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Browsing by master's degree program "Kaupunkitutkimuksen ja suunnittelun maisteriohjelma"

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  • Kuna, Kamilla (2021)
    This research studies the environmental aesthetics of boredom in the light of post-soviet neighborhoods. While belonging to the grey zone in aesthetics, boredom is an integral part of mundane life that challenges us to notice the uniqueness of our everydayness. Even though mass housing provided an economically feasible solution for sheltering millions of people, it lacks the qualities that meet contemporary living and energy standards. Soviet mass housing architecture and microdistrict designs were led by the economic conditions in the first place. Mass housing was not meant to speak, whereas the residents should not be silenced because of it. We tend to preserve what we find aesthetically pleasing (Nassauer, 1997), yet, what is aesthetically pleasing and what about other values? In this project, preservation is essential for building a contemporary-oriented mindset that could lead to more sustainable and inclusive neighborhoods. The project aims to tackle the issue of Soviet districts through the eyes of its residents, contrasting the more often used top-down approach. Here I challenge the residents' perception of their neighborhood and create a moment for reflection. By offering this space, I amplify the voices of the real experts, the ones knowing their microdistrict inside out. Environmental aesthetics is a relatively new concept within the contemporary urban planning scholarship, giving a fresh take on subjective experiences of urban settings that unveil profoundly rooted and often disguised problems. The interdisciplinarity in the research is met by merging disciplines such as sociology, urban aesthetics, urban history, and philosophy. The term boredom belonging to positive or negative aesthetic values is questioned the same as the legacy of Soviet mass housing later in the research. The ideology behind Soviet blocks is discussed, creating a common ground for diverse readers. Inclusivity is brought with resident participation through the visual research method - photovoice. To avoid biased data, the resident experiences are supported with the city planner's point of view and secondary quantitative data. The findings include Laumas microdistrict resident photovoice analysis, putting the Laumas microdistrict residents as the primary information providers. Taking pictures of their everyday surroundings, residents are given space to show how they see their microdistrict, outlining the values they are proud of or giving perspective of what needs to be changed. Instead of one-sided creation, the curation is inclusive and more reflective of the urban environment's already existing residents' values of their neighborhood. Resident aesthetic preferences open broader discussion on the maintenance issues of microdistricts facing nowadays. Topics are various, but the primary outcomes discussed built environment aesthetics, renovation, communication, identity, resident initiative, automobile domination, and natural environment aesthetics. In the final part of the study, some possible directions for changing microdistrict are pointed out, and further research questions are presented. The project is incomplete until it reaches a broader audience and provides knowledge to politicians, city planners, and other residents.
  • Page, Mathew (2021)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract With rising income inequalities and increasing immigration in many European cities, residential segregation remains a key focus for city planners and policy makers. As changes in the socio-spatial configuration of cities result from the residential mobility of its residents, the basis on which this mobility occurs is an important factor in segregation dynamics. There are many macro conditions which can constrain residential choice and facilitate segregation, such as the structure and supply of housing, competition in real estate markets and legal and institutional forms of housing discrimination. However, segregation has also been shown to occur from the bottom-up, through the self-organisation of individual households who make decisions about where to live. Using simple theoretical models, Thomas Schelling demonstrated how individual residential choices can lead to unanticipated and unexpected segregation in a city, even when this is not explicitly desired by any households. Schelling’s models are based upon theories of social homophily, or social distance dynamics, whereby individuals are thought to cluster in social and physical space on the basis of shared social traits. Understanding this process poses challenges for traditional research methods as segregation dynamics exhibit many complex behaviours including interdependency, emergence and nonlinearity. In recent years, simulation has been turned to as one possible method of analysis. Despite this increased interest in simulation as a tool for segregation research, there have been few attempts to operationalise a geospatial model, using empirical data for a real urban area. This thesis contributes to research on the simulation of social phenomena by developing a geospatial agent-based model (ABM) of residential segregation from empirical population data for the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA). The urban structure, population composition, density and socio-spatial distribution of the HMA is represented within the modelling environment. Whilst the operational parameters of the model remain highly simplified in order to make processes more transparent, it permits exploration of possible system behaviour by placing it in a manipulative form. Specifically, this study uses simulation to test whether individual preferences, based on social homophily, are capable of producing segregation in a theoretical system which is absent of discrimination and other factors which may constrain residential choice. Three different scenarios were conducted, corresponding to different preference structures and demands for co-group neighbours. Each scenario was simulated for three different potential sorting variables derived from the literature; socio-economic status (income), cultural capital (education level) and language groups (mother tongue). Segregation increases in all of the simulations, however there are considerable behavioural differences between the different scenarios and grouping variables. The results broadly support the idea that individual residential choices by households are capable of producing and maintaining segregation under the right theoretical conditions. As a relatively novel approach to segregation research, the components, processes, and parameters of the developed model are described in detail for transparency. Limitations of such an approach are addressed at length, and attention is given to methods of measuring and reporting on the evolution and results of the simulations. The potential and limitations of using simulation in segregation research is highlighted through this work.
  • Vikman, Janina (2023)
    Objectives. This master's thesis explores the rejections of A-Kruunu housing offers and housing wishes. The research aims to find different dimensions of housing wishes and reasons for housing offer rejections through exploratory factor analysis, as well as to investigate the correlations between housing wishes and the reasons for rejections. In addition to these, the frequency of stress factors that caused the search for new housing is studied. The results of this study can be used to reduce the number of rejections of housing offers and develop the rental process of A-Kruunu. Methods. The research was carried out using quantitative methods. The research was first started by getting to know academic literature. The data was then collected using a self-made survey. The sample of the study consisted of people who had rejected a housing offer from AKruunu, and the study was carried out in December 2022. A total of 212 people answered the survey. Housing wishes and the reasons for housing offer rejections were investigated using exploratory factor analysis. Two separate factor analyses were performed: one on housing wishes and one on the reasons for housing offer rejections. Finally, the correlations between the results of the two factor analyses were evaluated with a correlation matrix formed from Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results and conclusions. The most common stress factors behind housing wishes were the size of the apartment, too expensive living expenses, and the need to change the current city or town. The study found four factors for both housing wishes and reasons for housing offer rejections. The factors regarding housing wishes found in the study were "Urban Location", "Quality", "Safety Network", and "Flexible Housing". The factors regarding reasons for housing offer rejections were "Unsuitable Location", "Unsuitable Apartment", "Something Better Available Elsewhere", and “Life Situation". The "Quality" wish for housing and the "Unsuitable Apartment" reason for rejection moderately correlated. A weak correlation was found between the "Safety network" living ideal and the "Unsuitable Location" reason for rejection, as well as the "Quality" living ideal and the "Life Situation" reason for rejection.
