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Browsing by discipline "Psykologia"

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  • Palo-oja, Peter (2016)
    Introduction: Sleep related problems affect wellbeing extensively. Sleep problems share many common background factors with personality, such as individual way of processing cognitions and emotions. By understanding the interactions between personality and sleep, it is possible to develop better and more individual-friendly ways to treat sleep related problems. In this review, personality is approached from the framework of the Big Five personality traits, which are: extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness. The purpose of this review is to sum up the current results of the research conducted in the field of personality traits and sleep, to direct the future research on the field and to discuss the limitations of the current research. Results: There are interactions between personality traits and sleep. Neuroticism affects the quality and the amount of sleep negatively. However, the causality might go the other way around: sleep deprivation and problems falling asleep might cause later neuroticism. Extraversion has a relationship with better quality of sleep, diminished amount of sleep and fluctuating circadian rhythm between weekdays and weekends. Conscientiousness affects the quality of sleep, the regularity of the circadian rhythm and the morningness of the circadian rhythm. Individuals who have high openness have diminished need for sleep and they have coping-mechanisms that protect them against the negative effects of stress. Agreeableness has a relationship with better sleep in terms of quality and quantity, and with constant circadian rhythm between weekdays and weekends. The personality traits’ interactions include conscientiousness’ protective effect against neuroticism when considering sleep quality. Also, the differences in sleep quantity are statistically best explained with two traits: openness and neuroticism. Discussion: The interaction between personality traits and sleep has been investigated mainly from the point of view of personality traits. When the interactions are studied from the point of view of sleep it is possible to merge the effects of the personality traits and derive preliminary personality trait profiles for different aspects of sleep. The profile for good quality of sleep seems to be high extraversion, high consciousness, high openness, high agreeableness, and low neuroticism. The profile for poor sleep quality is almost reverse: high neuroticism, low extraversion, low consciousness, and low openness. Apart from the quality, it’s also possible to derive subjective sleep deprivation profile: high neuroticism and low extraversion or interestingly high extraversion if only the amount of sleep is being studied. Limitations of the current research in the field include a tendency to use university student samples, self-assessment inventories as the sole information source and the over-simplifying approach of merely studying one personality trait instead of the whole personality profile. Examining the personality trait profiles could lead to more statistically significant results and thus it might increase the practical implications in the field of personality and sleep.
  • Vikman, Kira (2016)
    Aims Previous studies have shown that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia resemble dissociative identity disorder (DID). Although symptoms in these disorders are similar, their treatment is not, which makes it important to reach for a correct diagnosis. The aim of this review is to clarify differential diagnosis in DID in relation to PTSD, BPD and schizophrenia and find features that are present exclusively in DID. Methods and Results The review included 17 scientific articles. DID-groups had more and more severe symptoms, especially concerning dissociation. Also, the ability to function in everyday life was better in DID-patients. Overall, they had more unusual perceptional experiences, positive and borderline symptoms than PTSD-groups, more amnesia, other psychiatric diagnoses and different kind of usage of defences than within BPD-patients, and more positive symptoms than schizophrenics, differing particularly in the quality of auditory hallucinations. On the other hand, BPD-groups had more borderline personality features whereas schizophrenics were more delusional than DID-patients. Discussion The review was not able to identify any factors that would account exclusively for DID, but the amount of dissociation and severity of symptoms were found as concurrent factors that help to differentiate DID from PTSD, BPD and schizophrenia. However, there are also many subtle differences between specific examined disorders and DID, which have to be taken into consideration. Useful methods in differential diagnosis are structured clinical interviews based on DSM-5, measures of dissociation and observations by significant others. Problems relating to the research of DID will be discussed.
