Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by master's degree program "Kaupunkitutkimuksen ja suunnittelun maisteriohjelma"

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Kuna, Kamilla (2021)
    This research studies the environmental aesthetics of boredom in the light of post-soviet neighborhoods. While belonging to the grey zone in aesthetics, boredom is an integral part of mundane life that challenges us to notice the uniqueness of our everydayness. Even though mass housing provided an economically feasible solution for sheltering millions of people, it lacks the qualities that meet contemporary living and energy standards. Soviet mass housing architecture and microdistrict designs were led by the economic conditions in the first place. Mass housing was not meant to speak, whereas the residents should not be silenced because of it. We tend to preserve what we find aesthetically pleasing (Nassauer, 1997), yet, what is aesthetically pleasing and what about other values? In this project, preservation is essential for building a contemporary-oriented mindset that could lead to more sustainable and inclusive neighborhoods. The project aims to tackle the issue of Soviet districts through the eyes of its residents, contrasting the more often used top-down approach. Here I challenge the residents' perception of their neighborhood and create a moment for reflection. By offering this space, I amplify the voices of the real experts, the ones knowing their microdistrict inside out. Environmental aesthetics is a relatively new concept within the contemporary urban planning scholarship, giving a fresh take on subjective experiences of urban settings that unveil profoundly rooted and often disguised problems. The interdisciplinarity in the research is met by merging disciplines such as sociology, urban aesthetics, urban history, and philosophy. The term boredom belonging to positive or negative aesthetic values is questioned the same as the legacy of Soviet mass housing later in the research. The ideology behind Soviet blocks is discussed, creating a common ground for diverse readers. Inclusivity is brought with resident participation through the visual research method - photovoice. To avoid biased data, the resident experiences are supported with the city planner's point of view and secondary quantitative data. The findings include Laumas microdistrict resident photovoice analysis, putting the Laumas microdistrict residents as the primary information providers. Taking pictures of their everyday surroundings, residents are given space to show how they see their microdistrict, outlining the values they are proud of or giving perspective of what needs to be changed. Instead of one-sided creation, the curation is inclusive and more reflective of the urban environment's already existing residents' values of their neighborhood. Resident aesthetic preferences open broader discussion on the maintenance issues of microdistricts facing nowadays. Topics are various, but the primary outcomes discussed built environment aesthetics, renovation, communication, identity, resident initiative, automobile domination, and natural environment aesthetics. In the final part of the study, some possible directions for changing microdistrict are pointed out, and further research questions are presented. The project is incomplete until it reaches a broader audience and provides knowledge to politicians, city planners, and other residents.
  • Page, Mathew (2021)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract With rising income inequalities and increasing immigration in many European cities, residential segregation remains a key focus for city planners and policy makers. As changes in the socio-spatial configuration of cities result from the residential mobility of its residents, the basis on which this mobility occurs is an important factor in segregation dynamics. There are many macro conditions which can constrain residential choice and facilitate segregation, such as the structure and supply of housing, competition in real estate markets and legal and institutional forms of housing discrimination. However, segregation has also been shown to occur from the bottom-up, through the self-organisation of individual households who make decisions about where to live. Using simple theoretical models, Thomas Schelling demonstrated how individual residential choices can lead to unanticipated and unexpected segregation in a city, even when this is not explicitly desired by any households. Schelling’s models are based upon theories of social homophily, or social distance dynamics, whereby individuals are thought to cluster in social and physical space on the basis of shared social traits. Understanding this process poses challenges for traditional research methods as segregation dynamics exhibit many complex behaviours including interdependency, emergence and nonlinearity. In recent years, simulation has been turned to as one possible method of analysis. Despite this increased interest in simulation as a tool for segregation research, there have been few attempts to operationalise a geospatial model, using empirical data for a real urban area. This thesis contributes to research on the simulation of social phenomena by developing a geospatial agent-based model (ABM) of residential segregation from empirical population data for the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA). The urban structure, population composition, density and socio-spatial distribution of the HMA is represented within the modelling environment. Whilst the operational parameters of the model remain highly simplified in order to make processes more transparent, it permits exploration of possible system behaviour by placing it in a manipulative form. Specifically, this study uses simulation to test whether individual preferences, based on social homophily, are capable of producing segregation in a theoretical system which is absent of discrimination and other factors which may constrain residential choice. Three different scenarios were conducted, corresponding to different preference structures and demands for co-group neighbours. Each scenario was simulated for three different potential sorting variables derived from the literature; socio-economic status (income), cultural capital (education level) and language groups (mother tongue). Segregation increases in all of the simulations, however there are considerable behavioural differences between the different scenarios and grouping variables. The results broadly support the idea that individual residential choices by households are capable of producing and maintaining segregation under the right theoretical conditions. As a relatively novel approach to segregation research, the components, processes, and parameters of the developed model are described in detail for transparency. Limitations of such an approach are addressed at length, and attention is given to methods of measuring and reporting on the evolution and results of the simulations. The potential and limitations of using simulation in segregation research is highlighted through this work.
  • Delesantro, Allan (2020)
    Urban spatial planning is a cooperative mechanism in ethics which seeks to regulate how land is used, modified and arranged in order to sustain quasi-stable coexistences of dense populations with varied needs and values. Perhaps no needs and values are more varied than those of the many nonhuman animals which live alongside humans in urban spaces. Communicative planning theory (CPT) has emerged over the last 30 years to improve planning’s ethical content by navigating fuller and more diverse multi-interest, multi-stakeholder discourses. The perceived or real absence of significant human-nonhuman animal communications presents a problem for incorporating animals into communicative planning’s anthroponormative frameworks. This thesis adopts a socioecologically hybridized perspective to explore why and how animals may be conceived of as stakeholders in communicative planning, what values and practices produce human-nonhuman animal relationships, and how these translate to outcomes in spatial planning. Using theories which question the viability of the human-animal binary, especially actor network theory (ANT) and Callon’s sociology of translation, I develop my own relational perspective of urban communicative and spatial planning practice that may include nonhuman animals as part of urban spatial planning’s ‘decision-making spaces’. I use this approach in analysis of a spatial planning problem involving three species of nonhuman animals, the Jokeri Light Rail of Helsinki, Finland. From the case study I draw conclusions about how nonhuman animals relate, communicate and negotiate within spatial planning systems in fundamentally distinct ways requiring the development of new communicative apparatus and stakeholder engagement tools. In conclusion, I discuss the ways in which the animal-as-stakeholder concept might be affirmatively used by professional planners to achieve better outcomes for multi-species communities. This means conceiving of urban development not as a battle of human progress against biodiversity conservation, but a multivariable negotiation to reach ‘good enough’ outcomes for a multitude of organisms. I conclude that contemporary spatial planning’s ethical aims of creating quasi-stable urban coexistences demands developing deliberative processes of decision-making with and in a multispecies community.
