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Browsing by study line "Skogsekologi och resurshållning"

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  • Papunen, Saija (2022)
    Measuring the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) is essential as they are key tools in tackling the ongoing biodiversity loss and there is substantial variation in their effectiveness (the estimated ability of protected areas to prevent unnatural disturbances). In forested PAs, the most common variable in effectiveness estimation is forest loss, but fire can also be used as a proxy for conversion. There is, however, a lack of robust comparisons between different data sets and proxies. This thesis aims to provide more insight into the issue by comparing three satellite-based data sets in protected area effectiveness assessment using Madagascar as a case study. The questions to be answered here are whether the data sets and variables derived from them produce similar PA effectiveness estimates and whether they could be used interchangeably in research and for practical management purposes. The hypotheses are as follows: H1: The three proxies produce similar results with the two fire proxies most likely having a stronger relationship. H2: The data sets can be used interchangeably both for science purposes and in practical management of PAs. The effectiveness of Malagasy protected areas established in or before 2005 (N=42) was examined from 2005 to 2017. Three binary response variables were compared: forest loss, fire incidence, and burned area. In addition, a continuous forest loss variable was examined. Forested areas and the full landscape were studied separately i.e. estimates were produced for both forested areas only and full landscape (forested areas + other areas). 1-kilometre parcels in a uniform grid were sampled using nearest neighbour Mahalanobis distance matching, controlling for the factors affecting conversion pressures with appropriate covariates: altitude, slope, distance to cities, distance to roads, distance to waterways, and rainfall for forested areas and full landscape, and in addition, distance to forest edge for forested areas. Relative effect, pooled relative effect, and network relative effect were calculated for the binary variables, mean effect for the continuous variable. The effects were calculated on country level, biome level (tropical and subtropical moist broadleaved forests, tropical and subtropical dry broadleaved forests, and deserts and xeric shrublands), and individual PA level. Protected areas appeared to be at least moderately effective, and all variables produced parallel, consistent results on the country and biome level, especially when using pooled relative effect. On average, PAs in tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests were most effective in avoiding land-use pressures, the ones in tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests slightly less, and the ones in deserts and xeric shrublands most ineffective. There was substantial variation between and inside individual PAs, and in approximately half of the PAs all variables indicate that the given area is significantly effective (α = 0,05). In a little over half of the PAs the effects were mixed, and in forested areas, no PA was indicated to be ineffective by all variables. In full landscape, this was the case for one PA. There were small differences between forested areas and the full landscape in all levels, but they were statistically significant only in a few cases. This study thus suggests that the data sets could be used interchangeably, at least on country and biome level, when conducting matching to assess PA effectiveness in a tropical setting. They could be utilised on individual PA level, too, with certain precautions and understanding of the nature and behaviour of the data. They are well suited for research; however, in practical management forest loss and fire incidence might be more feasible than burned area, due to its certain characteristics (it for example demands quite a lot of processing depending on the use purpose) and accessibility issues.
  • Blomberg, Laura (2022)
    Since the 1980s, international funding provided by diverse and changing donors has significantly changed Madagascar’s conservation landscape. The various challenges and development needs related to biodiversity conservation and its international funding have long been known to the international community and solutions have been sought. Despite this, deforestation and the destruction of the environment in Madagascar continue. The aim of this study was to identify the perceptions of various stakeholders on the current challenges and development needs for biodiversity conservation and its international funding in Madagascar by using qualitative methods. This study was based on 26 semi-structured interviews. The interviewees represented stakeholders involved in internationally funded biodiversity conservation projects in Madagascar. 14 of these interviews were conducted specifically for this study. The remaining, 12 interviews were from the material collected for the research project “Conservation Legacies: Understanding the Long-term Impacts of Private Foundation Investment in International Biodiversity Conservation”. The qualitative content analysis combining a deductive and inductive approach revealed a number of different challenges and development needs that were strongly interlinked. The identified challenges were related to, for example, weak governance and its different indicators, political instabilities, poverty and internal migration, donor requirements, insufficient amount of funding, funding gaps, dependency of international funding, donor-driven priority setting, lack of coordination, and the challenges posed by the operating environment. The identified development needs included the need for longer funding cycles, flexibility, stronger local participation, more holistic and cross-sectoral approaches, and involvement of private sector. Extensive cooperation across actors and sectors is still needed to tackle the challenges and put development needs into practice. Without this, there is a risk that the objectives for conserving biodiversity and making development aid more effective will not be achieved. Achieving these objectives would be supported by research into how the prioritisation and ownership of biodiversity conservation could be increasingly transferred to the local level, while ensuring that all aspects of sustainable development - social, ecological and economic – are considered.
  • Kettunen, Kaisa (2022)
    This Master’s thesis compares different nature and recreation associations in terms of their activity to organize species observation activities and collect species data. The aim is to fill gaps in knowledge concerning on which volunteer groups are actively producing data, and if some of them could be included stronger in biodiversity monitoring and evaluation work. Further, the thesis evaluates how important the Finnish Biodiversity Information Facility (FinBIF) is for different nature and recreation associations as a data sharing channel. The main study material was collected by a qualitative questionnaire that was sent to variety of different nature and recreation associations. As a result, species enthusiast associations, hunting associations and nature conservation associations were shown to be the most active in organizing species observation, that is in accordance with earlier studies such as Santaoja (2013). From other studied groups the Scouts surprisingly showed relatively high interest toward species observation, but they were not active in data sharing. Evaluating associations willingness to use the FinBIF’s services and devises for observation data sharing, revealed, that the FinBIF’s channel was not popular among the studied associations, keeping in mind that the study did not examine FinBIF’s popularity among individual volunteers. In the light of the results, the FinBIF services and the concept of citizen science should be more actively promoted toward nature and recreation associations, especially to the Scouts who would be potential group to co-operate with in biodiversity monitoring and evaluation work.
