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  • Vuorinen, Anna (2010)
    11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/reductase (11β-HSD) enzymes 1 and 2 regulate the amount of cortisone and cortisol in human tissues. Since overexpression of 11β-HSD1 especially in the adipose tissue causes symptoms of metabolic syndrome, selective inhibition of 11β-HSD1 provides a way to treat this syndrome and type II diabetes. Inhibition of 11β-HSD2 causes cortisol-dependent mineralocorticoid activation, which leads to hypertensive side effects. There are several reported 11β-HSD1 inhibitors, for selective 11β-HSD2 inhibitition, only a few compounds have been developed. The difference between 11β-HSD1 and 2 ligand binding sites is unknown, which complicates the search of selective inhibitors to both of the enzymes. This study was done with two aims: (1) to identify the difference between the two isozymes, (2) to create pharmacophore models for selective 11β-HSD2 inhibitiors. These tasks were approached with computational methods: homology modeling, docking, ligand-based pharmacophore modeling and virtual screening. The homology model of 11β-HSD2 was constructed using SwissModeler and it showed satisfying superimposition both with is template 17β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD1. The difference between the enzymes could not be identified by visual inspections Therefore, seven compounds, of which six are 11β-HSD2 -selective, were docked both to 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 ligand binding sites using the program GOLD. The docking results revealed that the compounds orientate differently in the enzymes. To 11β-HSD1, the compounds were anchored similar than unselective compound carbenoxolone, whereas in 11β-HDS2, they adopted a flipped binding mode. The flipped binding mode in 11β-HDS2 enables hydrogen bonds to Ser310 and to Asn171, both residues that are only present in 11β-HSD2. Pharmacophore modeling and virtual screening were done using the program LigandScout3.0. The ligand-based pharmacophores were based on the six 11β-HSD2 selective compounds, which were also used for the docking studies. Both of the models consisted of six features (hydrogen bond acceptors, hydrogen bond donor and hydrophobic feature) besides the exclusion volumes. The most important features considering the 11β-HSD2 selectivity seem to be the hydrogen bond acceptor feature that could interact with the Ser310 and the hydrogen bond donor feature next to it. The interaction pair for this hydrogen bond donor feature was not observed in the homology model. However, a possibility of water molecule as an interaction pair was evaluated and it seems to be a possible solution to the problem. Since both of the models were able to find the selective 11β-HSD2 inhibitors and exclude the unselective ones from the test set database, they were employed for the screening of the database that consists of 2700 compounds stored at the University of Innsbruck. From the hits of these screenings ten compounds were selected and sent to biological testing. The results of the biological tests will decide how well the models represent the theory of the 11β-HSD2 selectivity.
  • Jousi, Netta (2017)
    137Cs is an artificial isotope generated by fission reactions, whose deposition times are well known both globally and locally. The 137Cs dating method measures the 137Cs activity in sediment layers from different depths, and by utilizing knowledge of the deposition moment dating accuracy can be up to one year. The prerequisites of the dating method are not only the knowledge of precise moments of deposition, but also calm sedimentation and understanding of the sediment disturbances. The best destinations for using the 137Cs dating method are deep basin sediments, where bioturbation is very low and sedimentation is calm. This study looked at the accuracy and reliability of the 137Cs dating of the bottom sediment from five different lakes. There were clear annual varves in four out of five lakes, so the sediment was not mixed and mechanical movements of 137Cs had not occurred. The most significant fall-off affecting Finland in 1986 was the Chernobyl nuclear accident and when analyzing sediment samples in 1986, it could even be traced back to a single varve. Another significant 137Cs fall-off has been the nuclear tests of the 1950s to 1960s. The 137Cs peak of these events was almost invisible compared to the 137Cs activity of 1986. Regardless of the limnological features of the lake, 1986 had also migrated downward in the analysis results. The more porous sediment was, the stronger the spread had occurred. According to the results of this study the 137Cs dating method is still usable, especially in Finland at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986. From 1950 to 1960, the time of nuclear testing, this method is far more uncertain in Finland, although the marker horizon is more globally distinguishable. However, downward migration of 137Cs was clearly evident even in a calm sedimentation environment, which is a major hindrance to the method. Chemical follow-up studies would be useful to clarify the causes of migration.
  • Taskinen, Kirsti (2020)
    This study examines early childhood education teachers’ experiences of the participation of 1–3-year-old children in the early childhood education and care plan (known as an ECEC plan) process. The process includes prepara-tion for the discussion of the child’s ECEC plan, discussion and the creation of the plan, and implementing and evaluating the plan. Section 23 of the new Act on Early Childhood Education and Care states that the child’s opinion must be heard at every stage of the ECEC plan process. Previous studies have indicated that the partici-pation of the child has not been implemented in accordance with targets. The purpose of this study was to ascertain how early childhood education teachers define child participation. Another point of interest for the study was to map the methods used by early childhood education teachers to support the child’s participation in the ECEC plan process. The study was carried out using semi-structured interviews, with seven early childhood education teachers chosen for the study. Interviews were carried out individually and data-oriented content analysis was used to analyse the material. According to early childhood education teachers, the participation of 1–3-year-old children in the ECEC plan process involved observing the child and discussing with the child to ascertain their interests, strengths and needs, recording the information in the child’s ECEC plan, team discussions and expanding on the child’s perspective, listening to the child’s parents and making use of their knowledge of their own child, and implementing the ECEC plan in everyday life, as well as the child’s opportunity to influence joint activities. The participation of 1–3-year-olds in the ECEC plan process has also given some teachers pause for thought. One challenge was ascertaining the perspective of a small child if the child was not yet able to speak. According to the results of the study, observing and interviewing the child using a new ECEC form to ascertain the child’s wishes and interests were significant for the participation of the child during the preparation phase. Child participation was also supported by daily discussions with parents, information about the child obtained from the initial discussion meeting held when the child began day-care, and team discussion on observations of the child. The new ECEC form and shared information about the child highlighted the child’s perspective in discussions. Participation was strengthened by child group activities, which were organised based on the targets outlined in the children’s ECEC plans, as well as on an assessment of pedagogical methods. Flexibility in the daily routine, activities initiated by the child, pictures and supportive signs, and voting were all methods of implementing child participation. Photographs, storycrafting, an educational portfolio, naming a star child of the week, and video recording made activities and significant experiences of the child visible. In order to increase child participation in the ECEC plan process, illustrated support for interviews with children and the presence of the child at ECEC plan discussions were proposed.
