, to be normal is possible only if something is deviant from it. When it comes to schools, these lines between normal and deviant have been seen to be linked to the relation of mainstream education and special-education. The interest of this study is to analyse, how the special is formed in the speech of teachers when there is more and more students in special education and when the official direction is to bring mainstream education and special-education together by constructing teaching of all students in the same classroom. The research data is formed by interviewing special- and class-/subject-teachers. The interviews were constructed as groups, one included special -teachers and the other one class-/subject-teachers. There where total of seven interviewees. The interviews followed the rules of theme interview. I have analyzed the data by using discourse analysis. According to my results the special were formed as maladjustment, certain problems, imperfection and change. The lines between normal and special operated on the other hand between all students and on the other hand the lines were situated only between certain students, them being the students in the special education class and the students in the mainstream class. When it comes to the consequence of special it was the situation of the student that were concerned. The conclusions of this research suggest the persistence of some categories in schools and the place as an essential component for defining the lines between normal and special. Worth noticing is also the ways that showed the possibility of negotiation.
  • Ihalainen, Mira (2014)
    Ageing and the old age is often associated with health related problems as dementia, functional problems and social challenges as loneliness. In modern society where the life expectancy has increased also elderly are more active and healthier than they used to be. Therefore it is important to understand the needs of the modern elderly in order to plan more effective social services but also to be able to capture the inner potential that this group of modern old embrace. I have analysed data that the Institution of health and welfare gathered in connection with a project where one of the main objectives was to gain a deeper understanding of what the key elements that build up a good ageing are from the point of view of Pohjanmaa elderly. I have used Erik Allardt's theory of the welfare dimensions: having, loving, being in order to find out which of the dimensions have the most powerful connection to good ageing.The results show that the dimension being has the most powerful connection to good ageing. To increase and obtain being- resources one need to have enough of having- and loving- resources. Further it seems that the more you have of having- and loving resources the more you will have of being- resources which bode in turn more of good ageing. The connection ground between the dimensions is activity.
  • Lindholm, Anne (2015)
    Multilingualism and multiculturalism are very common phenomena in the global world of today. People move into other countries and integrate in other cultures more than ever before. This Master's Thesis is a qualitative study on how multilingual people describe their linguistic and cultural identity and how it is to be a minority within the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge and understanding on people who represent a linguistic minority in the Swedish-speaking linguistic minority in Finland and how they describe their linguistic and cultural identity. The scientific approach of the study is phenomenological, which means that the study aims to describe the phenomenon of multilingualism, multiculturalism and integration based on informants' subjective experiences. Nine people were interviewed for this study, and the collected data were analysed using content analysis. All nine informants were living in the capital area of Finland when the interviews were done, but are born in another country. The results of this study demonstrate the significance of language and culture for a person's identity. The linguistic and cultural identities form during the entire course of life and can be seen as a lifelong process.
  • Lindström, Alexandra (2017)
    The Finnish National Core Curriculum for Basic Education 2014 stresses the role of formative assessment in student assessment in basic education. The national curriculum offers some guidelines for how to work with formative assessment, but a lot is left unsaid. The aim of this thesis was to describe how teachers in secondary school view formative assessment and how they experience working with it. The research questions were; 1. What kind of profit do subject teachers feel the formative assessment has? 2. Which methods do subject teachers use in working with formative assessment and how do they experience this work? 3. Which challenges do subject teachers experience in connection to formative assessment? A qualitative research approach was used in this study and the data material was collected through semi-structured research interviews with eight subject teachers working in secondary school. The data sample was a selective one, consisting of teachers that felt that they were to some level working with formative assessment, even if the new national curriculum was not yet put in to effect in secondary school when the material was collected (spring 2017). The data material was analyzed trough content analysis. The results showed that subject teachers considered the profit of formative assessment to have various aspects, they felt that formative assessment functioned as a support tool for instruction and as a way to motivate and activate students. Formative assessment functioned as a support for instruction in providing the teacher with information about the students' progress and offering the students more feedback and there for helping them perform better. Working with formative assessment was also seen as a chance to motivate students by steering the instruction towards their interest and skills and making sure that everybody received some sort of positive feedback. The teachers also felt that one aim for formative assessment was to activate students and make them understand and take responsibility for their learning. All teachers had worked with self- and peer assessment as methods for formative assessment. They considered peer assessment to be easier to work with because it was easier for the students to give feedback on somebody else's work than to evaluate their own. Both self- and peer assessment required that the students had some sort of understanding of the criteria for the task they were supposed to give feedback on. The teachers had also worked on making learning intensions and criteria more explicit. This work was appreciated by both teachers and students but the challenge was to find enough time, especially when this required planning together with colleagues. Another method for working with formative assessment was discussing with the students, the discussions could be between teacher and student or a classroom dialog. The teachers experienced general challenges in working with formative assessment to be a lack of time and the need to flexible as a teacher.
  • Helminen-Lindroos, Frida (2017)
    During the last decades mentoring has increased in popularity and today it's common with many different mentoring programs in the working life. The aim with this study is to map and illustrate factors that lead to an effective mentoring relationship and to an successful mentoring according to the protégé. Also the expectations for the mentoring of the protégés in this study will be taken into account. In addition, the protégés experience on how mentoring can support learning and development in working life will be mapped. Informants in this study were protégés that participated in an formal mentoring program organized at their workplace and experienced mentoring as a success. Data was collected with help of semi structured interviews with seven persons. An interview guide was used as support during the interviews and material from the interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The results shows that protégés goals and expectations vary from personal to concretely work related. Most of participants experienced that the goals and expectations were guided to a more personal level during the mentoring process. Factors influencing an effective mentoring relationship was mainly open communication and accessibility, well defined goals and challenges, a caring personal relationship, mutual respect and trust and exchange of knowledge. Also motivation and willingness to participate are important elements. Other factors that influence the mentoring success is back-up from organization, set of mentoring program and other components. The study show that mentoring can support protégés working life development by developing working skills, the working identity, thinking processes and ability to reflexion and self awareness.