  • Ahokas, Aarne (2022)
    The root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum is one of the worst conifer pathogens in the boreal forests. Root diseases decrease forest growth, and their abundance could increase with climate change. Disease can reduce the carbon stored into forests even more than wildfires or pest outbreaks, further impacting the climate. Widespread Heterobasidion root rot can develop within the stem of susceptible trees without external symptoms. Therefore, research on the pathogen is difficult on a large extent and its dynamics at the landscape level could be researched with models. A model may be used to understand a system better or to predict its behaviour. Random maps are neutral landscape models, and they are not always significantly different from real random landscapes, except that things shaping real landscapes, such as waterways, human activities, or topography, are missing and the focus is on map cells representing habitats, their occupancy and connectivity across the landscape. Neutral landscape models are an application of percolation theory within landscape ecology; therefore, the connectivity and randomness are important. Heterobasidion spread by sporulation at the landscape level is of interest, as the focus of research has been on the spread by root contacts. In this study, simulations made with Motti and iLand software are compared, the effects of Heterobasidion spread on the dimensional variables of trees at the landscape level are evaluated, and the effects of various maximum dispersal distances on the number of new Heterobasidion colonies and the tree volume per hectare are studied. Forest growth and management practices were simulated with the Motti software, forest dynamics were simulated with the iLand software that uses a neutral landscape model, and Heterobasidion dynamics were simulated with the BITE modelling framework that was connected to iLand for the vegetation and environmental data. Betula pendula had a trend of underestimated values of the dimensional variables except for the basal area in iLand when compared to Motti. There was no clear trend for Picea abies or Pinus sylvestris. Overall, the change in basal area was overestimated the most and height was the most underestimated variable by iLand. A single dimensional variable could have different trends during a forest growth cycle in Motti and iLand. The effect of Heterobasidion on the dimensions of trees at the landscape level was minimal. Larger maximum dispersal distances resulted in more Heterobasidion colonies than shorter distances.
  • Laakkonen, Hilla (2022)
    This study was conducted with the participation of HOAS and AYY residents at the two biggest Universities in the Helsinki metropolitan area (HMA), Finland. A total of 187 residents took part in an online survey. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between experiences of nature, environmental identity, and environmental concern. This master’s thesis explores how the experiences of nature (EoN) defined by Clayton and others (2017), as well as the environmental identity, determined by Clayton (2003), were associated with environmental concern. The survey consisted of questions about environmental identity and experiences of nature. The self-estimation about the environmental concern was also taken into consideration. The data were analyzed both via quantitative and qualitative methods, so mixed methods were applied in this study. Factor analysis from multivariate methods was conducted as a part of the quantitative analysis. Content analysis with topic modeling was performed as part of the qualitative analysis. Survey results from the quantitative analysis showed that the residents of HOAS and AYY experience nature mostly as integrated into their daily lives and routines. Yet, the qualitative analysis revealed that more complex nature connections were experienced during vacation times such as leisure time activities (e.g., boating and trekking). Also, experiences of nature are themed under three themes using the results of the factor analysis. Overall, the survey participants were very concerned about the environmental crisis, and they showed a very strong environmental identity. The correlation between EoN and environmental concern was the weakest, and there were stronger correlations between environmental identity and EoN or environmental concern. The result of this study supports Clayton’s (2003) theoretical model that there is a connection between environmental identity and environmental concern.
  • Adhikari, Gopal (2022)
    Northern peatlands store approximately one-third of total global terrestrial carbon (C). These peatlands were partly drained for agriculture and forestry. In drained peatland forest, beside tree stands, ground vegetation is another relevant component concerning C fluxes between the land and the atmosphere. Thus, to explore ground vegetation gross primary production (GPPGV) dynamics, its affecting factors, and impacts of the partial harvest; forest floor net exchange (NEFF) and respiration (RFF) were measured on an hourly interval with an automated closed flux chamber method were analysed. These measurements were conducted in a forestry drained peatland before (pre-harvest, 2013 – 2015) and after (post-harvest, 2016 – 2017) the partial harvest and a control area (2015 – 2017) located in southern Finland. The results showed a similar diurnal pattern of GPPGV in all three scenarios yet, with a considerably varying magnitude between these scenarios. An 83% increase in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was observed in 2016 followed by the harvest event. However, a markedly higher GPPGV was obtained in the year 2017 (139.04 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) a year after the partial harvest compared to the year 2016 (42.82 mg CO2 m-2 h-1), thereby indicating a delaying effect of partial harvest induced changes on productivity. A linear mixed effect model with fixed effects of treatment (control and partial harvest) and random effects of chambers further supported this result with a significant effect of partial harvest on GPPGV in 2017 as compared to 2016. Further, a strong positive correlation was found between the daily mean GPPGV and PAR. Additionally, types of vegetation and its share of projection cover (PC) also explained GPPGV variations between flux chambers. An increase in GPPGV after the partial harvest event showed that the ground vegetation can play a considerable role in the C cycle of a managed drained peatland forest beside tree stands. As expected, after the partial harvest more lights reached the ground layer altering productivity. Besides light availability, productivity also depends on the types and phenology of inhabiting vegetation. Thus, exploration and realization of the response of ground vegetation to the partial harvest induced changes may contribute to our understanding of natural regeneration and system recovery processes.
  • Rauhala, Mikko (2022)
    The populations of several birds have declined in Finland and overall, in the boreal zone during the last centuries. There is not only one reason behind this decline in the populations of the birds, because it is a result of many different factors and combinations of these factors. Especially, the nesting success of birds affects the size of the bird population. Artificial nest experiments are commonly used for measuring the nesting success of ground-nesting birds worldwide. Artificial nests are done with eggs of some bird species, and the meaning of this is to mimic the real nests of the chosen ground-nesting birds. Usually, the aim with artificial nests is to figure out the number of predations and the distribution of predator species in the research area. Nowadays artificial nests are often monitored with trail cameras. The credibility and truthfulness compared to the situation of real nests have awakened a lot of discussion among researchers (ex. Skagen et al. 1999, Weldon 2022). Especially, the human scents and subjectivity in the setting stage is believed to decline the credibility and the comparability of artificial nest experiments. This master's thesis, figured out with artificial nests and signposts, does the human scent work as a source of bias in artificial nest experiments. The subjects of this research were decided to be mammal predators because these animals search for food mostly with olfaction. From a scientific perspective, the experienced mammal predator group included both small and medium-sized predators. In this master's thesis, the directions from where the mammal predators came to the experimental setups in relation to where the research came from were analysed. The data of this study was collected from a large area where there is human impact in Finland, during the spring and early summer of 2021. Three kinds of experimental setups were used: experiment nests, control nests and signposts. All experimental setups were monitored with trail cameras during a seven-day period, during this time researchers do not visit the area. The experiment and control nests were made in natural nesting places. Depending on the habitat the nests would have been nests of waterfowl, ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus cochicus) or capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus). The experiment nests were done in the ground by digging as natural nest holes as possible with wood stick, and after this, four pheasant eggs were placed in the nest holes. Control nests were done same way as experiment nests but without any eggs. The signposts were done by setting commercial predator lure made from the scent gland of grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) with 20cm wood stick to the underside of small flat stone (rain cannot wash the lure away). After this the stick was placed upright next to the stone to spread the smell. The purpose of signposts was to mimic natural territory signs of predators, and to attract predators to the experimental setups. The signposts were made in the same areas as the experiment and control nests. The data consist of 178 experiment nests, 75 control nests and 79 signposts, so in total the data were collected from 332 experimental setups. The modelling of the data was done with R -program and Microsoft Excel. The situation of the first visits (sector analyses) and the survival of experiment nests was analysed by using Generalized linear model (GLM). The situation of all visits was analysed by using G-test (Goodness of Fit). For the analyses, the directions where the mammals came from, were divided into four sector categories. The directions were imagined as a circle around the setup and the circle was divide into four equal-sized sectors (90 degrees each). The sector that the researcher used was always the number one and trail camera was set up in the middle of the sector. There were four most common mammal predators included in the analyses of the directions: raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), European pine marten (Martes martes) and European badger (Meles meles). This research showed that despite the common beliefs, scent of a researcher does not lead the mammal predators to the experimental setups. According to the results the cues of human scent did not increase the risk of setups found by predators. Neither the passage of time did not change the relation of used sectors in the situation of the first visits. In the situation of first visits mammal predators preferred side sectors (sector two and four) in the experiment nests and signposts, but in the control nests mammal predator did not prefer any sector. There is obvious need of further research because the reason why mammal predators preferred side sectors stayed unclear. The species-specific analyses showed that raccoon dogs, pine martens and badgers arrived in the experimental setups from random directions. However, as expected red foxes were sceptical and avoided the human used sector and the opposite sector three. This research showed that the predatory behaviour of mammal predators is not completely known and there is still need for further research.