  • Dunkel, Elias (2016)
    Children and adolescents have a high rate of participation in organized sports and physical activities. Participation in contact sports has been shown to be related to an elevated risk of suffering a concussion, which makes the management of concussions in child and adolescent athletes an important public health concern. Most of the research on concussion has been conducted on adults and the management protocols of concussions in both adult and youth athletes is based on this research. In this thesis I aim to provide an overview of the common symptoms and consequences of sports-related concussions, the effect of recurring concussions, and the special concerns relating to sports-related concussions in child and adolescent athletes. Research suggests that despite significant overlap, clinical and neuropsychological symptoms of a concussion may resolve at a different rate. In addition, neurophysiological functions appear to be altered for a far longer period than either clinical or neuropsychological symptoms. This is a cause for concern, as return-to-play (RTP) policy of concussed athletes is often based on clinical symptoms alone. A conservative RTP policy should be considered especially in concussed child and adolescent athletes, as they seem to recover slower than adults. Supervision is essential in concussion management, as youth athletes are often unaware of previously sustained concussions, premature RTP may expose the athlete to an elevated risk of suffering a second injury, and recurring concussions have been shown to have accumulating effects on neurocognitive functions.
  • Mikkonen, Kasperi (2016)
    Borderline personality disorder is a difficult disease which lowers the patients general functioning drastically. It is characterized by increased mortality rate and high treatment costs. Symptoms of borderline personality disorder are very complex and its aetiology is far from simple. The goals of this literature review were to review the genetic background of the disorder and possible overlapping genetic factors between borderline personality disorder and other psychiatric disorders. Large-scale twin studies show that the heritability of borderline personality disorder varies between 0,35-0,67. It can be said that the incidence of borderline personality disorder is strongly influenced by genetic factors. However, genome-wide association studies are scarce so the specific genetic mechanisms are largely unknown. Studies show that many other psychiatric disorders have common factors and genetic overlap with borderline personality disorder. These disorders include for example attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and substance use disorders. This review suggests that better understanding of the genetic factors of borderline personality disorder could improve diagnostics and treatment methods.
  • Pajunen, Sara (2016)
    Physical activity has a positive impact not only on physical and mental health but also on cognitive functions. It seems that physical activity improves performance in a variety of cognitive tests and slows down the natural cognitive decline associated with aging. During adolescence the plasticity of the brain is greater and parts of the brain that are essential for cognitive functions develop significantly. At the same time there is some evidence that globally increasing physical inactivity and obesity might influence negatively on health of the brain and further on cognitive functions. From this point of view physical activity may have an underestimated role supporting cognitive development in youth. Physical activity has a positive effect on performance in a variety of cognitive tests in adolescence. Physically active adolescents outperform physically inactive controls in verbal and numerical abilities, different reasoning ability tests and especially in tests that measure executive functions and attention. Physical exercise has a positive effect also on emotional well-being, behaviour and academic achievement. Based on the articles of this thesis regular organized physical exercise that is vigorous and includes a cognitive component has the strongest impact on cognitive performance. In some studies the association between physical activity and cognitive and academic performance was stronger in girls than boys. This finding could be explained by the fact that physical exercise decreases symptoms of anxiety and depression and that girls have more of these symptoms than boys. The underlying mechanisms of the association include learning and developmental mechanisms and physiological mechanisms that include functional and structural features of the brain. Physical exercise increases cerebral blood flow and oxygen intake in the brain and upregulates multiple neurotrophic factors that are essential for new neurons. Regular physical exercise possibly leads to more efficient neuronal networks and permanent cortical changes in adolescent’s brain. Scarce literature and various study designs might explain some of the inconsistency in the results. In the future more research is needed about what kind of physical exercise by type, intensity and duration is the most effective on cognitive development in adolescence. Increasing amount of literature supports the idea that physical activity is a lifestyle factor that has a holistic impact on health and well-being throughout the lifespan.