  • Palikhe, Roslyn (2022)
    In densely built areas, neighbourhood parks have a close relationship with the residents and are an integral part of their everyday activity. However, the presence of the park itself does not ensure its use. Some of the major factors that affect park use are park facilities, proximity, location, environment quality, and park design. Despite all, the extent to which the park is used can only be determined once the park comes to use. Therefore, this thesis aims to research the factors that affect the park use and park activities based on users’ activity and their experiences in the park environment by conducting a post-occupancy evaluation in Hyväntoivonpuisto Park in Jätkäsaari. By analysing the questionnaire data collected in Jätkäsaari, Helsinki, Finland in 2022, through the PPGIS method, this thesis aims to examine what kind of activities take place in Hyväntoivonpuisto park, and how do the park location and design facilitate these activities. The types of activities in the park will be discussed in terms of Jan Gehl’s categories of activities. Additionally, this thesis aims to research the relation between users’ aesthetic experiences, their perception of safety, and their activity in the Hyväntoivonpuisto park. Furthermore, it aims to reveal the collective public image of Hyväntoivonpuisto park by operationalising Kevin Lynch’s theory of ‘the city and its elements’. The data for this study was collected using the PPGIS (Public participation Geographical Information Systems) method using Maptionnaire. The PPGIS study website consisted of 11 pages, with mapping tasks, open-ended questions, and general nonspatial questions. The data collection for the study was conducted between 17th March and 12th April 2022. There were 218 survey participants, among which responses from 200 participants were suitable for analysis. The survey participants marked a total of 934 locations. The data analysis was done using QGIS (Quantum GIS) and Microsoft Excel. This thesis found that the location and the design of the park do influence the type of activities that take place in the Hyväntoivonpuisto park. The aesthetic value of the park has a stronger influence on park activity in park areas that are left open for spontaneous activities and has a smaller impact on park facilities with specified uses. When people's perceptions of their safety are positive, they had a beneficial impact on park use, but when they were negative, they had little impact on park activities. Additionally, the design features strongly influence the public image of the park, and especially nodes and landmarks strongly define the identity of the park.
  • Tikka, Moona (2022)
    Maisterintutkielmani on etnografinen tutkimus itäisessä Helsingissä sijaitsevassa Meri-Rastilassa, johon on uudessa asemakaavamuutoksessa suunniteltu purkavaa uusrakentamista. Purkaminen koskee pääasiassa 1990-luvulla rakennettuja asuintaloja, joiden tilalle suunnitellaan tiiviimpää asuinrakentamista. Tutkimusalueeni on kaksi purku-uhan alla olevaa taloyhtiötä, joista toinen on Helsingin kaupungin vuokrataloyhtiö ja toinen yksityisomisteinen taloyhtiö. Tarkastelen tutkimuksessani sitä, millaista on elää tällaisten kaupunkiuudistusten keskellä. Tutkin asukkaiden paikkakiintymystä ja sitä, onko tämä paikkakiintymys muuttunut purkusuunnitelmien myötä. Lisäksi tutkin, mikä on asukkaiden kokemus osallisuudesta purkamista koskevassa päätöksenteossa sekä toteutuuko prosessi sosiaalisesti kestävällä tavalla. Käytin tutkimusmenetelminä puolistrukturoituja haastatteluita asukkaiden kanssa sekä kuvaelisitaatiota, jossa pyysin asukkaita ottamaan kuvia arjestaan. Lisäksi olen tehnyt omia havaintojani alueelta. Tutkimusaineistonani toimivat tekemäni asukashaastattelut kahdeksan asukkaan kanssa sekä heidän ottamansa valokuvat. Analysoin aineistoni käyttämällä sisältöanalyysin menetelmää ja teemoittelemalla litteroitua aineistoa ja kuvia. Käsittelen aineistoani osallisuuden, sosiaalisen kestävyyden ja paikkakiintymyksen käsitteiden kautta. Osallisuudella tarkoitan erityisesti asukkaiden osallisuutta heitä koskevassa kaavoitustyössä ja päätöksenteossa. Sosiaalista kestävyyttä kaupunkisuunnittelussa voidaan tarkastella sekä suunnittelun kohteen, eli rakennetun ympäristön laadun kautta että suunnitteluprosessin kautta, eli sen, kuinka hyvin asukkaat ovat mukana päätöksenteossa. Omassa työssäni keskityn erityisesti suunnitteluprosessiin. Paikkakiintymyksen kautta kuvaan niitä siteitä, joita asukkaat ovat muodostaneet niin fyysiseen kuin sosiaaliseen asuinympäristöönsä. Tutkimukseni paljastaa pitkän kaavoitusprosessin negatiiviset vaikutukset asukkaisiin. Asukkaat elivät epätietoisuudessa siitä, tulisiko purkaminen todella tapahtumaan ja jos, niin koska ja minkälaisia vaikutuksia sillä olisi heidän elämäänsä. Lähes kaikki asukkaista vastustivat purkamista, useimmiten vedoten alueen pienimittakaavaisen ja luonnonläheisen identiteetin menettämiseen. Pitkä prosessi on jo nyt vaikuttanut negatiivisesti joidenkin asukkaiden paikkakiintymykseen ja erityisesti paikan sosiaaliseen ulottuvuuteen. Asukkaat eivät ole olleet osallisina omia kotejaan koskevassa päätöksenteossa ja sosiaalisen kestävyyden kannalta asukkaiden osallistamisessa olisi vielä kaupunkisuunnittelussa parannettavaa. Paikkakiintymyksen kannalta tärkeään asemaan nousi tutkimuksessani mikromiljöiden merkitys tiedonvaihdon ja merkitysten luonnin paikkoina. Esitän tutkimuksessani ratkaisuksi sosiaalisesti kestävään kaupunkisuunnitteluun kulttuurisuunnittelun menetelmiä. Kulttuurisuunnittelussa alueen paikalliset yhteisöt ja kulttuurit nähdään resursseina, ja paikallisyhteisöt otetaan mukaan suunnittelutyöhön yhteiskehittäjinä. Kääntämällä katse rakennuksista ihmisiin, myös kaavatyön sosiaaliset vaikutukset on helpompi tunnistaa ja huomioida.
  • Haavisto, Noora (2019)
    Cities are facing pressure to overcome critical challenges that force us to rethink our unsustainable mobility patterns. Therefore, the transportation sector is going through major changes. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is one of the innovations trying to change how we travel, a concept that originates from Finland. MaaS is a concept that brings all the transport providers and modes into one platform. A distinctive feature of MaaS is the possibility to buy tickets for the entire journey, removing the need to go through multiple websites and ticket schemes. However, MaaS is still an emerging concept and therefore it lacks official definition. Finland has been in the forefront of this transportation reform with new legislation that supports the creation of MaaS. The public sector has traditionally had a central role in the provision of transport services where regulation and subsidies are needed. However, the new legislation strongly advocates market-based services, and thus the public sector needs to reconsider their position. Therefore, it is important to understand how the Finnish public sector and the parties actually executing the law sees MaaS, its impacts and their role in MaaS. The thesis is qualitative in nature and 20 public sector representatives were interviewed from 17 different organizations. The organizations consist of governmental organizations, interest groups, regional organizations and cities that vary in size. The interview analysis has been guided by concept of emerging technology. Emerging technology is characterized of being technology that can change multiply sectors at the same time but simultaneously has not yet demonstrated its value. The results showed that there is big variety how public sector representatives define MaaS. Additionally, the respondents felt there is a lot of challenges related to MaaS, such as working business model, lack of services, technical challenges, area of demand among others. Positive side was if MaaS would make transport more efficient and provide savings for the public sector. User wise it was clear that MaaS needs to be effortless for the user in order to compete with private cars. Overall the respondents saw more opportunities for MaaS than possible negative effects, but the lack of widespread MaaS scheme makes it hard to evaluate any effects. However, MaaS raised also suspicions among some respondents. As for the legislation, it did not gather any positive feedback outside of government officials, especially the openness of the drafting process received criticism. The results also showed that there is contradicting view on the roles among the different groups of representatives. In conclusion it should be taken into consideration how future policies are formed as now the experienced exclusion of drafting the legislation might have hindered the cooperation and created suspicion towards the whole concept. Additionally, it is clear there is insecurities inside the public sector caused by uncertainties related to MaaS. Implementation has been slow since public sector feels the government has told them to do something, they do not have ability to do. Nevertheless, generally the public sector is still welcoming MaaS. Especially cities hoped that MaaS would enable them to cut their service in low dense areas. However, there is still no will to financially support MaaS, it seen that it is a job for private sector to take the risks.