  • Jyrinki, Vilja Johanna (2022)
    Climate change and the degradation of soils are global and increasingly prevalent issue. Pyrolyzed organic materials, biochars, are progressively studied as a promising tool to sequester carbon in soils, whilst also improving soil properties. It is important to understand how different biochars affect other integral features of the soil ecosystem, such as soil biota, before they are utilized. Biochars are currently mostly utilized in agricultural settings; in order to extend their use for carbon sequestration in forest soils, more research regarding different biochars in forest settings is necessary. This Master’s thesis was conducted as literature review and meta-analysis of existing forest field studies in which the effect of biochars on soil biota was measured. Two sources (the University of Helsinki digital library collection (Helka), and internet search engine Google Scholar were used. From the studies gathered, soil respiration and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were used as variables to estimate the effect of biochars on soil biota. Due to the scarcity of existing research, experimental conditions included in this thesis are diverse, including plantations, three climatic regions (boreal, temperate and subtropic) and different biochar types. Subgroups were formed from received data according to different treatments and standard mean differences (SMD) were compared. Contrary to the hypothesis, within this meta-analysis, soils amended with biochars demonstrated either no change or decreased soil respiration and MBC. On average, soil respiration did not show any significant change to biochar amendment, whilst MBC decreased significantly in some subgroups: short-term studies (<= 12 months), small difference in pH between soil and biochar (< 4), low pyrolysis temperature of biochar (<= 450 ˚C) and small quantity of biochar applied (< 10 t/ha). The decreasing in MBC was not consistent and diminished with increasing quantity of biochar and in study periods over 12 months. Given that biochars do not seem to have clear effects on microbial forest soil biota or microbial respiration, the application of biochars to forest soils has its potentials. However, larger scale use should be considered with caution, and further research is necessary.
  • Verkkosaari, Heidi (2022)
    This research will study commercial field students' relationship with nature and how it affects their sense of responsibility. The aim is to find out what the students' relationship with nature is like, whether it has a connection to a sense of responsibility and whether the background factors have an effect on the relationship with nature. The issue is topical, as life on Earth is threatened by many environmental problems, such as climate change, the loss of biodiversity and the over-consumption of natural resources. As a result of urbanization, people can somehow become estranged from nature. We need more information about the background factors of our relationship with nature and the connection with a sense of responsibility. Maybe that will help us to maintain our relationship with nature and take responsibility for our environment. Based on previous research, it seems that the more distant a person experiences nature, the less he appreciates it and wants to take care of its well-being. The relationship with nature is always a subjective experience; an individual experiences his relationship with nature differently depending on the experiences, feelings and attitudes towards being in nature and towards it.In the study, I used the Nature Relatedness (NR) Scale to measure the nature relationship. Responsibility refers to a person's responsibility for the effects of his or her actions on, for example, the environment and society. This study focuses on a sense of responsibility; how a person feels responsible. The sense of responsibility was measured with the Responsibility scale (RS). The study was carried out in collaboration with the Ruralia Institute of the University of Helsinki. The data was collected in the autumn 2020. Students were told that the purpose of the survey was to research their relationship with nature and their views on the use of state hiking areas and national parks. Data was collected from 246 Finnish business schools students with the electronic survey. In the analysis of the data, the average sum variables were created from the responses of the survey in order to obtain figures describing the nature relatedness and responsibility for each respondent. The correlation between the nature relatedness and the sense of responsibility was then examined using linear regression. Background variable analyzes were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test and cross-tabulation. The study found a positive correlation between the nature relatedness and the sense of responsibility, making students with a stronger nature relatedness also feel more responsible. Background variable studies revealed that women have a slightly better level of nature relatedness than men. In addition, respondents born before the 1990s were found to have a higher level of nature relatedness. However due to the small number of respondents in older age groups, no more precise conclusions could be drawn. The results are similar to those obtained in previous environmental studies. Although a correlation was found between the nature relatedness and the sense of responsibility, the sense of responsibility does not necessarily tell anything about responsible behavior. New ways should be found to explore the connection bet-ween the sense of responsibility and behavior towards nature. More information would also be needed on how various background factors, such as childhood residence, will affect on the relationship with nature. As people's relationships with nature develops throughout life, information on the cause-and-effect relationship between nature relatedness and responsibility could be used even more in the environmental education of not only children but also adults, too.