  • Ojanne, Oona (2016)
    Objectives. Self-compassion is compassion toward oneself and it consist of treating oneself with kindness, understanding one’s shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Self-compassion is theorized to have positive mental health benefits and it is associated with psychological well-being. Depression is a mood disorder which is characterized by low mood, reduced energy and anhedonia. Is is the second leading cause of disability worldwide. The aim of this review was to describe the concept of self-compassion, define if self-compassion and depression are associated and how, and what mediators between self-compassion and depression have been discovered. Conclusions. High level of self-compassion was associated with lower levels of depression symptoms across the studies. Also the subscales of self-compassion were associated with depression in some studies. There were preliminary results that practising self-compassion might reduce depression symptoms. These practices didn’t have a straight impact on negative affects but instead had effect on rumination in the context of negative life events. The main mediators of the relationship between depression and self-compassion were discovered to be rumination, automatic thoughts, irrational beliefs, cognitive avoidance and shame. Self-compassion had been doscovered to correlate with emotional and cognitive reactions and buffer stress in the context of negative life events. There were multiple problems in the studies. The populations of the samples were restricted, when assessing self-compassion, almost all the studies used just one self-report measure of which validity is questionable and subscales partly overlap with depression symptoms. More work is needed to delineate the construct of self-compassion and to develop more valid and reliable assessment methods. Even thought there exists some serious shortcomings in the study of self-compassion, the association between self-compassion and depression is consistent. Increasing one’s self-compassion is theoretically easier than increasing one’s self-esteem, and it may help people to modify their deficits and change negative self-centered emotions to compassion toward one self.
  • Salo, Verna (2016)
    Objectives. Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder in which the mood varies between depressive state and mania or hypomania. In earlier studies it has been observed that the depressive episode of bipolar disorder might be often inaccurately diagnosed as recurrent depression or unipolar depression. This might lead to lengthening of the symptoms and at worst, to use of antidepressants without the simultaneous use of mood stabilizers which in turn might lead to mania or hypomania. Thus, the objective of this review is to study the distinctive factors of the depressive episodes between bipolar disorder type I and II and unipolar depression, emphasizing genetic factors, the symptoms during depressive episodes, comorbid disorders, subthreshold hypomanic symptoms and the effects of pharmacotherapy during the depressive episodes. Results and conclusions. In the review it was found that many factors distinguished the depressive episodes of bipolar disorder and unipolar depression although for comorbid disorders, especially for alcohol and substance dependence and abuse, the number of depressive episodes, and the severity of depressive symptoms the evidence was contradictory. The family history of bipolar disorder, the depressive symptoms and the age at the onset of the mood disorder were found to be associated with the onset of bipolar disorder. The use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder without the simultaneous use of mood stabilizers was noted to possibly lead to a switch from depression to mania or hypomania. Bipolar disorder was also found to share genetic factors with depression and schizophrenia which supports the idea that mood disorders constitute a dimension. In the future, it would be important to increase the accuracy of diagnostics and diagnostic criteria should be re-evaluated. Moreover, the caregivers should be educated about the differences between the depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and unipolar depression and the assessment of family history of bipolar disorder should be established as a basic procedure in the assessment of a mood disorder. Also, one should pay more attention to the occurrence of subthreshold hypomanic symptoms and the use of pharmacotherapy and its effects on the individual during the treatment of a depressive episode. It would also be important to develop a pharmacological treatment that could be used in the treatment of both unipolar depression and bipolar depressive episode.
  • Marin, Pinja (2016)
    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been associated with increased criminality in both clinical and population-based studies. However, the details of and the mechanisms behind ADHD’s connection to increased criminality are not well-known yet. This is understandable considering the complex nature of the association between ADHD and criminality. In the first chapter of this paper the role of Conduct Disorder in the association between ADHD and criminality will be reviewed. Then, the connection of the two symptom dimensions of ADHD (attention-deficit and hyperactivity-impulsivity) to the association between ADHD and criminality will be discussed. In general, ADHD with comorbid Conduct Disorder has been linked to more severe and frequent delinquency compared to uncomplicated ADHD-diagnosis. Children with ADHD have an increased risk of Conduct Disorder compared to the general population. Especially hyperactivity-impulsivity has been connected to the occurrence of comorbid Conduct Disorder. ADHD’s association with Conduct Disorder has been explained with the overlap of the two disorders as well as causally with the symptoms of ADHD possibly predisposing to Conduct Disorder. Attempts to control the effects of comorbid Conduct Disorder has lead to different results regarding the independent association between ADHD and criminality. After controlling for comorbid mental disorders the symptoms of ADHD have been suggested to predispose individuals to less serious and specific types of crimes. The associations of hyperactivity-impulsivity and attentional problems with criminality have also been studied separately. In most studies hyperactivity-impulsivity has been more strongly associated with criminality than attention-deficits. Research regarding the relation of Conduct Disorder and the symptom dimensions of ADHD with the association between ADHD and criminality are partly conflicting. Researching the connection between ADHD and criminality further would be important to be able to settle these conflicts. It would also give psychologists better tools to help individuals with ADHD who could be prone to committing criminal acts.