  • Vuoriheimo, Tomi (2017)
    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a technique developed from mass spectrometry and it is able to measure single very rare isotopes from samples with detection capability down to one atom in 10^16. It uses an accelerator system to accelerate the atoms and molecules to break molecular bonds for precise single isotope detection. This thesis describes the optimization of University of Helsinki's AMS system to detect the rare radioactive isotope 14C from CO2 gas samples. Using AMS to detect radiocarbon is a precise and fast way to conduct radiocarbon dating with minimal sample sizes. Solid graphite samples have been in use before but as the ion source has been adopted to use also gaseous CO2 samples, optimizations must be made to maximize the carbon current and ionization efficiency for efficient 14C detection. Parameters optimized include cesium oven temperature, CO2 flow, carrier gas helium flow and their dependencies with each other. Both carbon current and ionization efficiency is looked at in the optimizations. The results are analyzed and discussed for further optimizations or actual measurements with gas. Ionization occurring in the ion source can be understood better with the results. Standard samples of CO2 were measured to determine the background and precision of the AMS system in gas use by comparing the results with literature. The current system was found to have tolerable background of 1.5% of the standard and the Fraction modern value of actual sample was 2.4% higher than values from literature. Ideas to improve background were discussed. A new theory of negative-ion formation in a cesium sputtering ion source by John S. Vogel is reviewed and taken into account in the discussion of optimization. Utilizing the theory, possible future upgrades to improve the ionization efficiency are presented such as cathode material choices to reduce competitive ionization and cesium excitation by laser.
  • Kallio, Sami (2014)
    Radiohiiltä muodostuu ydinpolttoaineessa ja sitä ympäröivässä aineessa stabiilin typen neutroniaktivaatioreaktiolla 14N(n,p)14C. Kun 14C on liuennut käytetystä ydinpolttoaineesta, se voi hapettua karbonaattihiileksi, joka esiintyy pohjavesiolosuhteissa vetykarbonaattina (HCO3-) . Käytetyn polttoaineen turvallisuusanalyyseissa tämän ei kuitenkaan lasketa pidättyvän ollenkaan kallioperän rakojen ja huokosten pinnoille ja näin ollen sen laskettu kulkeutumisnopeus on suuri. Mahdollinen pidättymismekanismi ja siten 14C:n kulkeutumista hidastava mekanismi on kuitenkin karbonaattimuodossa olevan 14C:n isotooppivaihto rakojen pinnoilla olevan kalsiitin (CaCO3) kanssa. Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa tarkastellaan yllä mainittua 14C:n ja kalsiitin välistä isotooppivaihtoa. Tämän pro-gradu -tutkielman kirjallisuuskatsauksessa selvitetään 14C:n lähteitä ja kulkeutumista ympäristössä. Siinä myös käsitellään kalsiitin ja muiden CaCO3:n kidemuotojen syntetisointimenetelmiä. Lisäksi tutkielman kirjallisessa osuudessa käydään läpi hiili - (13C, 14C) ja kalsiumisotooppien (45Ca) isotooppivaihtoa. Tutkielman kokeellisessa osuudessa tarkasteltiin, miten liuoksen koostumus vaikuttaa CaCO3:n ja 14C:n väliseen isotooppivaihtoon. Tämän selvittämisessä käytettiin kahta erilaista kalsiittia, kaupallista ja itse syntetisoitua, joiden puhtaus varmistettiin röntgendiffraktiolla (XRD). Atomiabsorptiospektroskopiaa (AAS) käytettiin kalsiumin pitoisuuden määrittämiseen liuoksissa, kun taas nestetuikelaskentaa käytettiin liuosten 14C:n ja 45Ca:n aktiivisuuksien määrittämiseen. 14C:n diffundoitumisen takia sen pidättäytymistä kalsiittiin oli vaikea todentaa. 14C:n kaasumaista vapautumista liuoksesta CO2:na tapahtui todennäköisesti varastoinnin tai nestetuikelaskentanäytteen valmistuksen aikana. Sen sijaan 45Ca:n pidättymistä kalsiittiin voitiin havaita. Kuitenkin ainoa liuos, jossa tasapaino saavutettiin, oli 0,1 M NaCl-liuos, johon oli lisätty 45Ca-merkkiainetta. Piirretyn käyrän perusteella tasapaino saavutetaan 150 päivän kuluessa pidättymisprosentin jäädessä alle 20:n. 45Ca:n pidättyminen kiinteään faasiin on aluksi nopeaa, mutta se näyttää tasaantuvan 20 päivän jälkeen. Tasapainon saavuttamisen todentamiseksi tarvitaan pidempiä kokeita ja enemmän rinnakkaisnäytteitä. 14C:n ja kalsiitin välisen isotooppivaihdon tutkimiseen on kehiteltävä uusi menetelmä, jossa 14C:n diffundoituminen pyritään estämään. Tämä voitaisiin estää käyttämällä nestetuikelaskentacocktailia, joka ei ole niin herkkä pH-muutoksille. Tai sitten voitaisiin tehdä nestetuikelaskentanäytteet emäksiseen liuokseen.