  • Honkala, Mikaela (2022)
    Tiivistelmä/Referat – Abstract Kausikosteikot ovat huonosti tunnettu kosteikkoekosysteemi, joita on kadonnut Suomesta paljon metsäojitusten myötä. Nyt kausikosteikkoja uhkaa ilmastonmuutos, etenkin lumisateiden väheneminen ja alkukesän korkeat lämpötilat. Kausikosteikot saavat kaiken vetensä lumien sulamisvetenä tai sateena. Niillä ei ole pysyvää vedenlähdettä, joten niiden hydroperiodin pituus vaihtelee. Kausikosteikon vuotuinen elinkierto koostuu täyttymisestä, vetisestä jaksosta, vähittäisestä kuivumisesta ja lopulta äärimmäisestä kuivuudesta. On tärkeää tietää, miten eri lajit hyödyntävät kausikosteikkoja, jotta suojelutoimet voidaan kohdentaa oikein.Tässä tutkimuksessa vertaillaan keskenään kausikosteikkojen ja pienten boreaalisten järvien lintu- ja lepakkopopulaatioita. Majavakosteikoiden on havaittu olevan etenkin pohjanlepakoille järviä mieluisampia elinympäristöjä ja saman oletetaan pätevän myös kausikosteikoihin. Linnuille kausikosteikot tarjoavat suojaisan pesintä- ja poikasympäristön. Sorsalinnuista etenkin telkkä (Bucephala clangula) ja tavi (Anas crecca) poikueet voivat hyötyä kausikosteikkojen kalattomuudesta, koska se tarkoittaa vähemmän kilpailua ravinnosta sekä vähemmän petoja. Tarjolla olevan hyönteisravinnon määrän ja laadun arvioimiseksi kerättiin hyönteisaineistoa. Aineistoa kerättiin Evolla kesä-heinäkuussa 2020. Mukana tutkimuksessa oli 10 kausikosteikkoa sekä 10 järveä. Aineistonkeruumenetelminä olivat passiiviset lepakkodetektorit, lintujen havainnointi maastossa sekä kahdenlaiset hyönteispyydykset: ikkunapyydys ja kuoriutuvaispyydys. Kuoriutuvaispyydykset olivat käytössä niillä kausikosteikoilla, joilla oli seurannan alkaessa vettä ja ikkunapyydykset muilla. Itse keräämäni aineiston lisäksi hyödynsin huhti-toukokuun aikana samoilta koealoilta kerättyä lepakkoaineistoa. Lintuhavaintoja tehtiin järvillä 111 ja kausikosteikoilla 100. Lajeja havaittiin kausikosteikoilla 17 ja järvillä 21. Lajiston koostumuksessa ja havaintomäärissä oli pieniä mutta ei merkittäviä eroja. Pesiviä tai poikasten kanssa liikkuvia hyönteissyöjiä havaittiin vain kausikosteikoilla. Lepakoita havaittiin enemmän järvillä kuin kausikosteikoilla. Elinympäristöllä oli enemmän vaikutusta havaintojen määrään keväällä kuin kesällä. Hyönteisravinnon saatavuuden ja lepakoiden elinympäristövalinnan välillä ei havaittu selkeää yhteyttä. Voidaan olettaa, että elinympäristön muilla tekijöillä, kuten sijainnilla, on enemmän vaikutusta siihen, missä lepakot kulloinkin saalistavat. Kausikosteikoita tulisi tutkia lisää nyt kun niitä vielä on jäljellä. Lepakoiden osalta tarvitaan monipuolisempaa tutkimusmenetelmien käyttöä, jotta mikkien huonosti havaitsemien hiljaisten lajien edustus saataisiin paremmaksi. Tarvitaan pidempiä seurantajaksoja yli kaikkien vuodenaikojen. Nyt lintuseurannan ulkopuolelle jäi toukokuu ja kesäkuun alku sekä syksy, mikä saattoi vaikuttaa tuloksiin.
  • Karvonen, Juha K (2022)
    Invasive non-native species create an increasing threat to diversity in nature and economics. Invasive species are expected to spread even wider due to climate chance. The Japanese rose (Rosa rugosa L.) is a species widely spread by humans for its decorative value. The japanese rose replaces native plant species and creates problems on seashores, where it thrives. It creates a threat to many endangered biotopes and their plantation. Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. ex Fr.) has been studied for a biological method for brushwood maintenance. The method has yielded good results on several species of the Rosaceae family , for instance on Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and Pin cherry (Prunus pensylvaica L.f.) This study aims to declare, whether C. purpureum can be viewed as a potential method for controlling the Japanese rose. The effect of C. purpureum on the Japanese rose was studied for one growing season in Lauttasaari, Helsinki. In the study, the roses were cut and the freshly cut surfaces were treated with a C. purpureum solution in June 2021. The data were collected in June-September 2021. Despite the shortness of the study period, the results were promising. The fungal treatment decreased the number of live sprouts and increased the number of dead sprouts. Living sprouts were shorter and the amount of rosehip berries was lower in roses treated using C. purpureum than in roses that were cut only. It seems that the C. purpureum treatment provides a potential method for controlling the Japanese rose.