  • Piela, Emma (2022)
    Organized sports for children provide important health benefits continuing also later in life and are highly segregated based on gender. Having opportunities of organized physical activities within reasonable travel times has been shown to have an effect in participation of sports. In this thesis few of the most popular sports for each gender; dance, horse riding, floorball and football were chosen and the service level of the facilities providing organized sport activities in the age group of 7- to 12-year-olds were analysed in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Special interest lied in how equally these services can be reached with different travel modes in reasonable travel times also in relation to spatial socioeconomic differences. As the research on the topic has been inconsistent and sparse, this thesis contributes to the research field with comprehensive outlook on equality considerations and a seldomly used perspective of children’s sports facility accessibility focused on provided services. The methods used included identifying locations used by children in the chosen sports, analysing travel times to these locations with the Helsinki Region Travel Time Matrix and comparing the resulting spatial accessibility conditions to a sum index of disadvantage calculated from a population grid database. This comparison was done through a Student’s t-test and testing of local bivariate relationships. Generally, the results indicated quite similar spatial patterns and good spatial accessibility conditions in floorball, football and dance when it comes to travel times to closest facilities. The horse riding facilities were located in more remote areas and were significantly fewer which resulted in longer travel times. Overall, most children reached their closest floorball, football or dance facilities within 15 minutes of biking, public transport or car travel times. Biking travel times were found to be shorter than public transportation travel times while private car provided the shortest travel times. The t-test revealed many statistically significant relationships indicating difference in travel times in the most and least disadvantaged quintile areas of the sum index of disadvantage. In these results, travel times especially in football were found to be shorter in more disadvantaged areas. This was the direction of the findings also in floorball and dance. Horse riding travel times were longer in most disadvantaged areas. The bivariate relationship tools revealed variation in the local relationships between the travel times and the sum index. In conclusion, due to travel times being of reasonable length considerable inequalities in the spatial accessibility conditions were not found, although horse riding facilities indicated some inequalities.
  • Tamminen, Juuda (2021)
    This master’s thesis is an ethnographic study about everyday urban encounters and social interaction. It explores how residents in the suburban housing estate of Kontula in East Helsinki negotiate social and cultural difference in their everyday lives. The study focuses on the semi-public spaces of the local shopping centre and examines residents’ capacity to live with difference. The study contributes to a multi-vocal and historically informed understanding of the processes that shape the social landscapes of a socially mixed and multi-ethnic neighbourhood. The study is based on fieldwork carried out in two phases between August 2019 and February 2020. The study applies anthropological methods of participant observation and qualitative interviews. The eleven research participants are adults between the ages of 30 and 71 who live in the neighbourhood and have extensive personal experience of the shopping centre. Although the interviews were a crucial aspect of the meaning-making process, the study relies primarily on participant observation in constructing an interpretation and analysis of social interaction at an intimate scale. In order to contextualise everyday encounters at the shopping centre, this thesis assesses how Kontula, as a stigmatised territory in the urban margins, encapsulates a complex interplay between moral claims of a “good” and “bad” neighbourhood. While some residents confirm negative stereotypes about the shopping centre and bring attention to local social problems and issues of unsafety, others downplay these problems and instead emphasise how tolerant and sociable the shopping centre is. Observations of stigmatised territories reveal how the participation of marginalised individuals and ethnic minorities at the shopping centre challenges the processes and discourses that constitute them as objects of fear and nuisance. The concepts of conviviality and cosmopolitan canopies are used to analyse local social interactions. The analysis suggests that the capacity to live with difference is enabled by ordinary meeting places, such as pubs and cafés, where residents come into regular social contact and engage with diverse individuals and groups. While the maintenance of ethnic boundaries remains salient in the way residents negotiate the social landscapes, these ordinary spaces of encounter situationally reconfigure categories of “us” and “them” and thus expand local meanings of who belongs. The analysis concludes that the contested meanings of belonging and the everyday negotiation of difference are attributes of an open multi-ethnic society coming to terms with difference and change. The analysis suggests that an equal right to participate and interact in shared urban spaces, rather than community consensus, is the hallmark of a society’s capacity to live with difference.
  • Jones, Rachel (2020)
    Violence against women causes serious health and psychological impacts and is pervasive in society. This is partly due to gender and social norms. These have been addressed through educational campaigns, aiming to overcome pluralistic ignorance - when people wrongly believe that they feel differently from their peers, even though they are behaving in the same way. Pluralistic ignorance can prevent people intervening or reporting gender-based violence. This project proposes that public space can also play a role in overcoming pluralistic ignorance, through the medium of street political messages, such as stickers and graffiti. To show that this is possible, fieldwork exploring the existing feminist street messaging in Kallio and interviews based on this data were conducted. The interviews asked what role street media can play in spreading feminist messages, what the advantages and disadvantages of street media are and whether the existing street messaging in the Kallio district can help with overcoming pluralistic ignorance around gender-based violence issues. Four key aspects of theory are used in the thesis. Firstly, an exploration of gender-based violence literature found that domestic violence is a difficult topic to get people to engage with and that using outreach tools can spark important conversations. Secondly, a sociological study of pluralistic ignorance found that educational campaigns are the main route taken to address gender-based violence issues and that there is a gap in studies of pluralistic ignorance when considering the role of everyday public life in addressing these issues. Thirdly, public space is explored, determining that it can play a key role in feminist activism because it provides an open forum and an anonymity which prevents the activist from being verbally abused or silenced. Finally, street media were explored. This found that the eye-catching and unexpected nature of the media can catch people’s attention. In the fieldwork, seventy feminist street messages were found in Kallio, with a variety of agendas. The majority were in sticker form and located on posts on the streets of Kallio. Interviews conducted with activists and a community group determined the importance of stickers in spreading feminist messages. Street messaging had advantages of being easy to spread, having high outreach, anonymity and as conversation starters. Identified disadvantages included illegality, the potential to provoke people or trigger trauma, limited space for text and that messages can often be too niche for a general audience. The study concludes that street messaging can help overcome pluralistic ignorance by acting as a conversation starter and as a confidence boost to people. However, the results indicate that street media alone will not be enough to address pluralistic ignorance and that wider conversation is needed to have a real impact.