  • Saarinen, Jade Luna (2018)
    Aims. The aim of my research was to study the use of social media of 15–17 year old Finnish teenagers and what effects social media has on them. Earlier studies have shown that an average Finnish teenager uses social media approximately 15 hours during a week. It has also been studied that the social media has an effect on self-esteem. I chose social media and it’s effects on teenagers as my research subject because as a phenomenom the social media is rather young, which is why there has not been done many Finnish studies focusing on the teenagers’ social media use. My research assignment is to find out what kind of social media users teenagers are and what kind of effects social media has on their self experiences. Methods. The study was qualitative and 45 teenagers from age 15 to 17 participated in it. The data was collected with an internet questionnaire which was shared through social media, and it contained mainly open questions. The data was analysed by using qualitative data-based content analysis. Results and conclusions. Most of the teenagers used social media 3–4 hours daily or more. It was used for entertainment, for finding information, communication, current affairs, sharing one’s own life experiences and for finding inspiration, among other things. Almost half of the teenagers were bullied over social media. Appearance was also essential in the social media. Social media created ideals for appearance for teenagers and set them under critique, gave them false image of reality and made the teenagers look for the acceptance through outlooks. 31 of them had gotten positive comments on their appearance from social media and 13 had gotten negative comments. Those comments had an impact on the teenagers’ self-esteem, mood and feelings. Teenagers had also objects of identification and admiration in social media, such as videobloggers, artists, models and their own friends, and they were influenced by them. They felt that social media had many positive and negative effects on their lives. Positive effects were the rise of self-esteem, being more brave in expressing one’s own opinion, the possibilities of keeping in touch with other people and being the source of inspiration, motivation and information, among other things. The negative effects were the social media taking too much time and creating pressure, its bad effect on physical condition and sleep, distortion of self-image, the mean people and the need to be always within reach, among other things. The results of this study implicate that the social media has a comprehensive effect on the lives of the teenagers and their self experiences.
  • Peuhkuri, Ulla (2017)
    The focus in recent research related to household work has been the allocation of time. The results suggest that the overall time spent in household chores has dropped especially amongst the youth and that the work is shared unevenly between genders. Household cleaning is generally regarded as the least pleasant chore despite its necessity in a functional household. Reducing the burden of routine household work has been attempted through rationalization with varying degrees of success. Inspired by this, the major goal of this study is to find out whether understanding the motivation of individuals will provide means for developing more effective methods of rationalization. The focus in this study is the cleaning motivation of young people and, in particular, measuring the motivation through Job Characteristics Model. The research gives insight what factors explain the changes in the cleaning motivation amongst the youth. The motivation is quantified using the so-called motivation potential score. The research data was gathered through a questionnaire based on Job Diagnostic Survey. The answers (N=140) were collected mainly through two Finnish Facebook groups (HC-partiolaiset and Kopeda) although the questionnaire was open to anyone with the correct hyperlink. The answers were analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis software using explorative factor analysis and regression analysis. The results suggest that Job Characteristic Model may work for describing the motivation of household cleaning. The measured mean motivation potential score of the youth was 50.5 with minimum and maximum values 17.5 and 109.6, respectively. Out of the measured factors, only the cleaning frequency clearly explains the changes in the motivation potential score. The results cannot be generalized to the population level due to a small sample size and missing repeated study. More research is required in order to adapt the used models to household cleaning motivation.
  • Ruohonen, Iida (2020)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract 15D is a generic, 15-dimensional instrument for measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL). 15D instrument has been used in multiple studies evaluating the effectiveness of medical interventions in Finland and abroad. 15D-instrument is a self-administered questionnaire traditionally administered in a paper-and-pencil format. With the emergence of novel technologies, electronic modes of delivery of the 15D instrument are becoming increasingly common as methods for data collection. However, there are no previous studies evaluating electronic modes of delivery of the 15D instrument. In previous studies, electronic instruments measuring patient-reported outcomes have shown strong measurement equivalence and high acceptability. The aim of this study is to evaluate acceptability and measurement equivalence of electronic delivery modes of the 15D instrument. A repeated measures, randomized cross-over study was conducted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Helsinki University Hospital during April, May and June of 2019. A total of 160 outpatients who participated in the study were randomized into four groups of 40 patients. Every participant filled two delivery modes of the 15D instrument: a single paper-and-pencil questionnaire and one out of two electronic questionnaires provided in the study. The two electronic delivery modes delivered in the study were a web-based questionnaire and a mobile app-based questionnaire. The order and the mode of the administration varied between the groups. The patients filled the first questionnaire before the doctor’s appointment at the study site. The patients were then asked to fill the second questionnaire after the doctor’s appointment at home within 3 days after the first administration. Information about acceptability concerning different delivery modes were collected using an end-of-study questionnaire. As a part of determining patient acceptability, response rates for different delivery forms and mode preferences were examined. Measurement equivalence was assessed by intra class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and comparison of mean and median for 15D scores and weighted kappa for item scores. Paired observations were also visually analysed with Bland-Altman plots. Subgroup analyses were conducted for identifying differences in observed patient characteristics (age, sex, base-line HRQoL). 86 participants (females 53.5 %; males 46.5 %) aged 18 to 80 (mean ± SD: 48.2 ± 15.7) filled both questionnaires of the 15D instrument resulting in an overall response rate of 54.1%. Response rates for filling both questionnaires were lower in both groups that filled electronic forms at home (41.0 % for mobile app-based and 52.5 % for web-based questionnaires) than in the paper-and-pencil groups (60.0 % and 62.5 %). Overall 74.1 % preferred the electronic delivery mode compared to 16.5 % preferring the paper-and-pencil mode. Statistically significant differences favouring the web-based form over the paper-and-pencil form were observed in the speed of use (p = 0.002) and in the possibility to edit answers (p = 0.018). Similarly, mobile app-based form was favoured over paper-and-pencil group in the possibility to edit answers (p = 0,041). In terms of measurement equivalence for 15D index scores, high association across paper-and-pencil and web-based questionnaires (ICC: 0.910 [Cl 95 % 0.794-0.962] and ICC: 0.935 [Cl 95 % 0.862-0.971]) and high to moderate across paper-and-pencil and mobile app-based questionnaires (ICC: 0.949 [Cl 95 % 0.883-0.978] and ICC: 0.928 [Cl 95 % 0.601-0.980]) were observed. A clinically important and a statistically significant difference in mean 15D scores was identified in the paper-mobile app group. A statistically significant but not clinically important difference in medians was observed in mobile app-paper group with participants returning the second delivery form in time. This study provides strong evidence supporting the use of electronic delivery modes of the 15D instrument regarding measurement equivalence and patient acceptability. However, differences in electronic delivery modes may have an impact on measurement equivalence and representativeness of study participants. In this study, a small sample size and limited data on study participants limit the generalizability of the results. Most effective ways of collecting data electronically concerning all age and patient groups must be identified in future studies. Electronic data collection methods offer many opportunities for utilising HRQoL data. For example, it is important to assess whether HRQoL-instruments can be used as clinical tools in the future.
