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Browsing by Subject "Faba bean"

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  • Tuccillo, Fabio (2021)
    As the number of vegetarians and flexitarians is increasing, the demand for meat alternatives is following the same trend. Faba bean is a promising crop for environmental, health, and social reasons. From its seeds, several products can be produced, such as flour, protein concentrate, and protein isolate. These materials can be further processed for the development of texturized vegetable proteins. In this context, high moisture extrusion (HME) is an innovative technology, which requires more water, but milder temperatures than the more studied low moisture extrusion. The present thesis aimed at covering the current knowledge gap on this technology, by focusing on the flavor aspect of faba bean-based meat alternatives. The volatile profile of faba bean flour, protein concentrate, protein isolate, and mixtures was studied before and after high moisture extrusion by means of HS-SPME-GC-MS. Comparisons were made between raw materials (flour, protein concentrate, protein isolate, mixtures) and extrudates. The effect of the origin (Canadian and Finnish) of the protein concentrate was also investigated. Materials were also characterized for the following aspects: moisture, ash, protein, lipids, lipid-degrading enzymes (lipase and lipoxygenase), free amino acids, and free mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides. Several classes of volatile compounds were observed in both raw materials and extrudates, namely organic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, aromatic compounds, furans, esters, ketones, nitro compounds, and terpenes. Many compounds were characteristic of only one material, demonstrating that the formation of certain volatiles was product dependent. However, some other compounds were found in all materials, such as 1-hexanol, hexanal, and 2-pentylfuran. Literature addresses these compounds as responsible for the beany flavor. HME caused the inactivation of lipase and lipoxygenase but did not prevent the formation of lipid oxidation products. Products from Maillard reaction were not found in the extrudates. After HME, 1-hexanol levels decreased, whereas the abundance of 2-pentylfuran significantly increased. The behavior of hexanal after HME was less stable and predictable than the two beforementioned compounds. Not only these novel findings could have application in product development, but they also laid the basis for further research aimed at improving the flavor of faba bean.
  • Niskakoski, Anni (2022)
    Previous studies have demonstrated that legume proteins have high potential to lose their native functional properties during conventional wet fractionation, since heating and drying in the processes can lead to protein aggregation and solubility reduction. However, the effect of this process on faba bean protein has not been investigated thoroughly before, according to the literature review. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of wet fractionation process with and without spray drying on faba bean protein gelling properties. The hypothesis was that protein isolate produced with isoelectric precipitation without spray drying would have better solubility and gelling properties than spray dried isolate. Faba bean protein concentrate (FBPC) was used to prepare faba bean protein isolate with alkaline extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation, which was then dispersed into water and neutralized (faba bean protein slurry, FBPS). Some of FBPS was spray-dried (pilot faba bean protein isolate, FBPI-P). Commercial faba bean protein isolate (FBPI-C) was used as a reference sample. Their (FBPC, FBPS, FBPI-P, FBPI-C) functionality was studied by measuring thermal denaturation (DSC), protein solubility, particle size and light microscope pictures. In addition, glucono delta lactone (GDL) induced oil-in-water emulsion gels were prepared from FBPS, FBPI-P and FBPI-C. Water holding capacity (WHC), rheological and texture properties were measured from the gel samples. Surprisingly the obtained results of faba bean in this study were different from previous research on other legume proteins. It was found that spray-dried FBPI-P showed better gelling properties than wet based FBPS. This might be due to differences in thermal denaturation. Based on DSC curves, FBPI-C was found to be fully denatured and in a poor solubility. Interestingly, GDL-induced gels had strongest gel properties, which might be highly related to industrial manufacturing process of FBPI-C. When considering the theoretical environmental impact of these processes, FBPS could show potential of being more environmentally friendly process, as it could be more energy efficient than processes which require drying and heating. It was demonstrated that FBPS showed almost as good functional properties as the pilot spray-dried isolate. Hence, FBPS could work as functional and more environmentally friendly option for food industry. Future study could be conducted in near future about FBPS safety, technological applications, process optimization and environmental impact.
  • Laugel, Henri (2022)
    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an annual herbaceous cool-season food legume widely cultivated worldwide, especially for its high seed protein content. However, its major limitation in being used as food and feed, is the presence of antinutritional factors in its seeds, especially vicine and convicine (VC), two related compounds, which may be harmful to livestock and G6PD-deficient humans. To remove VC, the most sustainable method is breeding for low-VC faba bean cultivars. To improve the efficiency and speed of breeding programs, breeders use marker-assisted selection (MAS). The identification of genes responsible for VC content allows the development of reliable DNA markers and a better understanding of the molecular basis of this trait. The major-effect QTL controlling VC content named “VC1”, was identified in faba bean chromosome 1, and a few minor-effect QTLs were detected in previous studies. Hence, a total of 165 RILs from the cross Mélodie/2 (low-VC) x ILB 938/2 (high-VC) were genotyped and evaluated for VC content. Composite interval mapping was run on R/qtl software with accurate phenotypic data associated with a high-density SNP-based genetic map. Results revealed two minor-effect QTLs in addition to VC1. One was on chromosome 4 and had about 15% effect on convicine content. The other was on chromosome 5 and had 15% effect on vicine and total VC content. This research also reports candidate genes for the newly detected minor-effect QTLs through comparative genomics with the Medicago truncatula genome. Hypotheses were proposed on the role of these candidate genes on the VC biosynthetic pathway or transportation into the embryo beans for further testing.