  • Männistö, Lauri (2022)
    Tämä tutkielma käsittelee valittujen kuusi-koivu-sekametsätaimikoiden rakennetta, tilajärjestystä sekä niiden tulevaisuuden kehityksiä eri tavoin toteutettavilla taimikonharvennuksilla. Työ on osa Luonnonvarakeskuksen monivuotista SEKAVA-hanketta. Sekametsät ovat Suomessa harvinaisia puhtaiden havumetsien ollessa vallitsevia. Sekametsien suosimisella olisi kuitenkin lukuisia etuja yhden puulajin metsiin verrattuna. Sekametsällä voidaan pienentää tuhoriskiä, lisätä monimuotoisuutta ja metsien virkistysarvoa sekä hajauttaa taloudellista riskiä. Sekametsillä voidaan valmistautua myös ilmastonmuutoksen aiheuttamiin muutoksiin. Taimikkovaihe on kriittinen sekametsän kasvatuksessa, sillä mikäli sekapuusto menetetään, ei sitä saada takaisin saman kiertoajan aikana. Taimikonharvennus on merkittävä vaihe metsikön tulevaisuuden kannalta, sillä siinä määritetään metsän tilajärjestys ja puulajirakenne. Tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin kesällä 2021 mittaamalla Etelä- ja Keski-Suomen alueilta sekametsätaimikoita, joihin on tehty varhaisperkaus, muttei taimikonharvennusta. Metsiköissä mitattiin kaksi 500 m2:n ympyräkoealaa, joilta mitattiin jokainen kehityskelpoinen taimi. Kuhunkin mitattuun metsikköön simuloitiin neljä vaihtoehtoista taimikonharvennusta tarkoituksena selvittää eri taimikonharvennusten vaikutusta metsikön kehitykseen. Ensimmäisessä vaihtoehdossa taimikko harvennettiin puhtaaksi kuusikoksi, jossa runkoluku on 1800 r/ha. Toisessa vaihtoehdossa runkoluku pysyi samana, mutta puhtaan kuusikon sijaan metsikköön jätettiin 15 % koivua. Kolmannessa vaihtoehdossa koivun osuus oli 25 % ja neljännessä vaihtoehdossa 25 %, mutta metsikön tiheydeksi jätettiin 1600 r/ha. Taimikkovaiheen metsikkörakenteen tulee olla soveltuva, jotta sekapuustoisuus saadaan aikaan. Taimikossa tulee olla tarpeeksi laadukasta ja oikeassa kehitysvaiheessa olevaa lehtipuustoa, ja puuston täytyy olla jakautunut sopivasti. Mikäli jokin kasvatettavista puulajeista on huomattavasti kehityksessä edellä, kehityksessä perässä olevien lajien kehitys hidastuu tai pahimmillaan ne kuolevat. Sekapuusto ei myöskään saa olla omina ryppäinään, vaan sen tulee tasaisesti alueella. Tämän vuoksi tutkielmassa tarkasteltiin myös kehityskelpoisen puuston tilajärjestystä Ripleyn L- ja L12-funktioilla sekä lähinaapurianalyysilla ja mingling-indeksillä. Metsiköissä oli keskimäärin 3012 kehityskelpoista taimea hehtaarilla. Taimikoiden keskipituus oli 3,8 m. Koivut olivat keskimäärin kuusta edellä kehityksessä, mutta eivät kaikilla koealoilla. Osassa metsiköistä kuusen tiheys ei riittänyt puhtaan kuusikon kasvattamiseen. Kaikki metsiköt soveltuivat sekametsiksi taimiaineksen perusteella. Puuston tilajakauma oli niin ikään sekapuustolle sopiva, sillä viljelytaimet olivat istutuksesta johtuen tasaisesti järjestäytyneet, mutta koko metsikön mittakaavassa kuuset olivat sijoittuneet keskimäärin satunnaisesti. Luontaisesti syntyneet koivut puolestaan kasvoivat metsiköissä satunnaisesti järjestäytyneinä. Puulajit olivat sekoittuneet metsikköön keskenään satunnaisesti, eli ne eivät olleet omina ryhminään. Simulaatioiden perusteella eri taimikonharvennukset eivät juurikaan vaikuttaneet myöhempiin toimenpiteisiin tai kiertoaikoihin. Simulaatioiden lehtipuun osuus pysyi keskimäärin melko muuttumattomana kiertoajan kuluessa, mutta yksittäisissä metsiköissä muutokset olivat suuria. Lievä lehtipuusekoitus johti keskimäärin puhdasta kuusikkoa suurempaan hakkuupoistumaan, mutta erot eri simulaatioiden välillä olivat pieniä. Lehtipuusekoitus kuitenkin pienensi tukkiosuutta ja täten suurin tukkitilavuus saatiin keskimäärin puhtaan kuusikon vaihtoehdolla. Suurin tukkiosuus yhdistettynä kuusen parempaan kantohintaan johti siihen, että suurimmat tulot saavutettiin puhtaalla kuusikolla. Sekametsän kasvatus voi olla houkutteleva vaihtoehto metsänomistajalle, joka ei tavoittele suurinta mahdollista tuottoa vaan taloudellista turvaa, arvostaa myös ei-materiaalisia arvoja tai metsien monikäyttöä, taikka haluaa valmistautua ilmastonmuutoksen aiheuttamiin riskeihin.
  • Chapman, Jack (2022)
    Climate change is expected to cause long-term drying on northern peatlands due to increased evapotranspiration. Summer heatwaves and droughts are also predicted to increase with climate change. Vascular plant leaf area phenology on peatlands is affected by reduced water levels and interannual variation in weather. Nutrient rich mire types are more susceptible to both functional and compositional changes in response to long-term and short-term changes in water level. What remains unexplored is the potential for interactive effects between long-term drying and short-term drought events on leaf area phenology on varying mire types. This study quantifies the response of leaf area phenology to 20-year experimental water level drawdown (WLD) across three mire types of varying nutrient levels (mesotrophic fen, oligotrophic fen and ombrotrophic bog). Measurements were conducted in two contrasting growing seasons, 2017 a cool wet year and 2021 a hot dry year. WLD led to significantly earlier growth peaks across all sites. Community compositional changes in response to WLD were most significant at the more nutrient rich mire sites. At the mesotrophic site WLD resulted in significant reductions in peak leaf area (LAIMAX), which was not observed at the other sites. Across all the WLD plots the hot dry year 2021 resulted in significantly greater LAIMAX relative to the cool wet year 2017, this difference was not significant at any of the control plots. This suggests long-term drying alters the way mire phenology responds to short-term variations in weather. This has important implications for the ability of northern mires to function ‘normally’ under future climate conditions.
  • Koivisto, Henri (2021)
    Tutkimuksessa selvitetään UPM:n omistamien kuusentaimikoiden nykytilaa ja tulevaisuudenkehitystä. Tutkielman alussa kerrotaan lyhyesti metsien historian ja lehtipuuosuuden lisäämisen taustoihin vaikuttavista kehityslinjoista, jonka jälkeen vastataan kolmeen tutkimuskysymykseen, jotka liittyvät kuusentaimikoiden nykytilaan ja tulevaisuuden kehitykseen. Ihmisen tarpeet metsiä ja metsien käyttöä kohtaan muuttuvat ajassa. Tällä hetkellä modernin metsätalouden tuloksena aikaansaadut kuusentaimikot ovat liian yksipuolisia. Muutokset ilmastossa haastavat nykyisten metsiköiden muutoksenkestävyyttä. Monimuotoisuuden väheneminen aiheuttaa metsätalouden hyväksyttävyyden kyseenalaistamista. Yhtenä osana haasteen ratkaisua pidetään lehtipuuosuuden lisäämistä kuusentaimikoissa. Lehtipuu kuusentaimikoissa monipuolistaa lajistoa ja kasvattaa metsiköiden resilienssiä. UPM on tehnyt päätöksen kaksinkertaistaa omistamiensa metsien lehtipuuosuuden. Tutkimuksessa kerättiin aineistoa kolmelta eri UPM:n omistamalta tilalta Pirkanmaan alueella. Kolmelta eri tilalta kerättiin maastoaineistoa yhteensä 15 kuviolta. Kuviolta mitattiin kasvupaikka ja puustotiedot, joiden avulla puustoja kasvatettiin Motti- simulaattorilla koko kiertoajan loppuun saakka. Tutkimuksessa luotiin myös kaksi kokonaan Motti- simulaattorilla kasvatettua metsikköä, joilla istutustiheys oli alhaisempi, 1600 tainta/ha 2000 tainta/ha sijasta. Alemman istutustiheyden kasvatuksen avulla voitiin vertailla nykytilanteen taimikoiden kehitystä alhaisempaan istutustiheyteen. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella yli 50 % valtapituudesta täyttävien koivujen osuus on keskimäärin kuusentaimikoissa 9,1 %. Koivut ovat taimikossa pieniä, joka aiheuttaa jäämisen jälkeen myöhemmässä kasvuvaiheessa. Runkoluvullisesti harvennuksissa pystytään lisäämään koivun määrää metsiköissä, mutta tilavuuden saaminen samalle tasolle on haastavaa nykyisissä kuusimetsiköissä. Koivujen tilavuutta ja kasvua taimikoissa voidaan parantaa alentamalla kuusen istutustiheyttä, jotta koivuille löytyy parempia kasvupaikkoja taimikon sisällä. Kuusen istutustiheyden pudottaminen parantaa koivujen tilavuuskasvua taimikoissa. Koivun huomioiminen paremmin kaikissa taimikonhoitovaiheessa on tärkeää lehtipuuosuuden lisäämisen kannalta.