  • Tran, Mai (2015)
    Pro gradu -tutkielman kirjallisuuskatsaus käsittelee van Leusen -reaktiota. van Leusen -reaktio on yleinen tapa valmistaa 1,5-disubstituoituja imidatsoleja. Substituoituja imidatsoleja on tutkittu laajasti, koska niillä on suuri merkitys lääkeainekemiassa. van Leusen -reaktiossa p-tosyylimetyyli-isosyanidi (TosMIC) reagoi aldimiinin kanssa emäksen vaikutuksesta muodostaen substituoidun imidatsolin. Perinteisesti van Leusen- reaktio valmistetaan MeOH:ssa K2CO3:n toimiessa emäksenä. Reaktion saannot vaihtelevat suuresti ja ne ovat riippuvaisia aldimiinin substituenteista. Tutkielman kokeellinen osuus käsittelee 1,5-disubstituoitujen imidatsolien synteesiä van Leusen –reaktiolla, ja erilaisten reaktioparametrien vaikutusta siinä. Tutkimuksen kiinnostuksen kohteena olivat erityisesti alisyklisen aldehydin ja alifaattisen amiinin väliset reaktiot, sillä tämän kaltaisia substraatteja ei ole aikaisemmin kirjallisuudessa tutkittu. Kokeellisen osuuden tarkoituksena oli löytää vaihtoehtoiset reaktio-olosuhteet perinteiselle van Leusen -reaktiolle, koska TosMIC hajoaa nopeasti MeOH:ssa K2CO3:n toimiessa emäksenä. Optimointireaktion avulla valmistettiin 1,5-dialkyyli-1H-imidatsoleja hyvillä saannoilla. Lisäksi vertailureaktio ja saadut tulokset osoittivat sen, että van Leusen –reaktion optimointi onnistui hyvin ja pro gradu –tutkielman tavoitteet täyttyivät. Kahden hyvän systeemin lisäksi, käytetyt liuottimet ja emäkset olivat suhteellisen ympäristöystävällisiä kemikaaleja.
  • Lahtinen, Aki (2015)
    Fuusioreaktiossa kaksi kevyttä ydintä yhtyy yhdeksi raskaammaksi ytimeksi ja samalla vapautuu energiaa. Fuusioreaktio tarvitsee tapahtuakseen hyvin korkean lämpötilan, minkä seurauksena aine on olomuodoltaan plasmaa. Esimerkiksi fuusioreaktoreissa käytettäväksi suunniteltu vedyn isotooppien deuteriumin ja tritiumin välinen reaktio vaatii tapahtuakseen plasman kuumentamista yli 100 miljoonan kelvinin lämpötiloihin. Tutkituin fuusioreaktorimalli on tokamak, jossa kuumaa plasmaa hallitaan toruksen muotoisessa kammiossa voimakkaiden magneettikenttien avulla. Plasmaa koossapitävästä magneettikentästä huolimatta plasmasta karkaa hiukkasia, jotka lopulta osuvat kammion pinnoille. Yksi tapa kammion pintoihin kohdistuvan lämpö- ja hiukkasvuon pienentämiseksi on suihkuttaa kammioon epäpuhtausatomeja tai -molekyylejä jäähdyttämään reunaplasmaa. Typpi on osoittautunut kiinnostavaksi vaihtoehdoksi tähän tehtävään. Typen kulkeutuminen ja kertyminen reaktorikammion sisällä vaatii kuitenkin vielä lisätutkimuksia. Typen harvinainen isotooppi 15N tarjoaa mahdollisuuden tutkia näitä kysymyksiä. Tyypillisesti tämä tehdään merkkiainekokeiden avulla, jolloin reaktorikammioon suihkutetaan valittua merkkiainetta tunnetuissa olosuhteissa ja kokeen jälkeen selvitetään merkkiaineen jakauma reaktorikammion pinnoilla. Tässä työssä keskityttiin seinätiiliin, jotka on irrotettu ASDEX Upgrade -fuusioreaktorista (AUG) vuosien 2010-2011 koekampanjan jälkeen. Kyseisen koekampanjan lopussa suoritettiin 15N-merkkiainekoe. Työssä tutkittiin tiilistä porattujen näytteiden 15N-pitoisuuksia lentoaika-rekyylianalyysilla (Time Of Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis, TOF-ERDA), ydinreaktioanalyysilla (Nuclear Reaction Analysis, NRA) ja sekundääri-ionimassaspektrometrialla (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, SIMS). Vertailun vuoksi tutkittiin myös 15N:llä implantoituja testinäytteitä. Tutkielman alkuosassa esitellään lyhyesti tokamak-fuusioreaktorin toimintaa, plasman vuorovaikutusta reaktorin seinämän kanssa, typen käyttöä fuusioreaktoreissa, merkkiainekokeita sekä käytetyt mittausmenetelmät. Tutkielma loppuosa keskittyy suoritettuihin mittauksiin, niiden analyysiin ja tuloksiin sekä johtopäätöksiin. Tulosten perusteella mittausmenetelmien välillä on merkittäviä eroja AUG-näytteiden kohdalla, kun taas implantoiduille näytteille erot menetelmien välillä ovat pienet. Erot johtuvat todennäköisesti AUG-näytteiden epätasaisesta pintarakenteesta, minkä seurauksena typen jakauma näytteiden pintakerroksissa vaihtelee. TOF-ERDA:lla tutkittiin näytteistä mahdollisimman sileää pintaa luotettavan analyysin onnistumiseksi. NRA-mittauksissa protonisuihku kohdistui näytteen keskelle suuremmalle pinta-alalle. Suureen alueeseen sisältyy myös karkeampia kohtia, joihin merkkiaineen kertyminen on sileää pintaa suurempaa. Tämän seurauksena NRA:lla saadaan selvästi suurempia tuloksia 15N:n pintatiheydelle kuin TOF-ERDA:lla. Kvadrupolimassaspektrometrissa ilmenneiden ongelmien vuoksi SIMS-mittauksia suoritettiin vain yksi, minkä vuoksi optimaalisten asetusten löytäminen 15N:n mittaamiseen SIMS:llä vaatii vielä lisätutkimuksia.