  • Talvitie, Emma (2016)
    Study objectives: The efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy based interventions in treating sexually abused children and adolescence is examined in this meta-analysis . Sexual abuse of minors is a serious issue with severe short and long-term consequences on physical and mental health. Previous reviews have shown cognitive behavioural therapy treatments to be effective in treating sexually abused children and adolescence. This meta-analysis adds latitude to this field of study by including more recent studies that have been excluded from earlier reviews. Methods: In all of the studies included all the participants were under 18, they have been sexually abused and they have received cognitive behavioural therapy treatment. Studies were researched through two different databases using different keywords and references of the previous meta-analyses were checked. 18 studies fitting the criteria were found. For each study one effect size, Cohen’s d, were calculated. In the meta-analysis random effects model were used and studies were weighted by variance. Heterogeneity of the studies was examined with Q-test and publication bias with Funnel plot and Fail -safe N-test. Results and conclusions: Cognitive behavioural therapy based interventions are effective. The average effect size was d=0.67 and it was statistically significant. The included studies were heterogeneous and affected by publication bias. The results support the use of these kinds of interventions in treating sexually abused minors.
  • Peltonen, Jonna (2016)
    Physical activity is beneficial for health and it has an important role in preventing several diseases. However, physical activity may in some cases become an addiction and cause physical, psychological and social harm to an individual. The purpose of this literature review was to consider individual and psychosocial factors that associate with exercise dependence, and possible causes and mechanisms of exercise dependence. Regarding temperament and personality traits, high extraversion, neuroticism, harm avoidance and persistence, and low self-directedness and cooperativeness are positively associated with exercise dependence. The results concerning neuroticism are not, however, perfectly consistent. Also different combinations of traits and behavioral dispositions such as perfectionism and narcissism are related to exercise dependence. Strong exercise identity and beliefs of physical inactivity’s harmfulness are also associated with exercise dependence. Regarding psychosocial factors, specific anxiety factors such as health anxiety and anxiety over one’s physical appearance, as well as eating disorder are associated with exercise dependence. Individual and psychosocial factors may be associated with exercise dependence through a variety of mechanisms. Exercise can help in managing stress, or it may fulfill a person’s needs for excitement, activity and competition. Perfectionistic traits may be associated with exercise dependence through accomplishments gained through exercise. In future research, it would be useful to focus on developing congruent definition for exercise dependence in order to improve the measurability of the phenomenon. It would be important to perform the studies within different populations, such as among people who practice different sports. Also experimental and longitudinal studies are needed. Identifying individual and psychosocial factors that contribute to the development of exercise dependence may help in recognizing and intervening in the problem. For instance, recognition of factors that affect exercise dependence may help in preventing overstraining conditions and injury progression to chronicity. Identifying factors that contribute to exercise dependence may also assist in preventing psychological and social problems, such as family- and work-related ones.
  • Rantakallio, Pekka (2016)
    Sedentary behaviour has been found to increase the risk of cancer, coronary heart disease, and mental disorders. It is important to know which factors affect sedentary behaviour in order to motivate people to take care of their psychological as well as physical health by being physically more active. This literature review considers the relationships between physical activity, temperament and personality. The correlative relationships between physical activity and individual differences have been studied quite thoroughly. Out of the five personality traits in the Big Five personality theory extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and emotional stability have been found to correlate with physical activity. In addition to the correlations conscientiousness, extraversion, emotional stability, and openness to experience have also been found to increase physical activity. Furthermore, the conscientiousness, extraversion, openness to experience, as well as agreeableness of physically more active adults have been found to reduce less over time than on physically less active adults. Additionally, physical activity has been found to increase the persistence and maintain the emotional stability among children. Summarizing, certain personality traits may affect the development of a physically active lifestyle, and physical activity may respectively contribute to the development and stability of personality traits. There is a need to study the relationships between physical activity, temperament and personality since the associations and the causal connections between the phenomena are not yet precisely known. The definitions used in the studies should be unified and the measurement methods and the statistical analyses should be further developed. More longitudinal research should be conducted. Furthermore, studies focusing on the mechanisms between physical activity, temperament and personality are needed. Additionally, it is important to study the differences between different modes of physical activity in terms of how they relate to temperament and personality. These future examinations might be useful for people who design and implement physical activity interventions.