  • Wang, Changyin (2017)
    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a widely-cultivated legume with high nutritional value, especially rich in protein. However, the presence of antinutitional factors (e.g. phytic acid, condensed tannins, vicine and convicine and others) are hindering its utilization. Lactic acid fermentation is widely applied in food production and it is closely related with the promotion of nutritional, technological and health properties of the fermented food. The aim of this master’s thesis was to explore several functional characteristics of 28 lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from Italian and Finnish faba bean sourdoughs. In this study, phytase activity, β-glucosidase activity and the effect on degradation of condensed tannins, which are potentially directed towards reduction of anti-nutritional factors, were investigated. Three peptidase activities and dextran production capacity of the isolates were also evaluated. Besides, six antibiotics were used to study antibiotic susceptibility among the strains. Leuconostoc mesenteroides I01 and Pediococcus pentosaceus I214 expressed the highest phytase activity while P. pentosaceus I02, F01, F213 had the highest β-glucosidase activity. P. pentosaceus F15 was the most effective to decrease condensed tannins. Among analyzed peptidases, PepL showed the highest activity, especially in Pediococcus strains. High dextran production capacity was observed among isolates of Weissella spp. The strains showing functional traits could be used as starter to improve the nutritional and technological properties of faba bean. Further investigation is still ongoing to evaluate other properties of these lactic acid bacteria as functional starter cultures for faba bean and legume fermentation.
  • Adunola, Paul Motunrayo (2021)
    Lipoxygenase enzymes, which contribute significantly to storage protein in legume seeds have been reported to cause the emission of volatile compounds associated with the generation of off-flavours. This is an are important factor limiting the acceptance of faba bean (Vicia faba) I foods. This study aimed at using bioinformatic tools to identify seed-borne lipoxygenase (LOX) genes and to design a biological tool using molecular techniques to find changes in sequence in faba bean lines. LOX gene mining by Exonerate sequence comparison on the whole genome sequence of faba bean was used to identify six LOX genes containing Polycystin-1, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-Toxin (PLAT) and/or LH2 LOX domains. Their sequence properties, evolutionary relationships, important conserved LOX motifs and subcellular location were analysed. The LOX gene proteins identified contained 272 – 853 amino acids (aa). The molecular weight ranged from 23.67 kDa in Gene 6 to 96.45 kDA in Gene 1. All the proteins had isoelectric points in the acidic range except Genes 6 and 7 which were alkaline. Only one gene had both LOX conserved domains with aa sequence length similar with that found in soybean and pea LOX genes and isoelectric properties with soybean LOX3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genes were clustered into 9S LOX and 13S LOX types alongside other seed LOX genes in some legumes. Five motifs were found, and sequence analysis showed that three genes (Gene 1, 2 and 3) contained the 38-aa residue motif that includes five histidine residues [His-(X)4-His-(X)4-His-(X)17-His-(X)8-His]. The subcellular localization of the lipoxygenase proteins was predicted to be primarily the cytoplasm and chloroplast. Primers covering ~1.2 kb were designed, based on the conserved region of Genes 1, 2 and 3 nucleotide sequences. Gel electrophoresis showed the PCR amplification of the seed LOX gene at the expected region for twelve faba bean lines. Phylogenetic analysis showed evolutionary divergence among faba bean lines for sequenced and amplified region of their respective seed LOX alleles.
  • Kianjam, Maryam (2016)
    The literature review deals with faba bean and the important effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation on legumes. Particularly, the information about sourdough and LAB microbiota together with the main factors affecting sourdough microbial community is presented. A brief introduction regarding the methods used for LAB identification is also given. The main aim of the experimental study was to identify LAB microbiota in faba bean sourdoughs of two different varieties during backslopping procedure. Doughs from Italian (I) and Finnish (F) faba bean flours were spontaneously fermented and propagated daily through backslopping on a laboratory scale for 14 days. Samples were taken from selected propagation times (0, 1, 2, 5, 7, and 14) for microbiological and biochemical analyses. The pH values and total titratable acidity (TTA) were monitored throughout the process. Analyses of organic acids and oligosaccharides of selected samples were carried out with HPLC methods at University of Bari, Italy. The identity of the LAB isolates was revealed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and the differentiation of LAB strains was analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. Minor changes occurred between I and F sourdoughs based on microbiological and biochemical analyses. However, several differences were found in LAB diversity between these two sourdoughs. More variety of LAB species and higher strains diversity were found in F faba bean sourdough. Besides Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Weissella koreensis identified in both sourdoughs, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactococcus lactis, and Weissella cibaria were only detected in F sourdough. In both sourdoughs, Pediococcus pentosaceus was predominant and persistent. Also, Leuconostoc mesenteroides was found as second frequent species in both sourdoughs. According to all analyses, the maturity of sourdoughs was achieved during 5 days of propagation. This study demonstrated the importance of flour type and composition on establishing microbial ecology of sourdough. The research study encourages exploring the potential of faba bean flour in sourdough-type fermentation and encourages further investigations on the identified isolates as starter cultures for fermented faba beans and faba bean-cereal products.