  • Granqvist, Annaliina (2020)
    Tutkimus käsittelee taloudenhoitajattarien toimenkuvaa ja sosiaalista asemaa kartanotaloudessa 1700-luvun puolenvälin Suomessa tapaustutkimuksen keinoin. Sen kohteena on neljä taloudenhoitajatarta – Cajsa Wickman, Anna Gretha Landtman, Regina Landtman ja Maja Sahlberg – jotka työskentelivät laivastoupseeri Carl Tersmedenin (1715–1797) taloudessa vuosina 1749–1765 tämän palvellessa Viaporin linnoitustyömaalla. Päälähteenä on Tersmedenin päiväkirja, Lefnadshistoria. Suurista lähdekriittisistä ongelmistaan huolimatta se on ainutlaatuinen lähde, joka sisältää yksityiskohtaisia kuvauksia hänen taloudenpidostaan ja taloudenhoitajattarien roolista siinä. Carl Tersmedenin talous muutti muotoaan hänen Viaporin-vuosinaan. Hän asui aluksi Helsingissä upseerikasarmissa, kunnes hankki 1750-luvun alussa omistukseensa Albergan kartanon Espoosta. Myös hänen avioitumisensa ja perheen perustaminen osuivat noihin vuosiin. Kaikki tämä muovasi hänen taloudenhoitajattariensa toimenkuvaa. Cajsa Wickman hoiti aluksi poikamiesupseerin kaupunkikotia, mutta Albergan oston myötä hänestä tuli suuren kartanotalouden johtaja, joka hoiti aluksi sekä emännöitsijän että tilanhoitajan tehtäviä. Myöhempien taloudenhoitajattarien rooli oli tätä suppeampi, koska Tersmeden palkkasi erillisen tilanhoitajan ja hänen vaimonsa otti itselleen kartanon emännän aseman. Tersmeden sekä rekrytoi taloudenhoitajattarensa sosiaalisten verkostojensa kautta että hyödynsi heitä niiden ylläpidossa ja laajentamisessa. Taloudenhoitajattaret löytyivät palvelukseen Tersmedenin sukulais- ja tuttavapiirien kautta sekä upseerinuralla luotujen suhteiden avulla. Taloudenhoitajattaren merkitys sosiaalisten verkostojen ylläpidossa korostuu etenkin Cajsa Wickmanin tapauksessa. Tullessaan Viaporiin Tersmeden oli nuori upseeri, jonka oli luotava uraa ja esiinnyttävä säätyihanteiden mukaisena aatelismiehenä. Cajsan erinomaisten ruoanlaittotaitojen avulla hän kykeni saavuttamaan aseman suosittuna kutsujen isäntänä ja seuramiehenä ja siten kartuttamaan sosiaalista pääomaansa ja myös liiketoimintamahdollisuuksiaan. Taloudenhoitajattaren korkea sosiaalinen status heijastuu Tersmedenin päiväkirjasta monin eri tavoin. Hänellä oli asema palveluskunnan päänä, hänen palkkansa oli huomattavasti tavallista palvelijaa korkeampi ja hän asui kartanon päärakennuksessa. Tehtävää pidettiin hyväksyttävänä naimattomille säätyläisnaisille, toisin kuin muita palvelijantöitä. Taloudenhoitajattarien statuksesta kertoo lisäksi se, mihin yhteiskuntaluokkaan kuuluvien miesten kanssa he avioituivat. Kaikki Tersmedenin Viaporin-vuosien taloudenhoitajattaret menivät naimisiin, yksi aliupseerin, toinen sotilasvirkamiehen, kolmas käsityöläismestarin ja neljäs tilanhoitajan kanssa. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan myös laajemman otannan avulla 1700-luvun suomalaisten taloudenhoitajattarien sulhasten yhteiskunnallista asemaa. Taloudenhoitajattaren nimikkeen alle saattoi kätkeytyä myös toisenlaisia isännän ja palvelijattaren välisiä suhteita. Upseerin tai aatelismiehen taloudenhoitajattarena toimiminen oli 1700-luvulla eri säätyihin kuuluvalle pariskunnalle mahdollisuus perhe-elämään ilman avioliittoa. Tällainen ”avoliitto” oli aateliston piirissä miehille usein hyväksyttävämpi ratkaisu kuin naiminen kaukaa oman säädyn alapuolelta. Moraalikäsitysten muutos 1800-luvulle tultaessa ohjasi myöhemmin tällaiset pariskunnat naimisiin.