  • Kukkonen, Erkko Arimo (2022)
    Maisteritutkielma käsittelee Helsingin kaupungin maa- ja sosiaalipoliittista ohjausta, sosiaalipoliittisia tavoitteita ja ohjatun gentrifikaation piirteitä asuinalueen uudistuksessa. Tutkielman tutkimuskohde on Itä-Helsingissä sijaitseva Meri-Rastila, johon Helsinki on suunnitellut aluetta merkittävästi muuttavan alueuudistuksen. Alueuudistus suunnitellaan toteutettavan ensisijaisesti purkavan täydentämisrakentamisen avulla, mutta myös laajentamalla asuinalueita nykyisille viheralueille. Meri-Rastilan alueuudistuksen tutkiminen voi antaa arvokasta tietoa siitä, miten Helsinki pyrkii kehittämään lähiöitään yleisesti. Helsinki pyrkii alueuudistuksella edistämään alueen sosioekonomista kehitystä, ehkäisemään segregaatiota ja parantamaan alueen vetovoimaisuutta. Helsinki näkee Meri-Rastilan sosioekonomisesti huono-osaisen väestön ja säännellyn vuokratalovaltaisuuden alueen sosiaalisia oloja ja imagoa heikentävinä tekijöinä. Helsinki pitää alueen asuntokannan ja väestörakenteen monipuolistamista keskeisenä keinona, joilla voidaan puuttua alueen ongelmiin ja kehittää sen vetovoimaisuutta. Asuntokannan ja väestörakenteen monipuolistamisella tavoitellaan markkinaehtoisen asuntokannan ja keskiluokkaisen väestön määrän lisäämistä alueella. Tutkielman ensimmäinen tutkimuskysymys tutkii, miten Helsinki pyrkii ohjaamaan Meri-Rastilan sosiaalista kehitystä maa- ja asuntopolitiikallaan. Urbaania maankorkoteoriaa hyödyntäen tutkielma tarkastelee kriittisesti missä määrin Helsinki hyödyntää maaomistuksiaan ja mahdollisuuksiaan vahvaan asuntopoliittiseen ohjaukseen ratkoakseen Meri-Rastilan sosiaalisia ongelmia ja missä määrin Helsinki on omaksunut uusliberaalit periaatteet ja metodit aluekehityksessä. Tutkielman toinen tutkimuskysymys tutkii, onko Helsingin Meri-Rastilaan kohdistamassa maa- ja asuntopoliittisessa ohjauksessa ohjatun gentrifikaation piirteitä. Ohjattu gentrifikaatio tarkoittaa julkisen toimijan, kuten valtion tai kunnan, ohjaamaa gentrifikaatiokehitystä. Länsimaisessa kontekstissa ohjattua gentrifikaatioteoriaa hyödynnetään usein tarkastelemalla kriittisesti uusliberalismin vaikutuksia julkisten toimijoiden tapoihin perustella gentrifikaatioon johtavia asuntopoliittisia muutoksia segregaation torjumisella tai sosiaalisten olosuhteiden parantamisella. Suomessa ohjatun gentrifikaation teoriaa ei ole sovellettu merkittävästi kaupunkitutkimuksessa, minkä vuoksi teorian testaaminen suomalaisessa kontekstissa on kiinnostavaa. Tutkielma on tutkimustyypiltään kvalitatiivinen tapaustutkimus. Tutkimuskysymyksiä on tutkittu analysoimalla Helsingin maa- ja asuntopolitiikkaa käsitteleviä julkaisuja sekä erityisesti Meri-Rastilan kaavasuunnitelmia. Aineistoa on analysoitu teorialähtöisen sisällönanalyysin avulla tutkien, minkälaisia tavoitteita, perusteita, uskomuksia ja käsityksiä Helsingin maa- ja asuntopoliittisen ohjauksen taustalla vaikuttaa. Analyysin avulla Helsingin toimintaa ohjaavista periaatteista ja tavoitteista ilmenee sekä julkilausuttuja että enemmän tulkinnanvaraisia piirteitä, jotka tarjoavat vastauksia tutkimuskysymyksiin. Tutkielman tulosten perusteella Helsinki on omaksunut merkittävissä määrin yrittäjämäisen julkisen kiinteistöpolitiikan piirteitä, mikä ilmenee sen tavassa siirtää alueen rakentamisvastuu markkinatoimijoille, tavassa pyrkiä maksimoimaan maan markkina-arvo ja tavassa pyrkiä ratkaisemaan alueen sosiaalisia ongelmia epäsuorilla markkinoille ulkoistetuilla keinoilla. Alueen sosioekonomisesti huono-osaisen väestön olosuhteiden kehittämiseen keskittymisen sijaan Helsinki pyrkii kehittämään aluetta tavalla, joka luo alueelle keskiluokalle paremmat puitteet. Meri-Rastilan alueuudistuksessa on havaittavissa ohjatun gentrifikaation piirteitä ja asuinalueen kehittämisen myönteinen vaikutus alueen huono-osaisen väestön osalta jää epäselväksi.
  • Toivettula, Karolina (2021)
    Around the world, cities are using branding as a discursive and strategic practice to adjust to intensified, ongoing competition of tourists, investments, events and skilled labour. Simultaneously, in the era of the societal turning point, sustainability issues have become a global topic, and cities have begun to brand themselves as ‘pioneer’ in sustainability. Gradually, place branding’s potential as a strategic instrument of urban development and change has been understood, and therefore, it is increasingly applied in urban governance. This thesis focuses on this change in place branding and explores the relationship between place branding and sustainable development in the context of Helsinki’s branding. More specifically, I study how place branding can be harnessed as a transformative and strategic tool to further sustainable urban development. The theoretical foundation is built on place branding literature that takes into consideration the diverse and transformative role of place branding. I reinforce the place branding theory with the concept of imaginary, which are visions of the future utilised to steer decision-making and further policies. The imaginaries can act as technologies of governance, through which cities delegate responsibility for the citizens to guide them towards a specific aim, for instance, ‘Sustainable Helsinki’. My research data consists of strategies and a website produced by the City of Helsinki. The material addresses sustainable development and the City’s branding cuts through all content. I analyse the content through frame analysis to find how Helsinki frames itself in terms of sustainable development and if any imaginaries attempt to steer the citizens to take responsibility for their sustainability actions. My research findings confirm the increasingly common perception in place brand research according to which place branding can be used as a comprehensive strategic tool in urban development. In Helsinki, place branding has moved over from mere city marketing towards a governance strategy whose objective is to both manage perceptions about places and shape the place according to the city strategies or policies. Also, what stood out was the emphasis on economic sustainability, which was visible even in sections that addressed the other two dimensions – environmental or social. This finding highlights how Helsinki’s branding is heavily influenced by the common narratives of economic success and international competition. Central findings in my research were that Helsinki uses competitive and cooperative ways of portraying itself in sustainable development and succeeding in global competition. In both of these frames, Helsinki uses imaginaries of ‘Sustainable Helsinki’, but in different ways. In the competitive tone of voice, the delegation of responsibility is more implying and indirect since the focus is on the objective, not the process. In cooperative framing, the imaginaries are more straightforwardly asserting responsibility to people and businesses. My research shows that there are several ways to guide people through place branding, but in Helsinki’s case, the city is appealing to the freedom and independence of its locals.
