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Browsing by Subject "16S rDNA"

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  • Puhakka, Heikki (2019)
    The aim of this thesis was to study and develop the process hygiene of the new R1 bottling line at Altia Rajamäki alcoholic beverage plant. The products bottled on the line are mainly low- and non-alcoholic beverages that have limited amount of previously studied knowledge about the efficiency of hygienic practices of their production. In addition, the microbiological quality of the products’ raw materials was studied, and an attempt was made to identify the microbes occurring in the products and on the production line. The literature review deals with the legislation of food industry and the microbiological risks related to various types of beverages and their processing. In the experimental part of the thesis the microbiological hygiene of the bottling process was studied by collecting samples from the surfaces of the bottling line using mainly the microbiological swabbing method. The microbiological analyses of the bottled products were conducted by filtering the sample to a filter paper. Various culture mediums and antibiotics were also tested to identify the bacteria from yeasts and molds. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to identify the bacteria frequently occurring in the analyses. DNA isolation and PCR were conducted at the University of Helsinki and the gene sequencing was carried out by the Institute of Biotechnology. Sequence alignment was made using BLAST. The public version of the thesis lacks the confidential information which is provided only for Altia Oyj. Based on the results, the process hygiene of the R1 bottling line is sufficient in case the hygienic practices are followed. No significant microbiological growth was observed in the process hygiene samples. However, endospore producing bacteria were found in the products and these bacteria were presumed to originate from the raw materials of the products or from storage tanks and pipelines of these raw materials. Four bacterial genera, which frequently occurred in the products, were successfully identified. Nevertheless, based on the literature, it was noticed that these bacteria are not able to spoil alcoholic beverages nor to grow in the conditions of bottled products. However, some of these bacteria can substantially form biofilm.