  • Salo, Ville (2021)
    Eturauhassyöpä koskettaa yhä useampaa miestä ja sen diagnostiikkaan on kehitetty useita kuvantamismenetelmiä. Positroniemissiotomografia tietokonetomografiaan yhdistettynä on rutiinikäytössä oleva kuvantamistapa, jossa yhdistyy tietokonetomografilla saatava anatominen tarkkuus positroniemissiotomografian kykyyn kuvantaa metabolisten prosessien tai eri substraattien pitoisuuksien vaihteluita. Retrospektiivisen tutkimuksen tekohetkellä HUS:n Kliinisen fysiologian ja isotooppilääketieteen yksikössä oli siirrytty eturauhassyövän ja eturauhassyövän kemiallisen relapsin PET/TT-kuvantamisessa 18F-koliinista 68Ga-PSMA-merkkiaineeseen, eikä näiden kahden merkkiaineen välillä oltu vielä tehty vertailua. Tutkimukseen valittiin 143 potilasta, joista noin puolet oli kuvattu 18F-koliinilla ja puolet 68Ga-PSMA:lla. PET-kuvantamisen tuloksia verrattiin TT-kuvantamisen tuloksiin ja tuloksista laskettiin tilastollisissa suureita: p-arvo, sensitiivisyys/spesifisyys ja PPV/NPV. Tuloksista nähdään, että PET:lla todetaan tarkemmin leesioita ja metastaaseja kuin TT:lla. Merkkiaineiden välillä ei pystytty tekemään suoraa vertailua, koska potilaat oli jaettu kahteen ryhmään missä kummassakin käytettiin vain yhtä merkkiainetta. Epäsuorasta vertailusta nähtiin, että 18F-koliini tuotti hieman varmemmin luotettavia tuloksia 68Ga-PSMA:aan verrattuna.
  • Nikiforov, Maksim (2020)
  • Rosenström, Jan (2020)
    Helsingin satama oli 1930-luvun laman alla Suomen ylivoimaisesti johtava tuontisatama tuonnin volyymissa ja siksi keskeinen osa maan ulkomaankauppajärjestelmää. 1930-luvun lama oli shokki sekä tuonnin että viennin kannalta. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan Helsingin sataman rahtiliikenteen muutoksia suhteessa ulkomaankaupassa tapahtuneisiin suhdannevaihteluihin ja pyritään hahmottamaan, miten 1930-luvun lama vaikutti työn tarjontaan satamassa. Tarkastelun kohteena on myös satamatyön olemus ja laman aiheuttamat muutokset siinä. Satamatyöläisten ansiotasoa ja ansiotason muutoksia analysoidaan hyödyntämällä valtioneuvoston aikalaistutkimuksia sekä ammattiliittoaineistoa. Ammattiyhdistysaineiston, kuten julkaisujen ja pöytäkirjojen, avulla tarkastellaan laadullisen tutkimuksen keinoin, miten ammattiyhdistysliike reagoi lamaan. Erityisen kiinnostuksen kohteena on Suomen Ammattijärjestön alainen Suomen Kuljetustyöläisten Liitto, johon kuuluivat satamatyöläisten osastot. Osana tutkimusta pyritään kartoittamaan, miten ammattiyhdistysliike näkyi Helsingissä ja Helsingin satamassa. Tutkimuksessa myös tarkastellaan juuri lamaa edeltänyttä valtakunnallista satamalakkoa. Satamalakko oli yksi 1920-luvun suurimmista työtaisteluista ja sen seurauksena syntyneeseen sovintoehdotukseen sisältyi palkkalupaus, jonka vaikutusta satamien tosiasialliseen ansiotasoon laman aikana selvitetään. Satamalakko ei saavuttanut suurinta osaa tavoitteistaan, kuten työehtosopimusta. Uuvuttava työtaistelu ja sen mukanaan tuomat lakonmurtajat hajottivat jo ennen lamaa pahasti riitautunutta ammattiyhdistyskenttää. Tutkimuksessa todetaan, että rahtiliikenne hidastui Helsingin satamassa tuntuvasti vuosina 1930-1932, mutta vilkastui melko nopeasti erityisesti viennin osalta. Satamatyöläisten ansiotasossa tapahtuu laman aikana laskua huolimatta satamalakon päättäneeseen sovintoehdotukseen sisältyneestä palkkalupauksesta, vaikka pudotus ei 1930-laman viitekehyksessä ole erityisen jyrkkä. Ammattiyhdistysliikkeelle 1930-luvun lama oli heikkouden aikaa. Edeltävä vuosikymmen päättyi repiviin erimielisyyksiin, joiden seurauksena sosiaalidemokraattien johtamat osastot lähtivät perustamaan omaa järjestökoneistoaan kommunistien radikalisoituessa. Työväenliike oli uhattuna sekä julkisen vallan että äärioikeiston tahoilta. Laman alla lopetettiin kommunistisena ja siten laittomana keskusjärjestö SAJ ja perustettiin sosiaalidemokraattien johtama SAK. Lama oli ammattiyhdistysliikkeelle vain yksi haasteista ajalla, jolloin ammattillisen järjestäytymisen tulevaisuus oli vaakalaudalla. Ammattiyhdistysaineistoissa järjestökentän hajaannus näkyi lamaa enemmän.
