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Browsing by discipline "Ympäristötieteet"

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  • Pietikäinen, Johanna (2007)
    The aim of this research is to find out why people recycle their old mobile phones lazily. The interest to recycle electronic equipment has enlarged in past few years; the reason for this is the aim of the European Union (EU) to increase recycling as a whole. In the background, there is the objective of the EU to reduce waste by delegating the responsibility of the products-waste handling to producers. The European Parliament and the Council have passed a directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) (2002/96/EC) and its amendment (2003/108/EC). This study is descriptive and aims at answering the questions about mobile phone owners recycling behaviour. The aim is to find reasons for consumers not recycling their phones, and hence, help to create measures to raise the takeback percentage. The results will be exploited in Nokia Corporation when they plan organizing the takeback system and possible future recycling campaigns. The primary research question is: What is a (non-)recycler like? For example, are there differences in mobile phone recycling behaviour between Finnish cultural areas? Theories concerning environmental behaviour (e.g. the Theory of Planned Behaviour) that were used to create a theoretical framework for the study are presented. The questionnaire was produced based on that framework, and so was the analysis. The questionnaires, 58 altogether, were filled in three Finnish cities, Helsinki, Turku and Lappeenranta, in February and March. The study is qualitative, but it is strongly supported by quantitative analysis. This means that the description of themes is to a great extent quantified. The results have shown that many phones are stored at home; only five people had recycled their phones. Usually phones were kept as spare phones, but also the lack of information about the takeback of used phones and laziness were reasons for not recycling phones. Most of the respondents considered recycling mobile phones important. Ten respondents have heard about the recent Finnish recycling campaign by Nokia and the WWF; the opinions were positive. By giving more information using, e.g., the internet or the mass media, about recycling mobile phones, the recycling percentage could be amounted. The non mobile phone recyclers were mostly women and over fifty. The capital city area could also need some specific attention as the mobile phone recycling activity was quite poor. Two questions were discovered needing more research: the best way(s) of informing people and people s limits in inconvenience when mobile phone recycling is concerned.
  • Alander, Sari (2012)
    The Arctic region is experiencing significant environmental, social and geopolitical changes as climate change impacts the region and thaws the Arctic sea-ice. The notable amount of emerging hydrocarbon and other resources as well as new navigation routes have attracted a lot of interest by a variety of Arctic and non-Arctic actors. The European Union (EU) has been one of these actors. The Arctic affairs have gained increasing attention within its institutions since the launching of the EU s Arctic policy in 2008. The purpose of this study is to find out how the Arctic is perceived in the eyes of the EU as well as how and to what extent the environmental dimension emerge in relation to other topics. A secondary purpose is to examine how these perceptions have changed since 2008. A comprehensive material is used, covering all relevant EU documents. The material is analyzed using a three-staged coding method within Grounded theory. The EU documents discuss several important topics relating to the Arctic region. This study identifies six categories of these topics. These relate to the changes that the Arctic region is facing, the emerging resources, the geopolitical situation and the governance of the region, the EU s role in the Arctic as well as the protection of the Arctic environment. The qualitative approach is mixed with quantitative aspect to find out how much attention each of these concepts get in the documents and how significant the environmental dimension is compared to the other concepts. The EU is globally recognized as an ambitious environmental actor. This study shows that the environmental aspects are well represented also in the EU s Arctic policy documents. The focus of the documents has changed over the years from Arctic resources and a range of problems towards the importance of cooperation and environmental protection in the region. Environmental protection has been motivated by the responsibilities that the EU feels towards the region. However, a goal has simultaneously been to be acknowledged as a legitimate Arctic actor, which would highly benefit the EU in a number of ways. There is nonetheless reason to presume that the EU is serious in pursuing protection of the Arctic environment and this cannot be seen merely as a means to achieve other ends.
  • Hämäläinen, Tanja (2006)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää kokeiltavana olevan metsien suojelukeinon, luonnonarvokaupan ekologista toimivuutta metsien suojelussa. Luonnonarvokaupassa mukana olevien metsien monimuotoisuutta verrattiin kolmeen muuhun metsäkategoriaan. Ne sisälsivät metsiä, joita ei oltu hyväksytty suojeluun vähäisten luontoarvojen vuoksi tai joiden osalta suojeluneuvottelut eivät olleet tuottaneet tulosta sekä potentiaalisesti arvokkaita metsiä. Tutkimus kohdistettiin runsaslahopuustoisiin kangasmetsiin, joiden monimuotoisuutta arvioitiin epifyyttijäkälien sekä monivuotisten ja ylivuotisena tunnistettavien kääpien lajiston sekä lahopuun määrän ja laadun avulla. Lajistossa oli sekä vanhojen metsien indikaattorilajeja että yleisempiä lajeja. Lahopuusto ja lajisto kartoitettiin systemaattisella linjaotannalla yhteensä 200 hehtaarilta eri puolilta Satakuntaa. Kategorioiden välisiä eroja lajiston ja lahopuuston määrässä ja laadussa testattiin parametrisellä yksisuuntaisella varianssianalyysillä sekä Kruskal-Wallisin yksisuuntaisella ei-parametrisellä varianssianalyysillä. Lajiston koostumusta analysoitiin Renkosen samanlaisuusindeksillä ja lajirunsautta rarefaktiolla. Kokonaisuutena tarkatellen luonnonarvokauppaan tarjotuista metsistä monimuotoisimmat on valittu suojeluun. Kääpä- ja epifyyttijäkälälajien ja -havaintojen kokonaismäärä sekä vanhojen metsien indikaattorilajien ja uhanalaisten ja silmälläpidettävien lajien määrä oli suurempi luonnonarvokaupassa mukana olevissa metsissä kuin muissa suojeluun tarjotuissa metsissä. Luonnonarvokauppametsissä myös lahopuuta oli enemmän ja sen laatu oli monipuolisempaa. Erityisesti vaateliaammalle vanhojen metsien lajistolle tärkeää järeää ja pitkälle maatunutta lahopuuta sekä eläviä järeitä lehtipuita löytyi myös enemmän luonnonarvokauppametsistä. Kaikkien kategorioiden sisäinen hajonta oli kuitenkin hyvin suurta ja joillakin yksittäisillä koealoilla lajiston ja puuston monimuotoisuus oli suurempaa luonnonarvokaupan ulkopuolelle jääneillä kohteilla. Tutkittujen metsien osalta kaikki Satakunnan monimuotoisimmat metsät eivät ole tulleet tarjotuksi luonnonarvokauppaan. Potentiaalisesti arvokkaissa metsissä oli luonnonarvokauppametsiin verrattuna keskimäärin enemmän lahopuuta sekä kääpähavaintoja. Luonnonarvokaupassa on mukana eri elinympäristötyyppejä, joista tässä tutkittiin vain kangasmetsiä. Muiden elinympäristötyyppien sekä muiden lajiryhmien monimuotoisuutta tutkimalla olisi hyvä syventää käsitystä luonnonarvokaupan ekologisesta tehokkuudesta.