  • Delesantro, Allan (2020)
    Urban spatial planning is a cooperative mechanism in ethics which seeks to regulate how land is used, modified and arranged in order to sustain quasi-stable coexistences of dense populations with varied needs and values. Perhaps no needs and values are more varied than those of the many nonhuman animals which live alongside humans in urban spaces. Communicative planning theory (CPT) has emerged over the last 30 years to improve planning’s ethical content by navigating fuller and more diverse multi-interest, multi-stakeholder discourses. The perceived or real absence of significant human-nonhuman animal communications presents a problem for incorporating animals into communicative planning’s anthroponormative frameworks. This thesis adopts a socioecologically hybridized perspective to explore why and how animals may be conceived of as stakeholders in communicative planning, what values and practices produce human-nonhuman animal relationships, and how these translate to outcomes in spatial planning. Using theories which question the viability of the human-animal binary, especially actor network theory (ANT) and Callon’s sociology of translation, I develop my own relational perspective of urban communicative and spatial planning practice that may include nonhuman animals as part of urban spatial planning’s ‘decision-making spaces’. I use this approach in analysis of a spatial planning problem involving three species of nonhuman animals, the Jokeri Light Rail of Helsinki, Finland. From the case study I draw conclusions about how nonhuman animals relate, communicate and negotiate within spatial planning systems in fundamentally distinct ways requiring the development of new communicative apparatus and stakeholder engagement tools. In conclusion, I discuss the ways in which the animal-as-stakeholder concept might be affirmatively used by professional planners to achieve better outcomes for multi-species communities. This means conceiving of urban development not as a battle of human progress against biodiversity conservation, but a multivariable negotiation to reach ‘good enough’ outcomes for a multitude of organisms. I conclude that contemporary spatial planning’s ethical aims of creating quasi-stable urban coexistences demands developing deliberative processes of decision-making with and in a multispecies community.
  • Palikhe, Roslyn (2022)
    In densely built areas, neighbourhood parks have a close relationship with the residents and are an integral part of their everyday activity. However, the presence of the park itself does not ensure its use. Some of the major factors that affect park use are park facilities, proximity, location, environment quality, and park design. Despite all, the extent to which the park is used can only be determined once the park comes to use. Therefore, this thesis aims to research the factors that affect the park use and park activities based on users’ activity and their experiences in the park environment by conducting a post-occupancy evaluation in Hyväntoivonpuisto Park in Jätkäsaari. By analysing the questionnaire data collected in Jätkäsaari, Helsinki, Finland in 2022, through the PPGIS method, this thesis aims to examine what kind of activities take place in Hyväntoivonpuisto park, and how do the park location and design facilitate these activities. The types of activities in the park will be discussed in terms of Jan Gehl’s categories of activities. Additionally, this thesis aims to research the relation between users’ aesthetic experiences, their perception of safety, and their activity in the Hyväntoivonpuisto park. Furthermore, it aims to reveal the collective public image of Hyväntoivonpuisto park by operationalising Kevin Lynch’s theory of ‘the city and its elements’. The data for this study was collected using the PPGIS (Public participation Geographical Information Systems) method using Maptionnaire. The PPGIS study website consisted of 11 pages, with mapping tasks, open-ended questions, and general nonspatial questions. The data collection for the study was conducted between 17th March and 12th April 2022. There were 218 survey participants, among which responses from 200 participants were suitable for analysis. The survey participants marked a total of 934 locations. The data analysis was done using QGIS (Quantum GIS) and Microsoft Excel. This thesis found that the location and the design of the park do influence the type of activities that take place in the Hyväntoivonpuisto park. The aesthetic value of the park has a stronger influence on park activity in park areas that are left open for spontaneous activities and has a smaller impact on park facilities with specified uses. When people's perceptions of their safety are positive, they had a beneficial impact on park use, but when they were negative, they had little impact on park activities. Additionally, the design features strongly influence the public image of the park, and especially nodes and landmarks strongly define the identity of the park.
  • Louekari, Turkka Alje (2023)
    Tutkielma tarkastelee asuinalueiden ominaisuuksien yhdistelmiä kuluttajan päätöksenteon kannalta. Pääasiallinen tutkimuskysymys on: millaisia asuinalueiden ominaisuuksien yhdistelmiä kuluttajat nimeävät heidän kannaltaan hyviksi syiksi valita Helsingin Etelä-Haaga, Pihlajamäki tai Konepaja? Toinen, vertaileva tutkimuskysymys on: millaisia eroja näille kolmelle asuinalueelle nimettyjen valintaperusteiden välillä on? Tutkimuskohteina ovat osin jopa ihmisten tarkat sanavalinnat, ja pääsääntöisesti sellaiset sisällöt, jotka eivät vaadi paljoa tulkintaa, mutta toisinaan epäsuoremmat ilmaisut, joiden merkityksiä tulkitaan aktiivisemmalla otteella. Ominaisuuksien yhdistelmät merkitsevät tässä tutkimuksessa usein rakenteita, joissa jonkin laajan kattotermin alla on useita konkreettisempia sisältöjä. Tutkielman kirjallisuuskatsaus käsittelee suurelta osin asumispreferenssejä. Asumispreferenssejä jaotellaan esitettyihin ja toteutuneisiin preferensseihin, joista tämä tutkielma tutkii esitettyjä preferenssejä, mutta vertailee tuloksia toisinaan toteutuneiden preferenssien tutkimuksiin. Tutkimusmenetelmä koostuu puolistrukturoiduista katuhaastatteluista, nettikyselyistä ja sisällönanalyysistä. Haastateltavilta kysytään kadulla heille tärkeitä kyseisen kaupunginosan ominaisuuksia, tarjoamatta valmiita vaihtoehtoja, ja tyypillisesti pyydetään seuraavaksi tarkentamaan ja konkretisoimaan vastauksia. Haastatteluaineiston perusteella laaditaan monivalintakyselylomakkeet, joihin saadaan suuri vastaajamäärä internetissä, mutta nämä nettikyselyt ovat silti toissijainen aineistonkeruumenetelmä. Sisällönanalyysi ja teemoittelu on datalähtöistä, muodostettavat teemat nousevat kuluttajien omaäänisistä ilmaisuista, eivät tutkielman ennakkoasetelmista. Aineistosta nousee esiin seitsemän merkittävää teemaa: kulkuyhteydet, luonto ja kaupunkitila, palvelut, lapsiystävällisyys, rauhallisuus, yhteisöllisyys ja hintataso. Rajatapauksina esiintyviä kategorioita ovat muutos, ei mikään, sekä pohjaratkaisut, ja näitäkin esitellään lyhyesti. Usein teeman nimi toistuu lähes sanatarkasti sellaisenaan useiden haastateltavien omaäänisissä ilmaisuissa, ja sen alle sijoittuvat ominaisuudet toistuvat myös, sekä sisällöltään että sanavalinnoiltaan. Vaikeammat tapaukset vaativat rajanvetoa, jossa perusteena on usein jonkin yhdistelmärakenteen suuri painokkuus, voimakas tunnesisältö ja hallitseva asema muutamien haastateltavien koko puheenvuorojen yhteisenä nimittäjänä. Alueiden väliset vastausten erot, ja monien vastaajien asenteiden erot, osoittautuvat suuriksi. Pihlajamäen erot muihin alueisiin viittaavat segregaatioon, mutta eivät negatiivisen muutoksen merkityksessä, vaan ylipäätään olemassa olevina hyvinvointieroina. Etelä-Haagan ja Konepajan keskinäiset erot viittaavat horisontaalisesti eroaviin makumieltymyksiin.