  • Jumppanen, Erika (2022)
    Euroopassa esiintyy kahta metsähanhen alalajia: tundrametsähanhi Anser fabalis rossicus sekä taigametsähanhi Anser fabalis fabalis. Taigametsähanhia pesii Suomessa, mutta myös tundrametsähanhia esiintyy kevät- ja syysmuuttojen aikana. Tundrametsähanhen muuttoreitti kulkee kuitenkin idempää kuin taigametsähanhen, ja ne myös muuttavat myöhemmin syksyllä kuin taigametsähanhet. Metsähanhen metsästys on ollut Suomessa viime vuosina tiukasti säädeltyä ja metsästystä on pyritty ajallisilla sekä paikallisilla rajoituksilla kohdentamaan elinvoimaiseen tundrametsähanheen. Saaliissa esiintyy kuitenkin edelleen molempia alalajeja. Alalajien erottaminen toisistaan silmänvaraisesti on vaikeaa, ja siksi olisi tärkeää saada tietoa saaliin alalajikoostumuksesta kestävän metsästyksen pohjaksi. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli löytää taiga- sekä tundrametsähanhen nokan muodoista tilastollisesti merkitseviä eroavaisuuksia morfometriikan ja nokan värityksen avulla. Tuloksista on tarkoitus luoda työkalu, jonka avulla alalaji voidaan tunnistaa tietyllä todennäköisyydellä valokuvasta. Lajintunnistus on tärkeää hanhien kannanhoidon kannalta, jotta metsähanhisaaliin alalajijakaumaa on mahdollista seurata. Saalislintujen tunnistaminen on välttämätöntä taigametsähanhen kannan elinvoimaisuuden turvaamisessa. Tutkimuksen aineisto koostuu noin yhdeksästä sadasta hanhen päästä. Aineisto kerättiin Ruotsista vuosina 2017–2018 sekä Suomesta ja Virosta vuosina 2018–2019. Päistä otettiin DNA-näyte sekä standardisoitu kuva. DNA-tulosten avulla oli mahdollista tutkia alalajien eroja, jotka voisivat auttaa tunnistuksessa. Kuvista otettiin myös absoluuttisia mittoja sekä mitattiin keltaisen värin määrää ylänokassa. Mallinnuksessa selvitettiin, onko mitoilla mahdollista selittää metsähanhen alalajia. Tutkielmassa esitellyn tilastollisen mallin avulla oli mahdollista neljän muuttujan: keltaisen värin määrän nokassa, nokan pituuden ja ala- ja ylänokan paksuuden perusteella ennustaa alalaji noin 93 prosentin tarkkuudella. Tulokset tukivat aiempia taksonomisia tutkimuksia, mutta eivät ole suoraan verrannollisia. Tulosten mukaan tundrametsähanhia tulee yleisesti metsähanhisaaliiseen Suomessa sekä Virossa ja taigametsähanhia on valtaosa metsähanhisaaliista Ruotsissa.
  • Oksanen, Rose-Marie (2021)
    The aim of this study was to find out Metsäliitto cooperative member’s objectives, attitudes, and intentions in peatland forest management. Theory of planned behavior and attitude theory of Allport were applied to formulate the questionnaire and in the theoretical background of this study. The survey data was collected with a web-based questionnaire. The survey was sent to 5000 Metsäliitto cooperative members and 905 of them responded. The response rate was therefore about 18. The response data was analyzed with factor analysis, linear regression analysis and analysis of variance. Statistical testing was done with t-test, Kurskall-Wallis test, and Mann U Whitney test. Additionally averages, percentages, and standard deviations were used to examine the data. About 30 % of respondents intended to implement continuous cover forestry, fertilization and restoration ditching in their own peatland forests. Even 60 % of respondents intended to implement other logging in their peatland forests during the next five years. Multiple objectives were important to members in peatland forest management. Economic and wood production objectives were the most important ownership goals of respondents. Attitudes towards forest management methods were mostly neutral or positive. Clearcutting and restoration received the most negative attitudes. Attitudes towards continuous cover forestry were significantly more positive than towards clearcutting on peatlands. The main hindering factors reported for implementation of continuous cover forestry were technical issues related to harvesting and different economic factors. The theory of planned behavior explained well the behavioral intentions of members to implement continuous cover forestry. The decision making of non-industrial private forest owners is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon. The ownership structure of Finnish private forest owner’s and therefore Metsäliitto cooperative members will continue to change especially during the following decades. For this reason, it is necessary to continue the research into Finnish private forest owners and their decision-making processes.