  • Järvilehto, Laura (2006)
    The objective of this study is twofold: Firstly, to investigate how men and women living in Tanala villages in the Ranomafana National Park buffer zone differ in their natural resource use and livelihood. Secondly, based on this information, the intention is to find out how the establishment of the park has influenced people living in the buffer zone from the gender point of view. The data have been gathered mainly by using semi-structured interviews. Group interviews and individual interviews were carried out in three buffer zone villages. In addition, members of the park personnel were interviewed, observations were made during the visits to the villages and documents related to the planning and the administration of the park were investigated. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. It seems that Tanala women and men relate to their environment in a rather similar way and that they have quite equal rights considering the use and the control of natural resources. Probably this is the reason why the management of the Ranomafana National Park has practically not taken gender issues into account in the planning of the park or in administering activities related to it. Both Tanala men and women can own and inherit land, and in most cases they also exert full control over it. Similarly, women and men seem to control their own labour as well as the produce of their work. There is a strong gendered division of labour in Tanala villages, based on the conception of men doing the hard and difficult work and women s tasks being easy. This idea does not appear to correspond with reality, but it rather seems to be a social construction highlighting the importance of men s work at the expense of women s tasks. At the household level, men and women have equal say considering environmental resources management as well as other kinds of issues, but at the community level women are significantly less active than men in decision making. Since the park management has not paid any special attention to this, women s voices and their interests have not been heard as much as those of men in park related meetings. In consequence, there have been no development projects focused on women s cultivation activities, for example. The establishment of the park has also had another important gendered impact. Since the creation of the park local people have been forbidden to enter the park forest. In practise this ban has mostly affected women, and the forest has become a men s space considering both the access to it and it s resources as well as the feeling of authority. As a conclusion it can be stated that for achieving socially just nature conservation, it is important to take gender issues into consideration even if gender relations seem to be quite equal. In Ranomafana area the situation could be improved, for example, by listening more carefully to women s interests and needs.
  • Koskela, Lotta (2004)
    This research examines the environmental attitudes of the employees in the City of Tampere. This research is one of the goals in the city’s environmental strategy in 2003 and it is made for the environmental protection department of City of Tampere. The purpose of this study was to find out the environmental attitudes of the employees in the City of Tampere, the behaviour related to the attitudes and the relationship between the attitudes and the behaviour. The results will be utilized when planning the environmental work of the city. The theoretical frame structure in this study is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and it is applied to fit for the research. The Theory of Planned Behaviour is used a lot in the attitude-behaviour studies. There is a one-component model of the attitudes in the background of this theory. In this study the examination of the environmental attitudes is based on the one-component model. In the examination of the relationship between attitudes and behaviour the whole Theory of Planned Behaviour is used instead. A term ‘free rider behaviour’ is also included in the theoretical frame structure although it will not be studied with any special questions. Quantitative methods were used in this research. The research was conducted through a mail survey study to 1000 employees in the beginning of June 2003. 462 people out of 1000 returned the questionnaire. The results showed that the employees consider concern about the environment in Tampere well-founded. Trashing and littering in a public place or in the nature worries the employees by far the most. The second most worrying thing is the pollution of the air and water. They are also worried about the destruction of the constructed environment for example culturally valuable buildings and places. Concern is clearly higher among women than among men. The employees in the City of Tampere believe in their own possibilities to influence the state of the environment. Environmentally friendly behaviour is seen important although other people would not behave at the same way. Majority of the employees support the intervention of the society with limitations and by far more than half of the employees support different kinds of payments and taxes that advance the sale of environmentally friendly products. These results also show some kind of readiness to lower the standard of living. The employees think that conservation of the environment is important and its position in the society’s decision-making should be strengthened. Despite of the employees’ environmentally friendly opinions, even two out of three employees admit that they are able to behave more environmentally friendly than they do now if they just want to. The employees for example sort and recycle their waste well, but the behaviour in regard to consumption and commuting has a lot to improve.