  • Tikka, Moona (2022)
    Maisterintutkielmani on etnografinen tutkimus itäisessä Helsingissä sijaitsevassa Meri-Rastilassa, johon on uudessa asemakaavamuutoksessa suunniteltu purkavaa uusrakentamista. Purkaminen koskee pääasiassa 1990-luvulla rakennettuja asuintaloja, joiden tilalle suunnitellaan tiiviimpää asuinrakentamista. Tutkimusalueeni on kaksi purku-uhan alla olevaa taloyhtiötä, joista toinen on Helsingin kaupungin vuokrataloyhtiö ja toinen yksityisomisteinen taloyhtiö. Tarkastelen tutkimuksessani sitä, millaista on elää tällaisten kaupunkiuudistusten keskellä. Tutkin asukkaiden paikkakiintymystä ja sitä, onko tämä paikkakiintymys muuttunut purkusuunnitelmien myötä. Lisäksi tutkin, mikä on asukkaiden kokemus osallisuudesta purkamista koskevassa päätöksenteossa sekä toteutuuko prosessi sosiaalisesti kestävällä tavalla. Käytin tutkimusmenetelminä puolistrukturoituja haastatteluita asukkaiden kanssa sekä kuvaelisitaatiota, jossa pyysin asukkaita ottamaan kuvia arjestaan. Lisäksi olen tehnyt omia havaintojani alueelta. Tutkimusaineistonani toimivat tekemäni asukashaastattelut kahdeksan asukkaan kanssa sekä heidän ottamansa valokuvat. Analysoin aineistoni käyttämällä sisältöanalyysin menetelmää ja teemoittelemalla litteroitua aineistoa ja kuvia. Käsittelen aineistoani osallisuuden, sosiaalisen kestävyyden ja paikkakiintymyksen käsitteiden kautta. Osallisuudella tarkoitan erityisesti asukkaiden osallisuutta heitä koskevassa kaavoitustyössä ja päätöksenteossa. Sosiaalista kestävyyttä kaupunkisuunnittelussa voidaan tarkastella sekä suunnittelun kohteen, eli rakennetun ympäristön laadun kautta että suunnitteluprosessin kautta, eli sen, kuinka hyvin asukkaat ovat mukana päätöksenteossa. Omassa työssäni keskityn erityisesti suunnitteluprosessiin. Paikkakiintymyksen kautta kuvaan niitä siteitä, joita asukkaat ovat muodostaneet niin fyysiseen kuin sosiaaliseen asuinympäristöönsä. Tutkimukseni paljastaa pitkän kaavoitusprosessin negatiiviset vaikutukset asukkaisiin. Asukkaat elivät epätietoisuudessa siitä, tulisiko purkaminen todella tapahtumaan ja jos, niin koska ja minkälaisia vaikutuksia sillä olisi heidän elämäänsä. Lähes kaikki asukkaista vastustivat purkamista, useimmiten vedoten alueen pienimittakaavaisen ja luonnonläheisen identiteetin menettämiseen. Pitkä prosessi on jo nyt vaikuttanut negatiivisesti joidenkin asukkaiden paikkakiintymykseen ja erityisesti paikan sosiaaliseen ulottuvuuteen. Asukkaat eivät ole olleet osallisina omia kotejaan koskevassa päätöksenteossa ja sosiaalisen kestävyyden kannalta asukkaiden osallistamisessa olisi vielä kaupunkisuunnittelussa parannettavaa. Paikkakiintymyksen kannalta tärkeään asemaan nousi tutkimuksessani mikromiljöiden merkitys tiedonvaihdon ja merkitysten luonnin paikkoina. Esitän tutkimuksessani ratkaisuksi sosiaalisesti kestävään kaupunkisuunnitteluun kulttuurisuunnittelun menetelmiä. Kulttuurisuunnittelussa alueen paikalliset yhteisöt ja kulttuurit nähdään resursseina, ja paikallisyhteisöt otetaan mukaan suunnittelutyöhön yhteiskehittäjinä. Kääntämällä katse rakennuksista ihmisiin, myös kaavatyön sosiaaliset vaikutukset on helpompi tunnistaa ja huomioida.