  • Ronimus, Dan (2021)
    Liikennehankkeiden suunnittelussa on 1960-luvulta lähtien hyödynnetty kustannus-hyötyanalyysiin perustuvaa vaikutusten arviointia, jonka käytännöt ovat merkittävästi ohjanneet sitä, millaisia väyliä ja millainen liikennejärjestelmä Suomeen on rakennettu. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on tutkia, miten kustannus-hyötyanalyysi omaksuttiin liikennesuunnittelun lähtökohdaksi sekä miten vaikutusten arvioinnin käytännöt ovat vuosikymmenten aikana muuttuneet. Suomalainen yhteiskunta on 2020-luvulla hyvin erilainen kuin 60 vuotta sitten, mutta tuolloin omaksuttu kannattavuuslaskenta on edelleen väylähankkeiden suunnittelun keskeisin työkalu. Tutkimuksessa selvitetäänkin, miksi kustannus-hyötyanalyysin asema on pysynyt näin vakaana yhteiskunnan kehittyessä. Metodiikaltaan kyseessä on historiallinen tutkimus, jonka aineisto koostuu liikenneviranomaisten tuottamista alkuperäislähteistä, kustannus-hyötyanalyysia käsittelevästä aikalaiskirjallisuudesta ja liikenteen kysymyksiin pureutuvista lehtijulkaisuista. Kirjallisuus muodostuu niin suomalaisen liikennesuunnittelun kuin yhteiskunnankin kehitysvaiheita selvittäneistä teoksista sekä tarkemmin vaikutusten arviointiin pureutuvista tutkimuksista. Historiallista otetta tarkennetaan teoreettisen viitekehyksen avulla. Historiallinen institutionalismi ja siihen kytkeytyvä polkuriippuvuusteoria auttavat ymmärtämään yhteiskunnallisten ilmiöiden pysyvyyden ja muutosten välistä suhdetta. Nykymuotoinen liikennesuunnittelu syntyi sotien jälkeisinä vuosikymmeninä, jolloin Suomen yhteiskuntarakennetta uudistettiin voimakkaasti. Uudenlaisen yhteiskunnan lähtökohdaksi otettiin kaiken toiminnan tehokkuus. Vanhoihin suunnittelukäytäntöihin tyytymättömät tieviranomaiset omaksuivat vaikutusten arvioinnin lähtökohdaksi tehokkuusajattelua puhtaimmillaan edustavan kustannus-hyötyanalyysin, johon sisällytetyt arvotukset ovat siitä lähtien määrittäneet sujuvuuden liikenteen keskeisimmäksi tavoitteeksi. Sittemmin merkittävimmin liikenteeseen kytkeytyviä yhteiskunnallisia teemoja ovat olleet liikenneturvallisuus ja ympäristö. Turvallisuustavoitteet onnistuttiin yhdistämään sujuvuutta painottaneeseen suunnitteluun jo 1970-luvulla, mutta ympäristökysymykset ovat vaikuttaneet suunnittelukäytäntöihin hyvin hitaasti vasta 1990-luvulta alkaen. Liikenneviranomaiset kehittivät sotien jälkeen uudenlaisen suunnittelujärjestelmän, joka saavutti nopeasti vakaan aseman sujuvuuteen tähtäävän liikenteen rakentajana. Vastaava ministeriö on läpi vuosikymmenten priorisoinut liikenteen taloudellisuuteen ja tehokkuuteen liittyvät tavoitteet muiden vaikutusten edelle. Vaikutusten arvioinnista ministeriö on rakentanut vahvan instituution, jota merkittävätkään yhteiskunnalliset ilmiöt eivät ole kyenneet juuri muuttamaan. Etenkin julkisen keskustelun keskiöön 2000-luvulle tultaessa nousseet ympäristötavoitteet on ministeriössä ja sen alaisuudessa toimivissa virastoissa jätetty liikenneväylien ja -järjestelmän käytännön suunnittelussa toistaiseksi sivuosaan.
  • Ojansuu, Sirpa (2022)
    Selvitän tutkimuksessani kansalaisten osallistumisen valmiuksien nykytilannetta sekä kouluopetuksen tavoitteita ja käytäntöjä aktiiviseksi kansalaiseksi kasvattamisessa ja osallistumisen valmiuksien harjaannuttamisessa. Keskityn kaavoitushankkeiden osallistamisen näkökulmaan; kansalaisten osallistaminen näihin on merkittävää suoran demokratian soveltamista. Noin 22 vuotta voimassa olleen Maankäyttö- ja rakennuslain mukaan suunnitteluorganisaatiot velvoitetaan toimimaan osallistavasti ja vuorovaikutteisesti kaavoitushankkeiden prosessien aikana. Osallistujat saattavat olla ensimmäistä kertaa kaavoituksen käytäntöjen kanssa tekemisissä ja heidän tieto- ja taitotasonsa vaihtelee. Selvitän valmiuksien nykytilannetta kaavasuunnittelijoiden, maantieteen opettajien ja opettajankouluttajien haastatteluilla sekä analysoimalla perusopetuksen, lukio-opetuksen ja ammatillisen koulutuksen opetussuunnitelmien perusteita. Tutkimuksessa nousi esille, että osallistumisen valmiuksia tukevaa opetusta järjestetään perusopetuksessa useassa eri oppiaineessa, mutta erityisesti maantieteessä sen kokonaisvaltaisen ja alueellisen näkökulman mukaisesti. Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelmien perusteisiin ei sisälly kaavoitushankkeiden periaatteiden opetusta, kuten ei myöskään ammatillisen koulutuksen yhteiskunnallisten aineiden yhteisiin tutkinnon osiin. Eniten periaatteista kouluopetuksen perusteella tietävät kansalaiset, jotka valitsevat lukiossa maantieteen kolmannen Yhteinen maailma (GE3) ja neljännen Geomedia – tutki, osallistu ja vaikuta (GE4) valinnaiset kurssit. Haastateltujen ryhmien kokemukset ja käsitykset osallistumisen taidoista ja niiden nykytilasta poikkesivat jonkin verran toisistaan; tämä selittyy osittain erilaisilla työtehtävillä ja sen kautta tuomalla näkökulmalla. Kaikkien haastateltujen ryhmien eli suunnittelijoiden, maantieteen opettajien ja opettajankouluttajien mielestä tärkeitä osallistumisen valmiuksia ovat: kartanlukutaito, kirjallinen ja suullinen argumentointitaito, ajankohtaisten asioiden seuraaminen, kaavoitusprosessien ja sisällön ymmärrys sekä yhteiskunnan toimintojen ymmärrys. Suunnittelijat toivat lisäksi esille erityisesti keskustelu-, vuorovaikutus- ja empatiataitoja sekä pystyvyyden tunnetta, sekä tietoteknisiä valmiuksia. Kun taas maantieteen opettajat ja opettajankouluttajat toivat esille kaavoitushankkeiden huomaamista ja ymmärrystä vaikutusmahdollisuuksista. Tutkimuksessani tuli esille myös osallistumisen valmiuksien parantamiseen ja kehittämiseen liittyviä keinoja ja haasteita. Kaikki haastatellut ryhmät nostivat hyvänä keinona esille suunnittelijoiden vierailut kouluissa. Lisäksi esille tuli opetusmateriaalin tuottamiseen liittyviä ideoita sekä muu yhteistyö koulujen ja suunnitteluorganisaatioiden välillä. Kehittämisehdotuksena esitän, että osallistumisen valmiuksien edistämiseksi tuotetaan ja kootaan materiaalia helposti käytettävään muotoon ja sen sisältöä markkinoidaan. Samaa materiaalia voisivat käyttää ja soveltaa sekä suunnittelijat omassa osallistamistyössään käytännön kaavoitushankkeiden yhteydessä, että opettajat kouluopetuksessa. Työni tuloksena selviää, että kansalaisten osallistumisen valmiuksien taidot ja pystyvyys ovat lähtökohtaisesti eri tasoilla. Peruskoulun jälkeiset kouluttautumisvalinnat vaikuttavat tähän merkittävästi. Kansalaisten lähtötilanne on hyvä tiedostaa realistisesti ja reagoida siihen opetuksessa ja kaavoitushankkeiden osallistamisessa, kuten edellä on mainittu, mutta myös tulevia opetussuunnitelmien perusteita kehitettäessä. Mielestäni olisi hyvä kiinnittää huomiota seuraavan perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteiden laadinnassa suunnittelu- ja tulevaisuusajattelun kehittämiseen sekä maankäytön suunnittelun perusteiden hallintaan. Ihmisen toimintojen sijoittuminen vaikuttaa ympäristöön ja luontoon, mutta myös ihmiseen itseensä, toimintamahdollisuuksiin ja resurssien käyttöön.