  • Jokelainen, Liisa (2022)
    Lähivuosina turvetuotannosta vapautuu suuria määriä suonpohjia jälkikäyttöön. Suomessa metsittäminen on ollut yleisin suonpohjan jälkikäyttömuoto, mutta metsittämisen ilmastovaikutuksia tutkittu vain vähän. LULUCF-sektorilla pyritään lisää-mään hiilinieluja ja hiilen varastoja muun muassa metsittämällä joutoalueita, kuten suonpohjia, kasvihuonekaasupäästöjen vähentämiseksi. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on tutkia ja tuottaa tietoa metsittämisen vaikutuksesta suonpohjan maa-hengitykseen, eli hiilidioksidivuohon maasta ilmaan, sekä metaanivuohon. Metsittämisen vaikutusta tutkittiin viidellä eri suonpohjalla Pirkanmaan ja Etelä-Pohjanmaan alueella. Yhteensä 14 koealalla mitattiin CO2- ja CH4-voiden lisäksi pohjavedenpinnan tasoa (WT) sekä maan lämpötilaa 5 cm:n (T5) ja 30 cm:n (T30) syvyyk-siltä kesällä ja syksyllä 2021. Kasvihuonekaasumittaukset tehtiin kammiomittausmenetelmällä kasvillisilta (Rtot) ja kasvittomil-ta (Rhet) mittauspisteiltä. Kokonaismaahengitystä mitattiin kasvillisilta pisteiltä ja heterotrofista hengitystä mitattiin kasvittomilta pisteiltä, joista oli katkottu juuriyhteydet sekä poistettu maanpäällinen kasvillisuus. Lisäksi koealoilta selvitettiin puuston ikä sekä turvekerroksen paksuus. Puuston iän sekä turvekerroksen paksuuden vaihtelu oli melko hyvin edustettuna valituilla koealoilla (0-57 v. ja 10-100+ cm). Kokonaismaahengityksen hetkelliset vuot vaihtelivat -39–1662 mg m-2 h-1 välillä ja koealakohtaiset keskiarvot olivat 58–694 mg m-2 h-1. Heterotrofisen hengityksen hetkelliset vuot vaihtelivat -39–836 mg m-2 h-1 välillä ja koealakohtaiset keskiarvot olivat 58–366 mg m-2 h-1. Maahengityksen määrä oli samankaltainen kuin aiemmissa suonpohjilta tehdyissä tutkimuksissa. Metsä-ojitettuihin soihin verrattuna suonpohjien maahengitys oli hieman pienempää. Maan lämpötilat vaihtelivat mittausjakson aikana 0–25 ˚C:n välillä. Maan lämpötila vaikutti sekä kokonaismaahengitykseen että heterotrofiseen hengitykseen. Maan lämmetessä maahengityksen määrä kasvoi, mutta tietyn rajan jälkeen maahengitys väheni huomattavasti. Puuston ikä selitti parhaiten sekä kokonaismaahengitystä että heterotrofista hengitystä usean selittäjän regressiomallilla. Myös turpeen paksuus vaikutti maahengitykseen. Pohjavedenpinnan tasolla (WT) ei puolestaan ollut mallin mukaan vaiku-tusta suonpohjan maahengitykseen. Puuston ikä korreloi positiivisesti maahengityksen kanssa eli puuston ollessa iäkkääm-pää maahengitys oli suurempaa. Turpeen paksuus korreloi negatiivisesti eli paksuturpeisilla koealoilla maahengitys oli pie-nempää. Kasvillisilta (Rtot) pisteiltä mitatut metaanin hetkelliset vuot vaihtelivat -0,148–1,206 mg m-2 h-1 välillä ja koealakohtaiset kes-kiarvot olivat -0,056–0,111 mg m-2 h-1. Kasvittomilta (Rhet) pisteiltä mitatut metaanin hetkelliset vuot vaihtelivat -0,077–0,111 mg m-2 h-1 ja koealakohtaiset keskiarvot olivat -0,34–0,111 mg m-2 h-1. Metsittämättömällä suonpohjalla avonaiset ojat aiheutti-vat metaanipäästöjä. Ojien kasvihuonekaasupäästöjä mitattiin vain tällä yhdellä suonpohjalla. Puuston ikä ja turvekerroksen paksuus selittivät parhaiten myös suonpohjan metaanivuota usean selittäjän regressiomallilla. Pohjavedenpinnan tasolla (WT) ei ollut vaikutusta metaanivuohon. Metsittämättömät koealat toimivat metaanin lähteinä ja koealat, joilla oli varttunutta puustoa toimivat pääosin metaanin nieluina. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella suonpohjan metsittäminen kasvattaa suonpohjan maahengitystä ja vähentää metaanipäästö-jä. Metsittämisen kannattavuutta jälkikäyttömuotona ilmaston kannalta ei kuitenkaan voi päätellä näiden tulosten pohjalta. Lisää ekosysteemitason tutkimusta tarvitaan ilmastovaikutusten tarkempaa arviointia varten.
  • Honkanen, Henri (2022)
    Remote sensing brings new potential to complement environmental sampling and measuring traditionally conducted in the field. Satellite images can bring spatial coverages and accurately repeated time-series data collection to a whole new level. While developing methos for doing ecological assessment from space in situ sampling is still in key role. Satellite images of relatively coarser pixel size where individual plants or trees are not possible to separate usually utilize vegetation indices as proxies for environmental qualities and measures. One of the most extensively used and studied vegetation index is Natural Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). It is calculated as normalized ratio between red light and near-infra-red radiation with formula: NDVI=NIR- RED/NIR+RED. Index functions as a measure for plant productivity, that has also been linked to species-level diversity. In this thesis MODIS NDVI (MOD13Q1, 250 m x 250 m resolution) and selected additional variables were examined through their predictive power for explaining variation in tree species richness in six different types of moist tropical evergreen forests in the province of West Kalimantan, on the island Borneo in Indonesia. Simple and multiple regression models were built and tested with main focus on 20- year mean-NDVI. Additional variables used were aboveground carbon, elevation stem count, tree height and DBH. Additional variables were examined initially on individual basis and subsequently potential variables were then combined with NDVI. Results indicate statistically significant, but not very strong predictable power for NDVI (R2=0.25, p-value=2.11e-07). Elevation and number of stems outperformed NDVI in regression analyses (R2=0.64, p-value=2.2e-16 and R2=0.36, p-value=4.5e-11, respectively). Aboveground biomass carbon explained 19% of the variation in tree species richness (p-value=6.136e-06) and thus was the worst predictor selected for multiple regression models. Tree height (R2=0.062, p-value=0.0137) and DBH (R2=0.003, p-value=0.6101) did not show any potential in predicting tree species richness. Best variable combination was NDVI, elevation and stem count (R2=0.71, p-value=2.2e-16). Second best was NDVI, elevation and aboveground biomass carbon (R2=0.642, p-value=2.2e-16), which did not promote for biomass carbon as a potential predictor as model including only NDVI and elevation resulted nearly identically (R2=0.639, p-value=2.2e-16). Model including NDVI and stem count explained 54% of the variation in tree species richness (p-value=2.2e-16) suggesting elevation and stem count being potential variables combined with NDVI for this type of analysis. Problems with MODIS NDVI are mostly linked to the relatively coarse spectral scale which seems to be too coarse for predicting tree species richness. Spectral scale also caused spatial mismatch with field plots as being significantly of different sizes. Applicability in other areas is also limited due to the narrow ecosystem spectrum covered as only tropical evergreen forests were included in this study. For future research higher resolution satellite data is a relevant update. In terms methodology, alternative approach known as Spectral Variability Hypothesis (SVH), which takes into account heterogeneity in spectral reflectance, seems more appropriate method for relating spectral signals to tree species richness.
