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Browsing by Subject "suunnittelu"

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  • Liikkanen, Lassi A. (2006)
    Design embraces several disciplines dedicated to the production of artifacts and services. These disciplines are quite independent and only recently has psychological interest focused on them. Nowadays, the psychological theories of design, also called design cognition literature, describe the design process from the information processing viewpoint. These models co-exist with the normative standards of how designs should be crafted. In many places there are concrete discrepancies between these two in a way that resembles the differences between the actual and ideal decision-making. This study aimed to explore the possible difference related to problem decomposition. Decomposition is a standard component of human problem-solving models and is also included in the normative models of design. The idea of decomposition is to focus on a single aspect of the problem at a time. Despite its significance, the nature of decomposition in conceptual design is poorly understood and has only been preliminary investigated. This study addressed the status of decomposition in conceptual design of products using protocol analysis. Previous empirical investigations have argued that there are implicit and explicit decomposition, but have not provided a theoretical basis for these two. Therefore, the current research began by reviewing the problem solving and design literature and then composing a cognitive model of the solution search of conceptual design. The result is a synthetic view which describes recognition and decomposition as the basic schemata for conceptual design. A psychological experiment was conducted to explore decomposition. In the test, sixteen (N=16) senior students of mechanical engineering created concepts for two alternative tasks. The concurrent think-aloud method and protocol analysis were used to study decomposition. The results showed that despite the emphasis on decomposition in the formal education, only few designers (N=3) used decomposition explicitly and spontaneously in the presented tasks, although the designers in general applied a top-down control strategy. Instead, inferring from the use of structured strategies, the designers always relied on implicit decomposition. These results confirm the initial observations found in the literature, but they also suggest that decomposition should be investigated further. In the future, the benefits and possibilities of explicit decomposition should be considered along with the cognitive mechanisms behind decomposition. After that, the current results could be reinterpreted.
  • Lohko, Anna (2016)
    The aim of the study was to investigate ideas and idea generation of designers in free improvisation tasks at conceptual level in the experiment, planned primarily for the physiological and neurological measurements. My study was a part of the multidisciplinary research project Handling Mind: Embodiment, Creativity and Design which concentrated on studying relations between mind, body and materials combining the fields of psychology, neuroscience and creativity. The neurological study did not reveal what and how participants felt, thought and experienced during the experiment which was the main interest in my study. Previous research has focused on investigating various fields of the design process, as well as the ideation phase, but investigating idea generation in the context of neuroscientific research is a new and interesting chance for the research. The ideation phase represents an iterative and vibrant nature of the design process. Previous studies have brought out the meaning of available sources of inspiration, and designers' competence to adapt the essential parts of the original sources and transform them into design outputs regarding the aspects of novelty and functionality. Therefore, I developed my research questions concerning ideas and idea development in freely improvising tasks in a new design situation. The 30 participants participated in the study as volunteers from the School of Art, Design and Architecture in Aalto University from November 2014 to March 2015. They performed copying, designing or free improvising tasks by drawing or forming clay. I organized the Stimulated Recall (SR) interviews with my colleague to collect data. We selected the 15 out of 30 interviews to represent the data in our studies. I analyzed the transcript data by qualitative content analysis: the classification scheme was both data and theory driven. The analysis revealed that designers had different ideas emerging from internal stimuli, for example, from their mental library or they were impressed by external stimuli, for instance, material, tools and cup images from the experiment. The experiment represented an external design constraint: it confined the problem space and narrowed down the alternative solutions. Designers had concrete and abstract ideas, but also the abstractions of ideas were developed. They relied on familiar topic choices but also were capable of creating analogies. Even this minimalistic design experiment revealed that designers are able to use their mental sources of inspiration and capable of picking profitable stimuli from their surroundings in new and uncertain situations for adapting and developing ideas further. Designers sought meaning for their sketching and experimenting as well.