  • Jure, Pucnik (2023)
    The outsourced emissions, particularly from transport and construction, pose a challenge for cities like Helsinki in achieving carbon neutrality. Helsinki, epitomizing this struggle, unveiled the 'Carbon-neutral Helsinki 2035 Action Plan' in 2018, aiming to achieve carbon neutrality by 2030. However, this plan, primarily employing a production-based emissions accounting method, neglects the crucial aspect of outsourced emissions. This thesis undertakes a focused examination of the outsourced emissions in Helsinki's transport sector, utilizing a consumption-based emissions accounting method, with a particular focus on emissions originating from car traffic. To ensure a comprehensive evaluation of emissions, this study employs a fleet-based life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, providing a holistic perspective encompassing the entire life cycle of vehicles. This approach diverges from conventional product-centric LCAs, incorporating the dynamic interplay between production, usage, and disposal. The study's outcomes are contrasting against the City of Helsinki's Business-As-Usual scenario, emphasizing electrification and technological advancements to reduce emission intensity. Key research questions include uncovering disparities between consumption-based and production-based methodologies, assessing the feasibility of Helsinki's emission reduction goals, and exploring differences between fleet-based and traditional LCA approaches. The thesis is organized into eight chapters, delineating the analytical framework, City of Helsinki's emission mitigation efforts, methodology, data, results, and concluding insights. The consumption-based methodology illuminates substantial disparities in emissions compared to the production-based approach, posing formidable challenges for Helsinki's emission reduction aspirations. The study emphasizes the imperative of actively curtailing the number of vehicles and promoting alternative modes of transportation to achieve meaningful reductions. The fleet-based LCA methodology not only provides a nuanced understanding of emissions but also highlights the necessity of considering evolving technologies and lifecycles. To make significant strides in emissions reduction, Helsinki must adopt a comprehensive and transparent approach, surpassing mere reporting standards and actively contributing to global climate efforts. The study underscores the urgency for cities to transcend greenwashing tactics, aligning policies with public sentiment, and committing to tangible actions for a sustainable future.
  • Haavisto, Noora (2019)
    Cities are facing pressure to overcome critical challenges that force us to rethink our unsustainable mobility patterns. Therefore, the transportation sector is going through major changes. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is one of the innovations trying to change how we travel, a concept that originates from Finland. MaaS is a concept that brings all the transport providers and modes into one platform. A distinctive feature of MaaS is the possibility to buy tickets for the entire journey, removing the need to go through multiple websites and ticket schemes. However, MaaS is still an emerging concept and therefore it lacks official definition. Finland has been in the forefront of this transportation reform with new legislation that supports the creation of MaaS. The public sector has traditionally had a central role in the provision of transport services where regulation and subsidies are needed. However, the new legislation strongly advocates market-based services, and thus the public sector needs to reconsider their position. Therefore, it is important to understand how the Finnish public sector and the parties actually executing the law sees MaaS, its impacts and their role in MaaS. The thesis is qualitative in nature and 20 public sector representatives were interviewed from 17 different organizations. The organizations consist of governmental organizations, interest groups, regional organizations and cities that vary in size. The interview analysis has been guided by concept of emerging technology. Emerging technology is characterized of being technology that can change multiply sectors at the same time but simultaneously has not yet demonstrated its value. The results showed that there is big variety how public sector representatives define MaaS. Additionally, the respondents felt there is a lot of challenges related to MaaS, such as working business model, lack of services, technical challenges, area of demand among others. Positive side was if MaaS would make transport more efficient and provide savings for the public sector. User wise it was clear that MaaS needs to be effortless for the user in order to compete with private cars. Overall the respondents saw more opportunities for MaaS than possible negative effects, but the lack of widespread MaaS scheme makes it hard to evaluate any effects. However, MaaS raised also suspicions among some respondents. As for the legislation, it did not gather any positive feedback outside of government officials, especially the openness of the drafting process received criticism. The results also showed that there is contradicting view on the roles among the different groups of representatives. In conclusion it should be taken into consideration how future policies are formed as now the experienced exclusion of drafting the legislation might have hindered the cooperation and created suspicion towards the whole concept. Additionally, it is clear there is insecurities inside the public sector caused by uncertainties related to MaaS. Implementation has been slow since public sector feels the government has told them to do something, they do not have ability to do. Nevertheless, generally the public sector is still welcoming MaaS. Especially cities hoped that MaaS would enable them to cut their service in low dense areas. However, there is still no will to financially support MaaS, it seen that it is a job for private sector to take the risks.
  • Kuivalainen, Hanna (2023)
    This thesis examines the themes of citizen participation and community co-production in the context of urban conservation. If we want to have more effective participatory processes, it is needed to identify how laymen can best supplement professional knowledge. The main research question “what can citizens offer to the process and decision-making related to urban conservation?” is approached through the qualitative research of two Finnish case studies: the Old Town of Porvoo and Helsinki’s Puu-Käpylä. For this purpose, a content analysis of selected newspaper articles was conducted. The results tell us that engaging with the media through writing opinion pieces is very popular, and the media plays overall a very important role in covering the whole conservation process. Strong and transparent democratic institutions remain vital for the fair participation of citizens, as the lobbying of decision-makers and filing official complaints are important ways for citizens to affect the process. Sometimes the conditions are favorable for an Urban Social Movement to form, which can have a strong impact. Overall, to ensure a fair and representative process, a variety of different ways and forums for citizens to participate needs to be offered. It was also noted that citizens can bring knowledge and perspectives to the conservation process that might not necessarily come to light in a purely professional assessment. It seems that contrary to popular belief, aesthetic values are important factors for laymen when evaluating their living environment, as are also historical and cultural significance. Citizens also hold valuable information on the user experience of a neighbourhood (related to e.g., the community feeling or “special character”) that cannot be assessed by an outsider alone. It was also found out that it is usually the same groups of people that take part in the public discussion around a conservation process: the local intellectual elite, civil organizations, and homeowners (as opposed to tenants or other users of the neighborhood). The voices of certain groups are usually left out, which poses a challenge to the representativeness of the discussion and thus to the democratic legitimacy of the whole decision-making process.