  • Polvivaara, Antti (2022)
    Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) produces high-resolution and cost-efficient 3D data. Currently, forest inventories combine the use of both LiDAR and passive imaging by cameras, and the possibility of using LiDAR only is very tempting as it would lead to cost reduction. Focus of this study is on the full-waveform observations that extent the information content compared to conventional point clouds and are somewhat rarer to have access to. This study explores basic dependencies between structural canopy features and LiDAR signals over time and aims at augmenting our understanding of LiDAR-vegetation interactions and factors limiting our current ability to use pulsed LiDAR data for species detection, and how possibilities to overcome those limitations. Motivation is to understand how different waveform features can be interpreted and how the features behave over time with changing vegetation phenology. The study material consists of three consecutive LiDAR campaigns and aerial imaging surveys done in the area during a 38-month period and field reference trees that have been measured during this period. I use multi-temporal data that comprise three repeated acquisitions, which all applied same sensor, trajectories, as well as sensor and acquisition settings. As I had repeated LiDAR observations of the same trees where the acquisition settings are comparable, I could study the so-called ‘tree effect’ and overall co-variation between waveform features in the repeated acquisitions. Phenological changes are available as the data comprises winter (leaf-off), early summer (low LAI in conifers) and late summer data (full leaf, high LAI). The influence of scan zenith angle (SZA) on waveform features and attributes is also considered, as the same tree can be seen from multiple strips. The results showed that by using careful experimentation it is possible to detect intra- and interspecies phenological changes from multitemporal full-waveform data, while SZA did not have markable effect on the WF features. I was also able to perform well with the tree species classification task in varying phenological conditions. The phenological changes were very apparent on deciduous trees, but rather small on evergreen conifers. In a 45-year-old stand, the overall accuracies in tree species classification were 92, 87 and 88 % for winter, early summer, and late summer, respectively. These figures were 84, 81, and 83 % for in an old growth forest. The ‘tree effect’ was shown to be significant, i.e., many of the WF features of trees were correlated over time. The intra-species feature variance that is due to the tree effect represents natural variation between trees of the same species.
  • Hakala, Anni (2022)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on verrata navero- ja kääntömätästyksen vaikutusta turvemaamänniköiden uudistamisessa luontaisesti syntyneiden ja kylvöksestä syntyneiden männyn taimien kasvuunlähtöön. Tutkimus perustuu Luonnonvarakeskuksen koekentältä kerättyyn mittausaineistoon ojitetulla suolla Kiimakeitaalla Parkanon Häädetjärvellä, jossa tutkimuskohde on muokattu osittain naveromätästyksellä ja osittain kääntömätästyksellä vuonna 2005. Tutkimuskohteena oli koekenttä, joka on perustettu vuonna 2006 männyn luontaisella uudistamisella ja siemenkylvöllä. Taimet on mitattu 14 kasvukauden jälkeen vuonna 2019 ja keväällä 2020. Keskeisiä mittareita tutkielmassani on koealoilla olevien männyn taimien keskipituudet ja valtapituudet. Tutkimuskohteena oleva koekenttä on kasvupaikkatyypiltään puolittain puolukka- ja varputurvekangasta siten, että se edustaa vaihettumaa mainittujen kahden turvekangastyypin välillä. Molemmat turvekangastyypit edustavat yleisimpiä ojitettujen turvemaiden kasvupaikkatyyppejä Suomessa. Aiemmin alueella on kasvanut männikköä. Alueella oli tehty ojitus 1950- luvulla ja alueen vesitalous on kunnossa. Naveromätästetyillä koealoilla männyntaimien keskipituudet ja valtapituudet olivat säännöllisesti hiukan suurempia kuin kääntömätästetyillä koealoilla. Erot keskipituuksissa eivät kuitenkaan olleet tilastollisesti merkitseviä (edellytettäessä p-arvoa alle 0,05), sillä todennäköisyys virhepäätelmälle eli sille, että kahden mätästysmenetelmän väliset taimien keskipituudet eivät todellisuudessa poikkea toisistaan oli 21,9 (arvo 0,219). Valtapituuksien ero oli suurempi ja niiden osalta naveromättäillä kasvaneiden taimien pituus oli suurempi lähes tilastollisesti merkitsevällä varmuudella (p= 0,080). Pintaturpeesta tehdyillä naveromättäillä taimien pituus oli myös hiukan suurempaa kuin pohjaturvemättäillä, mutta merkitsevää tilastollista eroa ei ollut (p = 0,115). Tutkimuskohteella ei esiintynyt merkittävästi taimituhoja, jotka olisivat vaikuttaneet tulokseen. Mittaukset osoittavat, että tutkimuskohteelle on saatu luontaisen uudistamisen ja siemenkylvön menetelmin kasvamaan elinvoimainen taimikko, jossa taimimäärä vastaa nykyisiä metsänhoidon suosituksia. Luontainen uudistaminen ja siemenkylvö sopii hyvin männyn uudistamiseen varpu- ja puolukkaturvemailla, jotka eivät ole liian reheviä, jolloin taimet eivät joudu kilpailemaan muun aluskasvillisuuden kanssa. Tutkimuskohteella naveromättäiden korkeus vaihtelu oli 10–50 cm välillä, maaston mukaan. Taimille saatiin mättään korkeuden mukaan hieman paremmat kosteus, ravinne ja ilmavuus olosuhteet sekä riittävästi kasvutilaa, joilla voidaan perustella hieman parempaa taimien kasvua naveromätästetyillä koealoilla. Naveromättäillä männyn taimien suurempaa kasvua ei voida kuitenkaan yleistää, koska erilainen kasvupaikka, alueen vesitalous, sääolosuhteet ja muut ympäristöolosuhteet voivat vaikuttaa merkittävästi tulokseen.