  • Penttinen, Kaarina (2013)
    Aims. The post-war time in Finland was a golden era of reconstruction and the baby boomers were born. Earlier the 1950's have been a subject of studies in architecture, suburban studies, home technology and social politics. The following research questions arose from the ageing of the baby boomers: what actually occurred in everyday life in Finnish families during the 50's and how well-being manifested itself in demanding circumstances? The aim of this research was to let the contemporaries themselves tell the story of the 50 s, in the context of home economics. The themes and the questions of the research are as follows: 1.Well-being in families: Which factors contribute to well-being in families? 2.Connections between everyday life, built environment and surrounding nature: Which factors connect the everyday life to environment? 3.Functionality in families and the technological development at homes: Which technological innovations are utilized by families? Data and methods. The research approach was narrative. The data for this qualitative research consists of 15 narrative stories from informants (n=16) in different age groups from different parts of Finland. Informants were invited through the organization Marttaliitto and via the researcher's own interest groups. The theoretical framework lies in the interpretive oral history. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results and conclusions. There were five themes which contributed to well-being in families. Functional housing and development of the built environment were important contributing factors. Target-oriented action to achieve a good life and responsible human agency to increase solicitude both between the family members and in community. Everyday life was connected to the environment on many levels, through economical and emotional factors. There was a wide variety of the artifacts that families used. They can be categorized whether they were used in housekeeping, if they promoted functionality at homes or were used during the leisure time. Societal factors have a great impact on forming the relationship between everyday life and environment. To raise the standard of living through target-oriented action is dependent on the development of the infrastructure. Political actions to promote the welfare state have been a carrying force of development of the 50 s, having a positive effect on households activity. Societal factors to promote welfare improve health and increase equality in education.
  • Asmala, Laura (2017)
    This research focuses on the children's clothing of the 1950's. Especially this research has its focus on the meanings of children's clothes. Children's clothes had not been researched widely before, and there was no research of Finnish children's clothes from the 1950's. The decade was remarkable in the lives of families and children, there was some big changes in society, which had a direct effect on both families and children. Costume research has proven that people use clothes to communicate to one another. This is why it is interesting to research how we can see the changed position of the children in her clothes. I studied 12 clothes from Satakunnan Museo's collections. My aim was to choose clothes that would represent as good as possible the children's fashion of the 1950's. I chose not to research underwear, pyjamas, or accessories like shoes or hats. I created an analyse for this research, where I utilized semiotics, artefacts studies and earlier costume research. Children's position could be seen in many ways in her clothes. Urbanization, school systems generalization, could be seen as formality in the clothes. Also the conservative perspective on families and gender could be seen as differences in the clothes of boys and girls. As medicine and psychology as well as behavioural sciences, developed their theories, started the emphasizing of outdoor activities and playing for children's health. These matters could be seen as loose clothes and material choices. On the other hand no elastic materials were used in the clothes of matter, even though the guide books of raising children up, did recommend elastic materials. This research indicated that the society's and adult's aspects on children, could be seen in her clothes in the 1950's.
  • Vaajoki, Vicky (2016)
    Change is often viewed as the essence of fashion, but many who operate in the field have observed that certain features and events recur either in a linear, cyclical, swinging or fragmented matter. The purpose of my thesis is to forecast the next 1950s revival by developing and testing a new tool for forecasting. To achieve my goal I examined, if the revivals show common always recurring features and what the similarities and differences are like. I studied the two most recent recurrences in the years 1996 and 2012 by focusing on two retrotrends, apparel and Zeitgeist. The perspective of my thesis was a qualitative and hermeneutic future study. I examined the apparel features with photographs of Chanel's and Dior's collections. For the interpretation of the Zeitgeist factors I used Mitä, missä, milloin -books and collected the research material from the section on culture, news and international politics. For the analysis I employed the hermeneutic circle and two types of qualitative content analysis. On the first round I expanded my pre-understanding and defined the factors with which I grouped, measured and interpreted the material in the content analyses. On rounds two, three and four I analyzed the photographs by applying content analysis of visual images, and examined the text with inductive content analysis. On the fifth and final round I formed the base for my forecast by comparing my expanded understanding and the results of the previous rounds with one another. According to the results the most common characteristic features of the dresses and jackets, in Chanel's and Dior's collections from the years 1996 and 2012, resembled the features of the 1950s. The greatest differences where in the lengths of the sleeves and skirts. All of the Zeitgeist factors recurred in each revival, except for the "racial riots", youth culture and the buy now pay later -mentality. Based on my findings I predict that the common characteristic features of the 1950s apparel and Zeitgeist will recur in the next revival.