  • Chkhartishvili, Nino (2024)
    Urban population growth imposes a challenging task on urban transportation systems. Traditional car-centric development has already left its mark on cities with increased travel time, congestion, air pollution and road accidents. However, modern developments in electrification and the automation of public transport can play an important role in shifting to sustainable travel modes. Introducing automated shuttle buses could revolutionise current transportation systems in this context. These buses could act as feeders and connectors to high-speed public transport, allowing energy-efficient operation. Nevertheless, the automated shuttle bus is a novel solution, and there are still gaps in our understanding of its integration with public transport services. This thesis aims to fill the identified gaps by assessing the effects of a connected and automated shuttle bus travelling on a lane shared with a tram and investigating traffic management interventions. The study area is in Hervanta, Tampere. The primary method was conducting traffic simulations with the microsimulation tool PTV Vissim. Multimodal traffic data was analysed and incorporated into the simulation to investigate the impacts of an automated shuttle in a real urban setting. Additionally, the effects of two traffic management interventions, tram warning and Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory (GLOSA), used by the shuttle bus were assessed. Scenario-based analysis showed that a slow-moving automated shuttle bus in a shared lane with a tram increases the tram’s travel time. A tram warning application in the shuttle bus ensures unimpeded flow of the tram and reduces its travel time. However, it increases the travel time of the shuttle, which has to wait at a bus stop while the tram operates in the shared lane. By contrast, the GLOSA system does not significantly alter traffic performance if only the shuttle receives a speed suggestion at the intersection. In summary, automated shuttle buses could improve urban transportation challenges through last-mile mobility solutions, while advanced traffic warning services would make them complementary to the public transport system. Nevertheless, as shuttles are in the early stage of integration into public transport, further research is needed to ensure a successful transition to connected, intermodal and shared transport.
  • Leppänen, Ville (2023)
    Tavoitteet. Työn tavoitteena oli selvittää, mitä Vantaan Kivistön julkisilta kaupunkitiloilta haluttiin ja miten näitä tavoitteita ilmaistiin vision laadinnan aikana. Tähän sisältyi perehtyminen siihen, mitä suunnittelijat olivat ajatelleet kaupunkitiloissa tapahtuvasta ihmisten välisestä vuorovaikutuksesta ja miten näitä ajatuksia tuotiin mukaan fyysiseen suunnitteluun. (visio) Tavoitteena oli myös selvittää, mihin nämä ajatukset pohjautuvat ja miten niitä on nostettu esiin visiotasolla sekä kuinka visiotason ajatuksia konkretisoitiin tarkemmassa suunnittelussa ja lopulta toteuttamisessa. Olivatko suunnittelun tavoitteet selkeitä vai oliko löydettävissä keskinäisiä ristiriitoja? (jalkauttaminen) Lopuksi tavoitteena oli tutkia, miltä Kivistössä jo toteutuneet kaupunkitilat loppukäyttäjän eli kadulla oleskelevan tai liikkuvan ihmisen näkökulmasta konkreettisesti vaikuttavat, tuntuvat ja näyttävät, ja täyttävätkö julkiset tilat niille visiossa asetetut ja jalkautuksen aikana muokkautuneet tavoitteet. (todellisuus) Menetelmät. Kyseessä oli tapaustutkimus. Kivistö valikoitui tutkimuksen kohteeksi alueen poikkeuksellisuuden takia: alue on rautatieasemien ympärille rakentuva uusi muusta kaupunkirakenteesta varsin erillinen kaupunkisaareke, joka rakentuu nykyiselle metsä- ja peltoalueelle. Siksi kaupunkirakenne on täytynyt luoda lähes tyhjästä, ja suunnitteluvalinnoilla ja taustalla vaikuttavilla suunnittelijoiden ajatuksilla on suuri merkitys: kaikki rakennettu alueella on lähtöisin pienen suunnittelijajoukon työpöydiltä. Tämän takia oli mahdollista luoda kokonaiskuva alueen suunnitteluun vaikuttaneista ajatuksista ja kasata niitä yksiin kansiin. Työ aloitettiin dokumenttianalyysillä, jossa tutustuttiin saatavilla oleviin suunnittelumateriaaleihin noin viimeisen 20 vuoden ajalta. Tämän jälkeen haastateltiin kaksitoista asiantuntijaa Vantaan kaupungilta. Haastattelut olivat puolistrukturoituja. Seuraavaksi selvitettiin, miten visioita on jalkautettu todellisuuteen havainnoimalla tiloja ja niiden reunuksia, rakennuksia ja kivijalkakerroksia, paikan päällä. Tässä yhteydessä pohdittiin, miten aiemmat tavoitteet kaupunkitilasta olivat toteutuneet. Lopuksi pohdittiin vision ja toteutuksen tavoitteet suhteutuvat nykypäivän suunnittelutietoon siitä, miten julkisesta kaupunkitilasta voi tehdä fyysisin keinoin sosiaalista elämää tukevaa. Tämä johtuu siitä, että asiantuntijahaastatteluissa kävi selväksi, että ajatustasolla oleskeltava, nautittava, miellyttävä kaupunki oli usein tavoitteena. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Kaupunkisuunnittelun visioita on haasteellista määritellä, koska niissä pyritään kiteyttämään monimutkaisia ja toisinaan ristiriitaisiakin tavoitteita. Toisaalta visioiden laatiminen on välttämätöntä, jotta ainakin teoriassa tavoite alueen kehittämiselle voidaan sanoittaa ja siitä voidaan sopia. Ilman visiointia voi suunnittelu herkästi tapahtua aina kuten ennenkin (business as usual) ja uusien ajatusmallien ja suunnitteluratkaisujen löytäminen käy hankalaksi. Kivistön vuoden 2010 visio sisälsi voimakkaan näkemyksen kaupungin rakentamisesta, mutta tätä kaupunkia tai muutakaan termistöä ei osattu määritellä tarkemmin. Lisäksi tavoitteita lisättiin prosessin aikana ja tällöin niiden välillä oli huomattaviakin ristiriitoja ja vision kokonaisuus jäi epäselväksi. Kaupunkitilojen sosiaalisen elämän ajateltiin syntyvän itsestään, ilman, että fyysisellä kaupunkirakenteella olisi siihen merkittävää vaikutusta. Kun visiossa oli epäselvyyttä, oli suunnittelussa mahdollista perustella monenlaisia ratkaisuja visioon viitaten. Yhdelle kävelijän suosiminen oli esimerkiksi suoria ja tasaisia, toiselle mielenkiintoisia ja aktiivisia katutiloja. Pääsääntöisesti nähtävissä oli kaksi eri blokkia, joiden käsitys hyvästä kaupunkielämästä tai julkisen tilan roolista olivat ristiriidassa. Toteutussuunnittelussa ja toteutuksessa haasteeksi koituvat usein prosessiin liittyvät konfliktit. Viestikapulan antaminen seuraavalle on haastavaa: hiljainen tieto tai edellisen suunnittelijan ajatukset eivät kokonaisuudessaan välity seuraavalle, ja usein päätöksiä lopulta tekee yksittäinen ihminen, jolla on aina omat näkemyksensä. Syynä ongelmiin voivat olla kaupunkisuunnittelun monimutkaisuus tai erilaiset käsitykset siitä, mikä on julkisen tilan rooli: onko kadun tarkoitus välittää mahdollisimman paljon liikennettä, vai luoda siitä mielenkiintoinen kävelijälle. Jälkimmäinen, kaupunkielämään positiivisesti suhtautuva näkemys on saanut viimeisen vuosikymmenen aikana enemmän jalansijaa Vantaankin suunnittelussa.