  • Heikura, Roosa (2020)
    Väestön ikääntyessä myös muistisairaiden määrä kasvaa tulevina vuosina. Hyvinvointia tukevat lähiympäristöt voivat vaikuttaa positiivisesti iäkkään elämänlaatuun ja terveyteen edistäen pidempää kotona asumista. Muistisairaiden arjen sujuvuutta ja elämäntapojen jatkuvuutta voidaan tukea selkeällä ja helposti hahmotettavalla ympäristöllä. Tässä tutkimuksessa haluttiin selvittää, miten iäkkäiden asumisen suunnitteluun osallistuvat tahot käsittävät lähiviheralueiden yhteyden asukkaiden hyvinvointiin ja miten hyvinvointia edistävät tekijät tulisivat nykyistä paremmin huomioiduiksi suunnitteluprosessissa. Tutkimus toteutettiin kvalitatiivisena tutkimuksena teemahaastatteluilla ja aineistolähtöisen sisällönanalyysin menetelmällä. Haastatteluja tehtiin yhdeksän ja ne toteutettiin yksilö- tai ryhmähaastatteluina. Tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella ihanteellinen lähiviheralue on monipuolinen ja siellä on mahdollisuus kokoontua sekä tavata muita ihmisiä. Pihalla on mahdollista sekä fyysisesti aktiivinen että passiivinen toiminta, ja jokainen voi osallistua haluamallaan tavalla. Esteettömyys on tärkeää niin hoitotyön kuin asukkaiden itsenäisen toiminnan kannalta. Pihan tulisi tarjota erilaisia aistikokemuksia ympärivuotisesti. Suunnitteluprosessin aikana on tärkeää viestiä säännöllisesti sidosryhmille sekä antaa ihmisille mahdollisuus vaikuttaa suunnitteluun. Hyvinvointia tukeva viherympäristö on käyttäjälleen mieluisa ja monipuolisesti hyödynnettävissä. Pihan ei tarvitse välttämättä olla iso, kunhan se on suunniteltu toimivaksi. Onnistuneessa suunnitteluprosessissa hyödynnetään monialaista yhteistyötä ja osaamista.
  • Lempinen, Linnea (2022)
    Tutkielma käsittelee vuonna 1967 avattua Kontulan ostoskeskusta ja sen näkymistä 1960–1980-lukujen suomalaisissa sanomalehdissä. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miksi Kontulan ostarille on muodostunut populaarikulttuurissa ja kansalaisten keskuudessa negatiivissävytteinen maine. Pääaineistona tutkielmassa on käytetty Kansalliskirjaston digitoituja sanomalehtiä, joiden avulla on muodostettu kuvaa siitä, miten Kontulan ostoskeskusta käsiteltiin 1960–1980-luvuilla ja millaisia mielikuvia lähiöostarista syntyi uutisten perusteella. Tutkittujen sanomalehtien Kontula-aiheinen kirjoittelu painottuu uutisartikkeleihin, mielipidekirjoituksiin ja kolumneihin. Tutkimuksella pyritään selvittämään, miten vuosikymmeniä sitten tapahtunut uutisointi vaikuttaa nykyäänkin vallitseviin mielikuviin ja mielipiteisiin Kontulan ostoskeskuksesta. Kontulan ostoskeskukseen liittynyt uutisointi oli ennen ostoskeskuksen avaamista ja heti avajaisten jälkeen hyvin positiivista ja odottavaista. Ostoskeskusta oli odotettu jo pidemmän aikaa ja sen tuomat palvelut nopeasti kasvaneelle, väestöltään suurelle lähiölle olivat enemmän kuin toivottuja. Uutisointi muuttui kuitenkin varsin nopeasti 1970-luvulle tultaessa. 1970-luvulta lähtien pitkälle 1980-lukua uutisointi oli huomattavan negatiivista ja keskittyi lähinnä kritisoimaan koko aluetta ja sen asiakkaita. Paljoakaan kehuttavaa lähiöostarista ei tuntunut löytyvän. Uutisoinnissa on nähtävissä selkeät, toistuvat aiheet, jotka voidaan kategorisoida kolmeen kategoriaan: a) alkoholiin, b) nuorison käyttäytymiseen sekä c) yleiseen rauhattomuuteen. Alkoholiin keskittynyt kirjoittelu koski Alkon myymälän ja sieltä saatavien nautintoaineiden aiheuttamaa lisääntynyttä häiriökäyttäytymistä ostarin alueella. Nuorison turhautuminen heille suunnattujen palvelujen puutteeseen näkyi häiriökäyttäytymisenä ja siihen liittyvä uutisointi oli poikkeuksetta negatiivista. Kontulan nuoriso, ja heidän aiheuttamansa turvattomuus ostarin alueella värittävät vahvasti 1960–1970-lukujen uutisointia. Yleisellä rauhattomuudella tarkoitetaan ostarilla tapahtuneita murtoja, näpistyksiä, ilkivaltaa, pahoinpitelyjä, ahdistelutapauksia ja henkirikoksia. Uutisointi on vaikuttanut mielipiteisiin ostarista, ja kontulalaisten ja muualla asuvien näkemykset poikkesivat merkittävästi toisistaan.