  • Leinonen, Katri (2019)
    Globaalille valtamerten pinnanousulle on viimeisen 40 vuoden aikana julkaistu suuri määrä mahdollisia tulevaisuuskuvia, skenaarioita. Tässä pro gradu -työssä tarkastellaan kahdeksan 1980-luvulla tehdyn merenpinnan noususkenaarion osuvuutta vertaamalla skenaarioita toteutuneeseen valtamerten pinnannousuun. Globaalia merenpinnan muutosta on mitattu viimeisten parin vuosisadan aikana mareografimittauksilla eri puolella maailmaa. Vuodesta 1993 alkaen globaalin merenpinnan korkeusaineistoa on tarjolla myös satelliittimittauksista. Tässä työssä merenpinnan nousun vertailutasona on käytetty kummallakin mittausmenetelmällä tehtyjä merenpinnan nousuaikasarjoja. Jotta noususkenaariot ja mittausaikasarjat olisivat keskenään vertailukelpoisia, valittiin yhteiseksi aloitusvuodeksi 1980. Kaikkien merenpinnan noususkenaarioiden ja mittausaikasarjojen nollataso siirrettiin alkamaan tästä vuodesta. Globaalit ilman lämpötilan noususkenaariot ovat kiihtyviä, ja yleisesti myös merenpinnan noususkenaarioiden oletetaan olevan kiihtyviä. Merenpinnan noususkenaarioihin, joille ei ollut annettu merenpinnan nousun väliarvioita, sovitettiin toisen asteen yhtälön mukainen kiihtyvyys. Muihin skenaarioihin sovitettiin kaikkien annettujen välipisteiden kautta kulkeva käyrä. Tässä työssä tarkastellut merenpinnan noususkenaariot poikkeavat toisistaan huomattavasti alimpien skenaarioiden ennustaessa parinkymmenen sentin merenpinnan nousua ja ylimpien skenaarioiden jopa useiden metrien nousua. Vuonna 2018 kaikkien skenaarioiden keskiarvo on noin 6 cm toteutuneen merenpinnan nousun yläpuolella, nousua vuodesta 1980 on tapahtunut noin 10 cm. Toteutunut merenpinnan nousu on myös selvästi skenaarioiden mediaanin alapuolella. Vajaa 70 % skenaarioista nousee nopeammin kuin vedenkorkeus on todellisuudessa noussut. Suomen rannikolla, Hangossa, merenpinnan noususkenaarioiden perusteella tehty ennuste on 2010luvulla muutamia senttimetriä mitatun merenpinnan yläpuolella. Merenpinnan noususkenaariot ovat vuosien varrella kehittyneet, mutta perustuvat edelleen paljolti samoihin tai samankaltaisiin menetelmiin kuin 1980-luvulla tehdyt merenpinnan noususkenaariot. Tämän takia on hyödyllistä tarkastella 1980-luvulla käytettyjä menetelmiä, niiden taustalla olevia oletuksia ja niistä saatujen ennusteiden osuvuutta. Tässä työssä tarkastellut merenpinnan noususkenaariot jaettiin tekomenetelmän mukaan kahteen pääryhmään. Toinen ryhmä koostui merenpinnan nousuun vaikuttavien osatekijöiden arviointiin perustuvista noususkenaarioista. Toisessa ryhmässä olivat semi-empiiriset skenaariot, joissa merenpinnan muutosta arvioidaan jonkin ilmastollisen suureen perusteella. Merenpinnan noususkenaarioista valittiin parhaiten vuosien 1980 - 2018 merenpinnan nousua kuvaavat skenaariot. Parhaiten osuvissa skenaarioissa oli laaja kirjo eri menetelmillä tehtyjä ja erilaisiin oletuksiin perustuvia skenaarioita. Merkittävää osuvuuseroa ei kahdella eri päämenetelmällä tehtyjen skenaarioiden välillä löydetty.
  • Inkeroinen, Tiia (2016)
    The purpose of this study was to research patients with Type 1 diabetes and (of) their experiences and perceptions of supportive communication, as well as (and) social support received from the diabetes doctor and the diabetes nurse. The aim was to understand supportive communication at doctor or diabetes nurse's office, (as well as) what kind of social support for Type 1 diabetes was typically received from doctor or nurse, and (as well as) what kind of support would be desired. In the field of speech communication, interest has been a particular aspect of interaction. Supportive communication is described as verbal or nonverbal communication, which aims to provide assistance or support to another person. At it(')s best, supportive communication can have positive effects on both the physical and psychological well-being of a person. In this study the subjects of the review have been instrumental in regards to emotional support for self-esteem and informational support. In this research, the data was collected interviewing nine people with Type 1 diabetes, five of whom were men and four women. Based on the results of this study, a number of Type 1 diabetes patients have experienced supportive communication and social support from their diabetes doctor and nurse. There are many factors that influence of the possibility to get support. These factors are related to sender, message, recipient or context. This study shows that doctor offers most of the instrumental and informational support. From the nurse, in some situations, it is possible to get the emotional support. Support that patients have been receiving from their doctor or nurse has help related to blood sugar values and in terms of writing a referral to another specialist. Support has also been defined as listening and comforting, or encouragement with disease-related problems. One of the major factors related to social support and supportive communication is that the doctor and the nurse has to be aware of the patient's individuality and the fact that patients want and need different types of support. When interacting with a patient, it is important for the doctor and the nurse to use person-centered messages as much as possible. When person-centered messages are used, the support seems more real and focused. Supportive communication and social support needs from doctor and nurse also vary depending on (related to that) how much support is obtained from elsewhere. Peer group support is important for many Type 1 diabetics and it has at least partly replaced the need for support from diabetes doctor and a nurse. Despite this, many still consider that help from doctor and nurse could be useful.
  • Naskali, Tuomo (2014)
    In the past few decades, Western countries have evolved from industrial societies to information societies. Skills that are useful in life and work are not the same as before. Schools as an institution have been criticized for lagging behind in change. For this reason,21st Century Skills have been developed to work as a model of skills useful in the future. The aim of this study is to observe the ICT projects of some first-graders in one school through the lens of 21st Century Skills. My goal is to study which 21st Century Skills were learned in the projects and how. iPads were used in the projects; two classes made multimedia books of themselves and one made video interviews about different professions. The pupils also used Edmodo, which is a social media and learning environment aimed at schools. Their activity in Edmodo is also studied from the viewpoint of 21st Century Skills. Social media has changed the way people live and work in a global level, but it has not been used or studied much in elementary schools. My study is a case study whose subjects were pupils from three 1st grade classes (age ~7) in an elementary school in Helsinki metropolitan area. The school has a pedagogical ICT support person who planned and carried out the projects together with the class teachers. The projects took place in April-May 2013 and I was present at the school to observe the lessons. The data of my study comprises of my own observation notes, the video material I filmed and the content the pupils produced in Edmodo. The data is analyzed with theorybased themes as per a model of 21st Century Skills. All three classes were analyzed together. The data reflects the future challenges of teaching. Many contents of 21st Century Skills were learned in the projects. Especially, skills related to social interaction, technology, creativity and problem solving were learned. The pupils shared ideas and solved problems together. Their actions were creative and target-oriented. By using iPads the pupils worked on their ICT skills and learned to use new apps and services quickly. Edmodo supported social and technological learning goals. Some pupils uploaded a lot of content to Edmodo, some only a little. Although social media was used only briefly by the students, they learned vital skills for upcoming years in school.