  • Piela, Emma (2022)
    Organized sports for children provide important health benefits continuing also later in life and are highly segregated based on gender. Having opportunities of organized physical activities within reasonable travel times has been shown to have an effect in participation of sports. In this thesis few of the most popular sports for each gender; dance, horse riding, floorball and football were chosen and the service level of the facilities providing organized sport activities in the age group of 7- to 12-year-olds were analysed in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Special interest lied in how equally these services can be reached with different travel modes in reasonable travel times also in relation to spatial socioeconomic differences. As the research on the topic has been inconsistent and sparse, this thesis contributes to the research field with comprehensive outlook on equality considerations and a seldomly used perspective of children’s sports facility accessibility focused on provided services. The methods used included identifying locations used by children in the chosen sports, analysing travel times to these locations with the Helsinki Region Travel Time Matrix and comparing the resulting spatial accessibility conditions to a sum index of disadvantage calculated from a population grid database. This comparison was done through a Student’s t-test and testing of local bivariate relationships. Generally, the results indicated quite similar spatial patterns and good spatial accessibility conditions in floorball, football and dance when it comes to travel times to closest facilities. The horse riding facilities were located in more remote areas and were significantly fewer which resulted in longer travel times. Overall, most children reached their closest floorball, football or dance facilities within 15 minutes of biking, public transport or car travel times. Biking travel times were found to be shorter than public transportation travel times while private car provided the shortest travel times. The t-test revealed many statistically significant relationships indicating difference in travel times in the most and least disadvantaged quintile areas of the sum index of disadvantage. In these results, travel times especially in football were found to be shorter in more disadvantaged areas. This was the direction of the findings also in floorball and dance. Horse riding travel times were longer in most disadvantaged areas. The bivariate relationship tools revealed variation in the local relationships between the travel times and the sum index. In conclusion, due to travel times being of reasonable length considerable inequalities in the spatial accessibility conditions were not found, although horse riding facilities indicated some inequalities.
  • Henderson, Gillian (2024)
    Mass urbanization has led to rising global energy usage, greenhouse gas emissions, and building energy inefficiency. Helsinki has set a target of achieving carbon neutrality by 2030, making it essential to modernize the old building infrastructure. This thesis focuses on the challenges of implementing energy-efficiency renovations (EERs) in housing associations in Helsinki, emphasizing the critical role of government intervention and stakeholder involvement. The study employs a comprehensive mixed-methods approach, utilizing an Integrated Meta-Theoretical Framework to analyze the techno-economic, socio-technical, and political aspects affecting EERs. The research uses qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, including surveys and expert interviews, to gather diverse perspectives on the challenges and solutions of EERs. This systematic approach aims to provide a balanced understanding of the interconnected factors influencing EERs, enabling effective interventions to support Helsinki’s climate objectives. The study identifies significant obstacles such as high initial costs, uncertain Return on Investment (ROI), technical limitations, resident resistance, lack of awareness, and inadequate government incentives. Statistical techniques and data analysis were used to quantify the impact of these barriers, and thematic analysis was used to interpret qualitative responses, providing a detailed view of the underlying issues. Recommendations include enhancing governmental support with robust financial incentives, implementing regulatory reforms to simplify renovation processes, and targeting educational programs to change homeowner perceptions toward the long-term benefits of EERs. These findings and recommendations can potentially advance urban sustainability and environmental policy, providing actionable strategies to accelerate the adoption of EERs in Helsinki and similar urban settings, thereby advancing broader sustainability and climate goals.
  • Krause, Tina (2023)
    The use of fossil fuels is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, making the transition to zero-carbon energy systems and the improvements in energy efficiency important in climate change mitigation. The energy transition also puts the citizen in a more influential position and changes the traditional dynamics between energy producers and consumers when citizens produce their own energy. Furthermore, due to the opportunity and capacity of the demand side, the energy transition places a greater emphasis on energy planning at the local level, which requires new solutions and changes in the management of the energy system. One rising phenomenon is the potential of bottom-up developments like energy communities. Within the building sector, housing cooperatives have started to emerge as energy communities, offering a way to address the energy transition through bottom-up-driven energy actions that provide renewable energy and other benefits to the local community. This master thesis examines housing cooperatives' energy communities and their role in the energy transition. The research addresses the shared renovation project in Hepokulta, Turku, seen from the energy community perspective. Furthermore, the research highlights the importance of niche development in sustainable transition, acknowledging energy communities as socio-technical niches where development is partly embedded in renewable energy technology and partly in new practices. The concept of energy community is therefore analysed through the lens of Strategic Niche Management, which focuses on expectations, networks, and learning. This research aims to analyse how residents in Hepokulta perceive the energy community project through the niche processes and how the development of energy communities might affect urban development. Analysing the residents' perceptions provide insight into the energy community characteristics and the relationship between residents and the project development processes. Additionally, the analysis identifies matters that could be changed to improve the development. The thesis is a mixed methods research combining quantitative and qualitative data, which was collected through a survey sent to the eight housing cooperatives in Hepokulta. The research showed that residents perceive the shared project in Hepokulta as essential for the area's development. Moreover, many residents overlooked the social aspects of the development, highlighting the absence of the energy community perspective in the renovation. The findings suggest some weaknesses within the three niche processes, including the early involvement of residents and communication. Furthermore, although the residents perceived themselves as important actors and the literature emphasised the importance of the demand side in future energy systems, the research revealed that the connection between project development and the residents is still lacking. However, the analysis indicates that introducing additional actors could help the energy community develop. External assistance could, for instance, benefit the housing cooperatives by facilitating improvements in the decision-making processes, the network between actors, and the sharing of information and skills.