  • Achy, Annabel (2022)
    α-Galactosides (raffinose, stachyose, verbascose) are antinutritional factors found in pea and faba bean, that cause digestive issues for some people. Reducing the amount of α-galactosides could increase the consumption legumes. The objectives of the research were to decrease the amount of α-galactosides in pea protein concentrate (PPC) and faba bean protein concentrate (FBPC) and produce a low-FODMAP yoghurt analogue. α-Galactosides were reduced using two α-galactosidase enzymes, α-galactosidase A (two doses) and α-galactosidase B (one dose). A low-FODMAP yoghurt analogue was produced from PPC with α-galactosidase A added, and possible changes in viscosity measured. The change in the amount of α-galactosides was determined with the Megazyme raffinose/sucrose/glucose kit. α-Galactosides were completely eliminated with the bigger dose of α-galactosidase A. Differences were observed in the α-galactosidase treatment samples treated with the different enzymes and doses. FBPC has more verbascose than PPC which takes the longest time to hydrolyse (compared to stachyose and raffinose) due to the exoglycosidase action of the enzyme. It could be the reason to differences in reduction of α-galactosides in FBPC and PPC. The bigger dose of α-galactosidase A reduced α-galactosides similarly in FBPC and PPC after six hours but differences in the reduction of α-galactosides were observed in the other two doses in FBPC and PPC. A low-FODMAP yoghurt analogue with no changes in structure in terms of viscosity between the α-galactosidase treated and control samples was seen.
  • Palermo, Ronald (2021)
    Soil acidity limits the growth and development of crops. Yield of plants decreases due to not only low pH conditions in acid soils but also dissolution of detrimental elements affecting the availability of essential nutrients. Aluminum toxicity have been one major cause of decline in yield due to the stunting of the primary root and inhibition of lateral root formation. Plants have ways to mitigate aluminum toxicity which includes Al exclusion mechanisms as a first defense to external Al ions and Al detoxifying mechanisms where Al ions are transported and sequestered inside the plant cells. Vicia faba, commonly known as faba or broad bean is one of the oldest crops grown for being a cheap but excellent foundation of protein in human diets, a good fodder and a forage crop for animals, and one of the most powerful nitrogen fixers. The crop is well adapted to low temperatures but moderately susceptible to hostile subsoils and has very low exchangeable Aluminum tolerance. Responsive varieties were previously identified but mechanisms to counteract with the conditions are still to be realized hence the study aimed to understanding the molecular mechanisms of rootzone aluminum toxicity tolerance in faba bean which was realized by using RNA-Seq technique to analyze the transcriptome of roots of faba bean exposed to acidic and aluminum stressed environment and by then, Al responsive genes were identified. The administration of stress was done in a aquaponics set-up. Results revealed that although gene directly interacting with Al was not identified, faba bean have a variety of well-adapted mechanisms to encounter with the Al stressed condition and mitigate the adverse effects to the plant growth and development which includes (1)transporter activity, (2)signaling(ROS), and (3)ubiquitination. The findings will provide valuable information for designing future crop breeding programs.
  • Yaqin, Wang (2016)
    Faba bean flour is a sustainable and relatively inexpensive way to make protein rich food in comparison with meat products, because it has high proteins content (rich in lysine (30%)) and considerable amounts of vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Even rough faba bean is widely cultivated and consumed, few data is available concerning the suitability to be fermented. The objective of this master’s thesis was to study the potential of sourdough fermentation of faba bean with selected lactic acid bacteria for in situ production of dextrans as texture forming components for various food applications. In this study, the growth and dextran formation by Leuconostoc and Weissella in faba bean sourdoughs were investigated. Eight lactic acid bacteria belonging to genera Leuconostoc and Weissella characterized for slime formation were used as starters for in situ formation of exopolysaccharides in faba bean flour. The growth of lactic acid bacteria, pH and acidity, and viscosity of different sourdoughs were analyzed. An enzyme assisted method and acid hydrolysis were used to analyze dextran content with further quantification by HPAEC-PAD. The amount of dextran formed by Leuc. pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193, Leuc. mesenteroides subsp mesenteroides LMG 7939, Leuc. Citreum DSM 5577, W. cibaria LMG 17699, and W. cibaria Sj1b varied from 1.86 to 4.22 g kg-1 (wet weight), which allows the possibilities to use dextran as alternatives for hydrocolloids in food applications. The synthesized dextran increased significantly viscosity of sourdoughs. After fermentation, the amount of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) were decreased. The results of the sourdough fermented faba bean flours showed that Leuc. pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 and Leuc. Mesenteroides subsp mesenteroides LMG 7939 were the most potential strains to produce dextrans and increase viscosity properties.