  • Antila, Arttu (2021)
    Kaupungeissa on tunnistettu uudenlaista kansalaistoimintaa harjoittavia toimijoita, jotka eivät järjestäydy perinteisten yhdistysten tai järjestöjen kautta, vaan vapaamuotoisemmin neljännellä sektorilla. Tämä ilmiö ei ole käynnissä vain Suomessa, vaan samaan muutokseen on havahduttu myös kansainvälisesti. Kansainvälisessä kontekstissa ilmiö liitetään usein oikeus kaupunkiin – keskusteluun Henri Lefebvren innoittamana ja Suomessa ilmiöön liitetään yleensä keskustelut osallisuudesta. Kaupunkitapahtumat ovat yksi tämän ilmiön ilmentymismuodoista, ja tässä tutkielmassa keskitytäänkin niiden tutkimiseen. Tapaustutkimuksen kohteeksi on valittu viisi Helsingissä järjestettävää tapahtumaa: Ravintolapäivä, Siivouspäivä, Kallio Block Party, Arabian Katufestarit ja Mätäjokifestarit. Ravintolapäivä ja Siivouspäivä järjestetään myös muissa kaupungeissa, jopa ulkomailla asti, mutta tässä työssä keskitytään Helsingin tapaukseen. Tutkimuskohteeksi valittiin nämä viisi tapahtumaa, koska osa niistä edustaa kaupunkiaktivismin uutta aaltoa, kun taas osa on perinteisempiä tapahtumia. Tutkielmassa analysoidaan näitä ja vertaillaan niitä keskenään, sekä keskustellaan sen pohjalta neljännen sektorin käsitteestä. Tutkielma perustuu tapahtumien järjestäjien haastatteluihin ja on siis luonteeltaan laadullinen. Anthony Giddensin rakenteistumisteoriaa käytetään linssinä ymmärtää sitä, kuinka tapahtumat muotoutuvat ja kuinka niiden kautta on mahdollista kytkeytyä yhteiskuntaan. Tutkielmassa huomataan analyysin pohjalta, että tutkitut tapahtumat eroavat toisistaan monin tavoin. Niiden toiminta- ja organisoitumistavat sekä niihin liittyvän omistajuuden hajaumassa huomataan suuria eroja. Ravintolapäivä ja Siivouspäivä määritellään eräänlaiseksi osallistumisen alustaksi, jonka puitteissa osallistuvat kykenevät edistämään omia henkilökohtaiseen elämäänsä liittyviä pyrintöjä muilla elämänaloilla, esimerkiksi järjestöissä. Kallio Block Party ja Arabian Katufestarit määritellään fasilitoiduiksi tapahtumiksi, joissa tapahtumaorganisaatio näyttäytyy jykevämpänä, mutta joissa toiminta ei kuitenkaan jäsenny ensisijaisesti organisaation kautta. Mätäjokifestari on tapahtumista organisaatiokeskeisin, sen sijaitessa toimintatapojensa ja organisaatiomallinsa puolesta tukevasti kolmannella sektorilla. Tapahtuma määritettiin työssä keskusohjatuksi. Näiden tyypittelyiden lisäksi sovellettiin Giddensin rakenteistumisteoriaa sen ymmärtämisessä minkälaisissa prosesseissa tapahtumat rakenteistuvat. Tapahtumien luonteen muotoutumiseen näyttäisikin vaikuttavan sääntöjä ja resursseja, joita aineistosta tunnistetaan, jotka vaikuttavat siihen miten tapahtumien kanssa ollaan vuorovaikutuksessa. Giddensin rakenteistumisteoria tarjoaa myös näkökulman osallisuuteen, kun huomataan kuinka eri tapahtumien puitteissa toteutettu toiminta tulee tulkituksi myös laajemmin yhteiskunnassa. Giddensin rakenteistumisteorian avulla valotetaan myös sitä logiikkaa, jolla uudenlainen, laajemmin ymmärretty osallisuus ymmärretään neljännen sektorin kontekstissa. Keskeinen kontribuutio aikaisemmalle tutkimukselle on tarkentava havainto neljännellä sektorilla, instituutioiden välillä liikkuvien kansalaisten sosiaalisiin positioihin nojaavasta instituutioihin paikantuvien resurssien realisoinnista vapaamuotoisessa yhteistoiminnassa.
  • Hatunpää, Fanny (2020)
    This Master’s thesis examines the prerequisites of successful integration services. In my thesis I examine the Kotoklubi Kaneli integration service organized by the city of Helsinki as part of the integration of immigrant women. The purpose of Kotoklubi Kaneli is to offer experiential learning of the Finnish language for adults and children in the playgrounds and family houses of Helsinki. In my thesis I study the significance of playground services for the integration of immigrant women through the perspective of participants as well as employees (instructors). My research question is: What prerequisites of successful integration services are there in the City of Helsinki’s playground services? Finnish integration politics have reached a turning point and are considered to need reform. According to remarks given to the state of Finland, Finnish integration politics should focus more on better integrating women and children. Discussions and decision making concerning integration often occurs without the participation of target groups. This renders decision making dynamics discriminatory and leads to an imbalance of power. Therefore, my research examines the service through the experiences of its participants. The purpose is to provide information in order to improve the integration services specifically in Helsinki and Finland, but also elsewhere. This thesis represents the field of urban sociology and pioneer research, since research on the integration processes and the significance of social networks for immigrant women is scarce. This thesis also represents a piece of feminist research, as it is research conducted by a woman about women (a predominantly female clientele) and for women (to improve their integration processes). The research data consists of interviews with participants and instructors (n=15). The focus on women is based on the fact that a large proportion of the participants are women, as are all of the interviewed participants in this study. The data has been analysed through content analysis and is based on grounded theory. The analysis groups excerpts from the interviews as significations and entities of significations that describe the studied phenomenon. The theoretical framework that supports the analysis is based mainly on the theories of Mark Granovetter (1973) on weak ties, Judith Lynam’s (1985) research on support networks of immigrant women and the model of different forms of social capital (BR, BO+ and BO–) by Nannestad et al. (2008). The theoretical framework also discusses Otherness, resocialisation and the structure of integration services. The core finding emerging from research is that the prerequisite of successful integration services is the successful realization of an unofficial integration process that is connected to social interaction, wherein a participant or user of a service feels that they are met and accepted without prejudice as their true self. This creates a crucially important atmosphere suitable for learning and integration through the social interaction that is based on trust. Immigrant people are just like anyone who finds themselves in a new environment and whose need for help is ample, but specifically concerns social interaction amidst a lack of relations in a strange environment. My results complement those of earlier studies on the significance of social networks in the integration processes. If the realised quality of the service corresponds with the needs of its target group, people will wish to participate. These participants in turn enable a successful service together with its executors, that is, the employees. The flexibility of the employees is significant in enabling the service, but their work seems to suffer if the service is governed and measured with disregard to the expertise of the employees. The results can be applied in improving integration processes and services for early support.