  • Tamminen, Juuda (2021)
    This master’s thesis is an ethnographic study about everyday urban encounters and social interaction. It explores how residents in the suburban housing estate of Kontula in East Helsinki negotiate social and cultural difference in their everyday lives. The study focuses on the semi-public spaces of the local shopping centre and examines residents’ capacity to live with difference. The study contributes to a multi-vocal and historically informed understanding of the processes that shape the social landscapes of a socially mixed and multi-ethnic neighbourhood. The study is based on fieldwork carried out in two phases between August 2019 and February 2020. The study applies anthropological methods of participant observation and qualitative interviews. The eleven research participants are adults between the ages of 30 and 71 who live in the neighbourhood and have extensive personal experience of the shopping centre. Although the interviews were a crucial aspect of the meaning-making process, the study relies primarily on participant observation in constructing an interpretation and analysis of social interaction at an intimate scale. In order to contextualise everyday encounters at the shopping centre, this thesis assesses how Kontula, as a stigmatised territory in the urban margins, encapsulates a complex interplay between moral claims of a “good” and “bad” neighbourhood. While some residents confirm negative stereotypes about the shopping centre and bring attention to local social problems and issues of unsafety, others downplay these problems and instead emphasise how tolerant and sociable the shopping centre is. Observations of stigmatised territories reveal how the participation of marginalised individuals and ethnic minorities at the shopping centre challenges the processes and discourses that constitute them as objects of fear and nuisance. The concepts of conviviality and cosmopolitan canopies are used to analyse local social interactions. The analysis suggests that the capacity to live with difference is enabled by ordinary meeting places, such as pubs and cafés, where residents come into regular social contact and engage with diverse individuals and groups. While the maintenance of ethnic boundaries remains salient in the way residents negotiate the social landscapes, these ordinary spaces of encounter situationally reconfigure categories of “us” and “them” and thus expand local meanings of who belongs. The analysis concludes that the contested meanings of belonging and the everyday negotiation of difference are attributes of an open multi-ethnic society coming to terms with difference and change. The analysis suggests that an equal right to participate and interact in shared urban spaces, rather than community consensus, is the hallmark of a society’s capacity to live with difference.
  • Jones, Rachel (2020)
    Violence against women causes serious health and psychological impacts and is pervasive in society. This is partly due to gender and social norms. These have been addressed through educational campaigns, aiming to overcome pluralistic ignorance - when people wrongly believe that they feel differently from their peers, even though they are behaving in the same way. Pluralistic ignorance can prevent people intervening or reporting gender-based violence. This project proposes that public space can also play a role in overcoming pluralistic ignorance, through the medium of street political messages, such as stickers and graffiti. To show that this is possible, fieldwork exploring the existing feminist street messaging in Kallio and interviews based on this data were conducted. The interviews asked what role street media can play in spreading feminist messages, what the advantages and disadvantages of street media are and whether the existing street messaging in the Kallio district can help with overcoming pluralistic ignorance around gender-based violence issues. Four key aspects of theory are used in the thesis. Firstly, an exploration of gender-based violence literature found that domestic violence is a difficult topic to get people to engage with and that using outreach tools can spark important conversations. Secondly, a sociological study of pluralistic ignorance found that educational campaigns are the main route taken to address gender-based violence issues and that there is a gap in studies of pluralistic ignorance when considering the role of everyday public life in addressing these issues. Thirdly, public space is explored, determining that it can play a key role in feminist activism because it provides an open forum and an anonymity which prevents the activist from being verbally abused or silenced. Finally, street media were explored. This found that the eye-catching and unexpected nature of the media can catch people’s attention. In the fieldwork, seventy feminist street messages were found in Kallio, with a variety of agendas. The majority were in sticker form and located on posts on the streets of Kallio. Interviews conducted with activists and a community group determined the importance of stickers in spreading feminist messages. Street messaging had advantages of being easy to spread, having high outreach, anonymity and as conversation starters. Identified disadvantages included illegality, the potential to provoke people or trigger trauma, limited space for text and that messages can often be too niche for a general audience. The study concludes that street messaging can help overcome pluralistic ignorance by acting as a conversation starter and as a confidence boost to people. However, the results indicate that street media alone will not be enough to address pluralistic ignorance and that wider conversation is needed to have a real impact.
  • Kukkonen, Erkko Arimo (2022)
    Maisteritutkielma käsittelee Helsingin kaupungin maa- ja sosiaalipoliittista ohjausta, sosiaalipoliittisia tavoitteita ja ohjatun gentrifikaation piirteitä asuinalueen uudistuksessa. Tutkielman tutkimuskohde on Itä-Helsingissä sijaitseva Meri-Rastila, johon Helsinki on suunnitellut aluetta merkittävästi muuttavan alueuudistuksen. Alueuudistus suunnitellaan toteutettavan ensisijaisesti purkavan täydentämisrakentamisen avulla, mutta myös laajentamalla asuinalueita nykyisille viheralueille. Meri-Rastilan alueuudistuksen tutkiminen voi antaa arvokasta tietoa siitä, miten Helsinki pyrkii kehittämään lähiöitään yleisesti. Helsinki pyrkii alueuudistuksella edistämään alueen sosioekonomista kehitystä, ehkäisemään segregaatiota ja parantamaan alueen vetovoimaisuutta. Helsinki näkee Meri-Rastilan sosioekonomisesti huono-osaisen väestön ja säännellyn vuokratalovaltaisuuden alueen sosiaalisia oloja ja imagoa heikentävinä tekijöinä. Helsinki pitää alueen asuntokannan ja väestörakenteen monipuolistamista keskeisenä keinona, joilla voidaan puuttua alueen ongelmiin ja kehittää sen vetovoimaisuutta. Asuntokannan ja väestörakenteen monipuolistamisella tavoitellaan markkinaehtoisen asuntokannan ja keskiluokkaisen väestön määrän lisäämistä alueella. Tutkielman ensimmäinen tutkimuskysymys tutkii, miten Helsinki pyrkii ohjaamaan Meri-Rastilan