  • Siekkinen, Anne-Mari (2007)
    The aim of the thesis was to compare the correspondence of the outcome a computer assisted program appearance compared to the original image. The aspect of the study was directed to embroidery with household machines. The study was made from the usability point of view with Brother's PE-design 6.0 embroidery design programs two automatic techniques; multicoloured fragment design and multicoloured stitch surface design. The study's subject is very current because of the fast development of machine embroidery. The theory is based on history of household sewing machines, embroidery sewing machines, stitch types in household sewing machines, embroidery design programs as well as PE-design 6.0 embroidery design program's six automatic techniques. Additionally designing of embroidery designs were included: original image, digitizing, punching, applicable sewing threads as well as the connection between embroidery designs and materials used on embroidery. Correspondences of sewn appearances were examined with sewing experimental methods. 18 research samples of five original image were sewn with both techniques. Experiments were divided into four testing stages in design program. Every testing stage was followed by experimental sewing with Brother Super Galaxie 3100D embroidery machine. Experiments were reported into process files and forms made for the techniques. Research samples were analysed on images syntactic bases with sensory perception assessment. Original images and correspondence of the embroidery appearances were analysed with a form made of it. The form was divided into colour and shape assessment in five stage-similarity-scale. Based on this correspondence analysis it can be said that with both automatic techniques the best correspondence of colour and shape was achieved by changing the standard settings and using the makers own thread chart and edited original image. According to the testing made it is impossible to inform where the image editing possibilities of the images are sufficient or does the optimum correspondence need a separate program. When aiming at correspondence between appearances of two images the computer is unable to trace by itself the appearance of the original image. Processing a computer program assisted embroidery image human perception and personal decision making are unavoidable.
  • Pussinen, Kirsi (2007)
    The aim of this work was to study, whether international fashion trends show in knit designs in Finnish craft magazines and how trends are modified. Women's knitted clothes and accessories in autumn winter season 2005 2006 were analyzed. Future research, trends, fashion, designing and knitting provides theoretical basis for this study. The trend material of this study came from Carlin Women's knitwear winter 2005 2006, which is fashion forecast for Women's knitwear. In addition to the trend book, I selected two international fashion magazines to reinforce this study. Fashion magazines were L'Officiel, 1000 models, Milan - New York - winter 05/06, No 52, April 2005 and Collezioni Donna, Prêt-à-porter autumn-winter 2005 2006, No 107. Finnish craft magazines in this study were MODA's issues 4/2005, 5/2005, 6/2005 and Novita's issues autumn 2005, winter 2005 and Suuri Käsityölehti's issues 8/2005, 9/2005, 10/2005. For the base of the analyze I took themes from the trend book. From fashion magazines I searched knitwear designs and these designs were sorted out by themes of trend book. To this trend and fashion material I compared knit designs from craft magazines. I analyzed how fashion trends show in knit designs and how they are modified. I also studied what features of trends were shown and which did not appear in knit designs of the craft magazines. For analyzing trend pictures and knit designs in craft magazines I applied qualitative content analysis and image analysis. According to the results of this research, effects of trend can be recognized in knit designs of craft magazines, although the fashion trends have been applied very discreetly. Knit designs were very similar regardless of magazine. The craft magazine data included approximately as many designs from Novita and MODA. In Suuri Käsityölehti provided only fifth of the designs data. There were also designs in MODA and Suuri Käsityölehti, which were made of Novita's yarns. This research material includes yarns of 15 different yarn manufacturers. Although half of all knit designs were knitted from Novita's yarn. There were 10 different yarns from Novita. Nevertheless Novita's yarn called Aino was the most popular. Finnish craft magazines have not respond to popularity of knitting. Magazines do not provide any novelty designs for knitters. Knit designs in Finnish craft magazines are usually practical basic designs without any innovativeness.