  • Jämsén, Janita (2022)
    My master's thesis examines the opportunities and challenges of introducing cultural planning. Cultural planning is a model of strategic urban development that has culture at its core, as well as cross-sectional work and participation. This is a commissioned work for the City of Oulu, which is also as a case study for my research. In Finland, cultural planning is a relatively new way of developing cities and little amount of research about the topic has been made. Culture planning has been used in mostly in medium-sized and small municipalities and cities. The city of Oulu has not utilized cultural planning before. My work aims to find out if cultural planning could work for the development of a larger city. There is no specific method for cultural planning, but each municipality or city that uses it must consider how to start doing it. Oulu has been chosen as the European Capital of Culture for 2026 and its theme is culture climate change. What does this change mean for the City of Oulu's own operations? Or what could it be? My research aims to clarify the current understanding of culture, as well as its position and developers in Oulu. In addition, it looks at the opportunities and challenges for the city to embark on cultural planning with its current city’s structure, as it has been seen as the greatest opportunity but also the challenge for cultural planning. My work gives voice to the views of the employees of the City of Oulu regarding the new method. Culture is a complex phenomenon, and it is challenging to define. The role of culture varies depending on who defines it. Culture has influenced cities both internally and externally through the ages. Over time, cities as organizations have also developed into very multi-level systems of their interests, networks, and practices. Thus, today, the city is not a single system with a single action culture. How do different internal action cultures affect the city's operations? I study my topic through a dual position, which consists of the role of a researcher and an employee of the City of Oulu. I conducted 11 semi-structured thematic interviews with experts from the City of Oulu. The interviews were both insider and expert type interviews. We first discussed culture with the interviewees and then the potential opportunities and challenges of cultural planning. I used coding and theme design to analyse my materials. My results were divided into two parts, such as my conversations with the interviewees. In the first part, I focused on cultural definitions and developers. Because culture is at the heart of cultural planning, I think it’s important to understand how interviewees perceive culture and its role and developers. In the second part, I focused on the opportunities and challenges of cultural planning through the main themes that emerged from the material. These themes are internal bottom-up work, mental and physical silos, interactions with residents in many different ways, resources (money, time, skills) and the use of digitalisation. Based on my observations, it seems that the responses of the interviewees do not differ significantly from the already existing information related to cultural planning. So, are the challenges related only to cultural planning or mainly to the current city structures and the action culture in the city? The larger the organization, the more different operating cultures may exist. Based on the research material and theory, I think the city of Oulu has a good opportunity to implement cultural planning as other cities, but in smaller places cultural planning can succeed more easily because they are hierarchically lower in structure and thus might have less different action cultures. As the best opportunity for cultural planning for the city of Oulu, I see that it could bring clarity and a common denominator to the new common making. On the other hand, prevailing operating cultures can be a brake on the success of cultural planning. Therefore, it is up to the management level to decide how to start working with cultural planning or whether to start at all. The initiation of cultural planning usually requires a review and change of the current way of doing, and so it does in Oulu. On the other hand, the title of European Capital of Culture is creating a favourable climate for discussion about the culture planning and what it could be for in the city of Oulu
  • Saali, Maija (2022)
    This master’s thesis examines the practices and meanings of yard work, and considers how they can potentially affect the biodiversity of detached house gardens. The dissertation examines the practical activities of yard owners, the attitudes related to yard work, the criteria of a good yard and the relationship that the owners have with nature. The topic of the dissertation is topical due to the global biodiversity loss crisis, which is expected to affect the economy, food production and human health in the future. The topic of my thesis is not widely researched in Finland. The purpose of this dissertation is to provide more information on the level of biodiversity of private yards and, in particular, on the human choices that potentially affect the biodiversity of the yards. The research question of the dissertation is: How do the practices and meanings of yard work potentially affect the biodiversity of private gardens? The master's thesis is an interdisciplinary study that utilizes the concepts of ecology and sociology. The theory of the dissertation is strongly related to the theory of biodiversity and biodiversity conservation work. The dissertation deals with human activities from the point of view of practice and everyday life theory framework. The data of the dissertation has been collected via an online survey. The target group of the questionnaire was the owners of detached houses living in the great eastern subdivision of Helsinki. The questions in the survey are based on the theory of biodiversity conservation work and practices, as well as everyday life. The questionnaire contained quantitative and qualitative questions. Quantitative questions provided information on the green structure of the yards and the measures taken in the yard to support biodiversity. Qualitative questions provided information on the experiences and attitudes towards yard work and the choices made there. The data of the dissertation has been analyzed by the methods of content analysis. Five aspects emerged from the analysis of the data that could potentially affect the biodiversity of the yards of detached houses: the agency of yard work, yard owners relationship with yard work, the yard owners relationship with nature, and the human-oriented ways of yard work. Based on the analysis, it can be stated that the biodiversity of yards is affected by the intensity of yard work, the awareness that yard owners have about biodiversity, the aesthetic values ​​of yard owners and human-oriented choices made in the yard. The results of the dissertation can be considered from the perspectives of urban and landscape planning, as cities are thought to play an important role in solving the loss of biodiversity. The yards of detached houses in the eastern district are connected and an important part of the larger green areas of the city of Helsinki, and researchers emphasize that work to protect and support biodiversity must be done where people already live. The perspectives of my dissertation can be utilized in urban planning when one wants to know what kind of human practices and values ​​affect the biodiversity of yards.