sosiaalista kehitystä maa- ja asuntopolitiikallaan. Urbaania maankorkoteoriaa hyödyntäen tutkielma tarkastelee kriittisesti missä määrin Helsinki hyödyntää maaomistuksiaan ja mahdollisuuksiaan vahvaan asuntopoliittiseen ohjaukseen ratkoakseen Meri-Rastilan sosiaalisia ongelmia ja missä määrin Helsinki on omaksunut uusliberaalit periaatteet ja metodit aluekehityksessä. Tutkielman toinen tutkimuskysymys tutkii, onko Helsingin Meri-Rastilaan kohdistamassa maa- ja asuntopoliittisessa ohjauksessa ohjatun gentrifikaation piirteitä. Ohjattu gentrifikaatio tarkoittaa julkisen toimijan, kuten valtion tai kunnan, ohjaamaa gentrifikaatiokehitystä. Länsimaisessa kontekstissa ohjattua gentrifikaatioteoriaa hyödynnetään usein tarkastelemalla kriittisesti uusliberalismin vaikutuksia julkisten toimijoiden tapoihin perustella gentrifikaatioon johtavia asuntopoliittisia muutoksia segregaation torjumisella tai sosiaalisten olosuhteiden parantamisella. Suomessa ohjatun gentrifikaation teoriaa ei ole sovellettu merkittävästi kaupunkitutkimuksessa, minkä vuoksi teorian testaaminen suomalaisessa kontekstissa on kiinnostavaa. Tutkielma on tutkimustyypiltään kvalitatiivinen tapaustutkimus. Tutkimuskysymyksiä on tutkittu analysoimalla Helsingin maa- ja asuntopolitiikkaa käsitteleviä julkaisuja sekä erityisesti Meri-Rastilan kaavasuunnitelmia. Aineistoa on analysoitu teorialähtöisen sisällönanalyysin avulla tutkien, minkälaisia tavoitteita, perusteita, uskomuksia ja käsityksiä Helsingin maa- ja asuntopoliittisen ohjauksen taustalla vaikuttaa. Analyysin avulla Helsingin toimintaa ohjaavista periaatteista ja tavoitteista ilmenee sekä julkilausuttuja että enemmän tulkinnanvaraisia piirteitä, jotka tarjoavat vastauksia tutkimuskysymyksiin. Tutkielman tulosten perusteella Helsinki on omaksunut merkittävissä määrin yrittäjämäisen julkisen kiinteistöpolitiikan piirteitä, mikä ilmenee sen tavassa siirtää alueen rakentamisvastuu markkinatoimijoille, tavassa pyrkiä maksimoimaan maan markkina-arvo ja tavassa pyrkiä ratkaisemaan alueen sosiaalisia ongelmia epäsuorilla markkinoille ulkoistetuilla keinoilla. Alueen sosioekonomisesti huono-osaisen väestön olosuhteiden kehittämiseen keskittymisen sijaan Helsinki pyrkii kehittämään aluetta tavalla, joka luo alueelle keskiluokalle paremmat puitteet. Meri-Rastilan alueuudistuksessa on havaittavissa ohjatun gentrifikaation piirteitä ja asuinalueen kehittämisen myönteinen vaikutus alueen huono-osaisen väestön osalta jää epäselväksi.
  • Toivettula, Karolina (2021)
    Around the world, cities are using branding as a discursive and strategic practice to adjust to intensified, ongoing competition of tourists, investments, events and skilled labour. Simultaneously, in the era of the societal turning point, sustainability issues have become a global topic, and cities have begun to brand themselves as ‘pioneer’ in sustainability. Gradually, place branding’s potential as a strategic instrument of urban development and change has been understood, and therefore, it is increasingly applied in urban governance. This thesis focuses on this change in place branding and explores the relationship between place branding and sustainable development in the context of Helsinki’s branding. More specifically, I study how place branding can be harnessed as a transformative and strategic tool to further sustainable urban development. The theoretical foundation is built on place branding literature that takes into consideration the diverse and transformative role of place branding. I reinforce the place branding theory with the concept of imaginary, which are visions of the future utilised to steer decision-making and further policies. The imaginaries can act as technologies of governance, through which cities delegate responsibility for the citizens to guide them towards a specific aim, for instance, ‘Sustainable Helsinki’. My research data consists of strategies and a website produced by the City of Helsinki. The material addresses sustainable development and the City’s branding cuts through all content. I analyse the content through frame analysis to find how Helsinki frames itself in terms of sustainable development and if any imaginaries attempt to steer the citizens to take responsibility for their sustainability actions. My research findings confirm the increasingly common perception in place brand research according to which place branding can be used as a comprehensive strategic tool in urban development. In Helsinki, place branding has moved over from mere city marketing towards a governance strategy whose objective is to both manage perceptions about places and shape the place according to the city strategies or policies. Also, what stood out was the emphasis on economic sustainability, which was visible even in sections that addressed the other two dimensions – environmental or social. This finding highlights how Helsinki’s branding is heavily influenced by the common narratives of economic success and international competition. Central findings in my research were that Helsinki uses competitive and cooperative ways of portraying itself in sustainable development and succeeding in global competition. In both of these frames, Helsinki uses imaginaries of ‘Sustainable Helsinki’, but in different ways. In the competitive tone of voice, the delegation of responsibility is more implying and indirect since the focus is on the objective, not the process. In cooperative framing, the imaginaries are more straightforwardly asserting responsibility to people and businesses. My research shows that there are several ways to guide people through place branding, but in Helsinki’s case, the city is appealing to the freedom and independence of its locals.
  • Hiippala, Asta Johanna (2024)
    Public consultation has become a legally mandated part of planning practices in many countries, including Finland. At the same time as planners have to adapt their practices to include the public, cities have become more diverse than ever before. How to incorporate urban residents’ different perspectives and social realities in the planning process in a way that leads to socially just outcomes is one of the key questions in twenty-first century urban planning. This thesis examines this topic through a case study of a participatory planning project in Jyväskylä, Finland. One of the City’s aims with the project was to increase the participation rates of residents from immigrant backgrounds. The actions of the municipality are analysed by applying Othengrafen and Reimer’s cultural planning model, in which planning practices are examined as artifacts reflective of their wider cultural context. The thesis finds that the case reflects cultural narratives of immigrant integration as a unidirectional process rather than as an exchange between cultures. The focus is on teaching the immigrant how to become a participant in the Finnish society through the adoption of new practices and behaviours. This can also be regarded as part of gaining cultural citizenship, referring to the performative way in which borders between the national community and others are constructed in twenty-first century Europe.