  • Repo, Joona (2017)
    The formation of urban structure is a complicated process and its outcome, that cannot be easily forecast, is not necessarily optimal. This creates a need to understand the process and gives a reason to control it by urban planning. As the circumstances are in constant change, the plans have to anticipate the time to come – partly far into the future. Research is needed to support planning to understand the factors that affect the urban structure better. Accessibility, that seems to be one of the key factors in the processes of land use change, seems to provide a suitable tool for planning and research: when suitably defined, it can connect the properties of transport and land use systems as well as the economic, social and environmental goals. The availability of services is closely connected to the quality of living environment, so studying the accessibility of them can produce new notable information for the needs of urban planning. The aim of this study was to explain how changes in urban structure cause changes in the accessibility of services by walking, mass transit and car in the long term, and study how these changes could affect the use of the services both from the perspectives of the users' possibilities and the potential the services produce. The public library network in Helsinki region was studied as an example. Studying the accessibility of public libraries is useful as such, as they provide many types of positive impacts, but public libraries are also a convenient example in studying the accessibility of services as they are a service actively used in everyday life and information about the use is available. Distances in the accessibility measures were measured as travel time. Accessibility was measured both in travel times to the nearest library and in potentials of making a library trip calculated by library trip forecasting models based on the real behaviour of their users. Comparison was made between the years 2014 and 2050, during which the population and the transport system are expected to change as in the created scenarios, which are based on the new Helsinki City Plan. In addition, the possible effects to the accessibility of the public libraries by possible cost cuts in the service network were inspected by simulating the effects of the cuts. Based on the results the public libraries in the study area seem to be relatively well accessible by all the inspected transport modes. The changes in the transport systems seem to have minor effects on the accessibility when measured in travel time to the nearest library, but when the effects are measured in the potentials of making a library trip, they seem to be a bit more significant – by mass transit, accessibility would improve and by car, it would deteriorate. The forecast change in the population would increase the number of people accessing the nearest library in half an hour, but the proportion of this group to the total population in the area would be smaller than before. The attraction of libraries affect to the potentials they produce, but the impacts are concentrated on the surrounding areas of the libraries and on the traffic routes, where the accessibility is relatively good to begin with. Even though excluding some of the smallest libraries from the service network would have relatively small effects on the accessibility in the aggregate, the effects on individual level and for sustainable accessibility could be significant. Based on the study results more significant than the changes in the transport system or in the attraction of the services seem to be how near population and services are located each other: the prerequisites for multimodal accessibility cannot necessarily be guaranteed if the distances are long. Based on the study results, to prevent the deterioration of the preconditions of the goals of Finnish regional planning and the qualifications for sustainable accessibility due to the forecast population change – in other words to keep the current standard of service – some changes in the service network would be needed. However, as there was only one type of service inspected in this study and as there is uncertainty if the scenarios will happen in the future, the conclusions that can be drawn from the results are restricted. Still, studying the accessibility of a single service is useful as such as the needs for different type of services are different, and if it will give some hints of the future accessibility of services in general at the same time, even though just in a few scenarios, it can be easier to be prepared for the future.
  • Heikola, Emmi (2019)
    The Finnish curriculum encourages schools to include interaction between students in teaching and emphasizes the importance of design and ideation as a part of the handicraft projects. Interaction skills, ideation and design are important 21st century skills that the cur- rent primary school students will need in their working lives. Co-design is defined as a process of design and ideation done in cooperation with others, and it is an activity that combines the most remarkable 21st century skills. The aim of this study is to examine how the students experience the co-design in the context of handicrafts. The previous research has shown that outsourcing of thoughts, further developments and technical design can be challenging for the students. Therefore it is interesting to study the possibilities and challenges of co-design in the context of primary school. The material for the case study was collected in Viikki normal school during the autumn of 2019. A group of 8-graders were selected discretionary as the examinees, for the reason that they studied co-design as part of their handicraft studies. Students answered in three (3) dif- ferent questionnaires about co-design during their study module. The questionnaires were implemented with Google Forms. 16 students took part in the study. The methodology of the study was material-based analysis, where the answers were classified by similarities. This study shows that the definition of co-design is challenging for students to understand in the context of handicraft even though they have practised co-design in other school subjects. In accordance with contradictory expectations towards co-design, students had both positive and negative feelings that affected working. Students felt that cooperation went mainly well, even though it was also the area with the biggest challenges. According to this study co- design is act of multidimensional action where the key points to success are cooperation bet- ween group members, students attitudes and motivation. The challenges of co-design lie in how to make cooperation work properly and how to share resbonsibility between all the group members equally.