  • Mesimäki, Johannes (2021)
    Collisions and near accidents between pedestrians and cyclists can result in serious injuries and death but have received limited academic attention. Using an online survey, this thesis aimed to increase knowledge of such events, assess the sense of safety of pedestrians and cyclists in traffic as well as identify safety-related constraints to the uptake of walking and cycling with practice theory. Practice theory considers human behaviour to be guided via participation in established social practices constituted by interconnected elements of meaning, material and competence. As such, this thesis contributes to debates concerning barriers to walking and cycling from a safety perspective. The survey was directed to Finnish cities with over 100,000 population and asked frequent pedestrians and cyclists to report details of collisions and near accidents between pedestrians and cyclists that they had experienced in the previous three years. Additionally, the survey asked questions concerning respondents’ sense of safety in traffic when walking or cycling. Survey data was analysed with chi-square tests of independence and ordinal logistic regression. Constraints to the uptake of cycling and walking and ways to overcome them were identified with a practice theory analysis. This involved examining the implications of survey results for the elements constituting the practices, their interrelations and how the practices influenced each other. According to the results, near accidents are roughly 50 times more frequent than collisions. Only 16 respondents had experienced a collision, whereas roughly a third had experienced at least one near accident. Additionally, shared paths were associated with more collisions and near accidents compared to separated spaces, and respondents felt less safe and less willing to travel on them compared to separated paths. The most common type of collision and near accident involved both road users travelling in the same direction. Constraints to cycling and walking were found to surface from meanings of danger associated particularly with shared infrastructure, a material element of the practices. These issues are evidenced by a high near accident frequency, low sense of safety and low willingness to travel on shared spaces. In addition, these issues were exacerbated by a lack of competences concerning space sharing, resulting in poor rapport and respect between pedestrians and cyclists. Significant effects regarding sense of safety were detected between pedestrians and cyclists and across age and genders with ordinal logistic regression, suggesting variance in how different groups experience meanings of danger. Intervening in the material element of the practices by preferring the provision of spatially separated infrastructure was considered to have potential to help overcome these constraints due to their associated safety benefits and respondents’ more favourable position toward them. In addition, working to develop a shared code of conduct for travel on shared environments could further mitigate constraints. Overcoming these constraints could assist the promotion of active travel and help improve the sustainability of transport while improving traffic safety and increasing physical activity.
  • Salmijärvi, Joonas (2020)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastellaan vantaalaisista asuinalueista vallitsevia mielikuvia verkkokeskusteluissa. Työssä kysytään, millaisia mielikuvia yhdeksään vantaalaiseen asuinalueeseen keskusteluissa liitetään ja mitä sisällöllisiä teemoja sekä laadullisia sävyjä niihin tyypillisimmin sisältyy. Lisäksi verrataan, miten mielikuvien sisältö ja laatu vertautuvat alueiden sosioekonomisissa taustatekijöissä esiintyviin eroihin. Tarkoituksena on tarkastella mielikuvien ja alueiden sosioekonomisten taustojen mahdollista yhteyttä, joka voisi kiihdyttää asuinalueiden sosioekonomista eriytymistä toisistaan. Mielikuvan käsitteellä tarkoitetaan yksilön mieleensä jostakin kohteesta muodostamaa tietorakennetta, joka ohjaa hänen käyttäytymistään. Kun kohde on maantieteellinen paikka, puhutaan paikkamielikuvista. Mielikuvista voi sosiaalisessa vuorovaikutuksessa muodostua maineita, jotka ovat kulttuurisesti jaettuja ja uusinnettuja käsityksiä kohteestaan. Asuinalueiden maineilla on huomattu olevan vaikutusta siihen, miten yksilöt suuntaavat muuttopäätöksiään kaupunkiseuduilla. Tämä voi kiihdyttää alueellista eriytymistä, joka edetessään voi aiheuttaa negatiivisia vaikutuksia sosioekonomisesti huono-osaisilla asuinalueilla asuvien hyvinvointiin, elämänkulkuun ja toimintamahdollisuuksiin. Työn tutkimusalueiksi valittiin yhdeksän sosioekonomisesti erilaista asuinaluetta Vantaalta. Niitä käsitteleviä keskusteluketjuja kerättiin Vauva.fi-keskustelufoorumilta 91 kappaletta, joista analysoitiin alueisiin liitettyjä viestejä ja niiden ilmauksia sisällön ja sävyn mukaan. Sisällönanalyysin pohjalta kävi ilmi, että sosioekonomisesti kaikkein hyväosaisimpiin asuinalueisiin (Hämevaara, Vaarala ja Ylästö) liitettiin kaikkein eniten positiivisia mielikuvia ja sosioekonomisesti huono-osaisimpiin asuinalueisiin (Hakunila, Koivukylä) eniten negatiivisia mielikuvia. Poikkeustapauksiakin löytyi: sosioekonomisilta taustoiltaan keskiarvoinen Tikkurila nähtiin varsin positiivisena erityisesti liikenneyhteyksien ja palvelujen osalta. Samoin Korso nähtiin yleisellä tasolla enemmän positiivisesti kuin negatiivisesti. Sosioekonomisesti huono-osaisemman Myyrmäen alueen palvelut ja liikenneyhteydet nähtiin hyvin positiivisesti, mutta rauhallisuus ja väestö negatiivisesti. Sosioekonomisesti hyväosaiseen Kivistöön taas liitettiin paljon negatiivisia mielikuvia sen uuden keskusta-alueen suhteen. Alueella ei nähdä olevan niitä palveluja ja asuinmahdollisuuksia, joita siltä on odotettu. Tuloksien pohjalta näyttää siltä, että asuinalueiden sosioekonomisen taustan ja niistä johdettujen mielikuvien välillä on tiettyä yhteyttä, mutta se ei ole automaattinen. Alueesta voidaan johtaa sosioekonomista taustaansa positiivisempia mielikuvia sekä päinvastoin, jos alueista tulkitaan niitä vahvistavia merkkejä. Alueellisen eriytymisen ehkäisemisen kannalta olisikin tärkeää, että huono-osaisia asuinalueita kehitettäessä myös mielikuva- ja mainetyöhön panostettaisiin kokonaisuuden onnistumiseksi.
  • Toikkanen, Tommi (2022)
    My master’s thesis addresses the status of participants in urban infill aiming projects of local detailed planning and framework planning. Urban infill (complementary building) is emphasized in Finnish urban planning while the practices of participatory planning have been developed. However, ambiguous Land Use and Building Act causes ambiguity also for the definition of participants and for public participation. Therefore, it is reasonable to study which issues affect to the definition of participants’ status based on the practical planning cases. My research questions are how the status of participants is defined in the planning projects and by which ways practices to define the status of participants differ between the processes of local detailed planning and framework planning. I examine the phenomenon based on expert interviews and the documents related to public participation phase. The aim of my thesis is to perceive factors and practices affecting to defining the status of participants. In addition to increased meaning of participatory planning, urban planning related decision making is decentralized to more parties meanwhile growth is being pursued in urban regions as part of the world of global competition. Thus, many stakeholders with their own interests are involved to plans, which can be seen by the practices to do urban planning. I examine my research questions through the four planning theories: rationalistic, incremental, communicative-collaborative and agonistic. Planning theories form frameworks whose realization I reflect based on the data gathered of the local detailed plan of Länsi-Herttoniemi and the framework plan of Tikkurila. My qualitative thesis is a case study based cross-sectional study in which I have gathered the data by semi-structured expert interviews and document analyses. The analyses of the data consist of the three themes: the defining the participants, the choosing and using of participatory methods, and the defining the status of participants. Regarding the analysis of expert interview data, I also examine the meaning of the contextual nature of projects related to the defining the status of participants. Document analyses reflect the public perspective on the status of participants transmitted by urban planners which I compare to the findings of expert interview analysis. My thesis reveals that in practice, the concept of participant can be used to refer to separately defined project related parties defined in the public participation plans (PPP) or to all participating parties in the planning process. As conclusions, I propose that in the context of the chosen planning projects, the status of participants has been defined in practice based on 1) the definitions of the public participation plan by affecting to knowledge brokering, 2) differences between the participants, 3) participation at the early phase of the planning process, and 4) in accordance with comment valuation practices of participants’ comments. To fulfill democratic values of urban planning, there is a need for more unambiguous definitions for both, the principles of participative actions, and the status of the participants.