  • Jansson, Maarit (2016)
    Depression is a common mental disorder worldwide and it is typically treated with antidepressants and/or psychological therapy. However, there has been a growing interest in alternative approaches, such as exercise, as methods of prevention and treatment of depression. Previous observational and interventional studies have suggested that exercise and physical activity are associated with reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms and depression. The mechanisms mediating this association remain poorly understood. In order to improve exercise intervention as a treatment of depression, it is crucial to examine, which mechanisms are dominant in the association. Therefore, this review focuses on the roles of antidepressant mechanisms of exercise. The published results indicate that especially regular exercise of moderate intensity approximately three times a week lowers the odds of depressive symptoms and depression. The mechanisms that have gained the most support in the studies are the endorphin hypothesis, the brain derived neurotrophic factor hypothesis, the distraction hypothesis, the self-efficacy and mastery hypothesis and the social interaction hypothesis. However, it is yet unknown, which of these mechanisms are in a dominating position. It seems that for example the intensity and the duration of the exercise, as well as the motivation and gender of the exerciser, may play a role in the association between the exercise and depression. In conclusion, the results have been variable and further research is needed to clarify the antidepressant mechanisms of exercise.
  • Kokko, Sini (2016)
    Studies have consistently reported the link between depression and Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this thesis is to clarify this link and to examine depression as a risk for Alzheimer's disease as well as its prodrome. On the grounds of research, history of depression seems to be both an individual risk factor and a prodrome for Alzheimer's disease. Depression earlier in life, even dozens of years before the onset of Alzheimer's, is related to the increased risk for Alzheimer later in life. It also seems possible, that the severity and number of depressive symptoms and episodes may increase the risk for Alzheimer. However, for some elderly people depression seems to be the first symptom of a dementia disease. Depression close before getting the diagnosis of Alzheimer's seems to be associated with Alzheimer's especially when there's cognitive decline along with depression: either pseudodementia or MCI. In the future, depression must be seen as a risk for Alzheimer's that can be affected. Thus, effective and early treatment of depression may then decrease the risk for Alzheimer's and possibly prevent it. More attention should also be paid on geriatric depression, especially when along with memory problems or decline in other cognitive skills.
  • Ylijoki, Anu (2016)
    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a mental health disorder, which requires a diagnosis or identifying an illness in order to be treated. There are nine criteria symptoms for MDD, and to acquire a diagnosis, an individual must exhibit five to nine of these symptoms (DSM-5). The weight of the criteria symptoms is assumed to be equal and a sum-score is calculated. The sum-score determines whether the MDD in question is mild, moderate or severe. The sum-scores simplify MDD because it is a heterogeneous syndrome. The diagnostic criteria see MDD as a common cause network: criteria symptoms are equally weighted indicators of an illness called MDD. Symptom-based networks are presented as an alternative, more precise way of modeling MDD. In symptom-based networks MDD is seen as consisting of causal connections between symptoms so that a certain existing symptom is likely to result in the manifestation of another symptom. Symptom-based networks are well-suited for explaining the heterogeneity of MDD, the vast spectrum of symptom combinations and the interrelationships of symptoms. In addition, symptom-based networks bypass entirely the problematic assumption that MDD is a latent phenomenon. The heterogeneity hidden in the MDD diagnosis is critically examined through research evaluating the diagnosis and pathogenesis of MDD as well as symptom studies. The results from depression studies and clinical practice strongly indicate that the official view of the scientific community on the etiology of MDD is wrong. A tremendous amount of heterogeneity is hidden behind the MDD diagnosis.
  • Vahtera, Laura (2016)
    Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by varying degrees of intellectual functioning limitations. Approximately one third of people with intellectual disabilities have problems regulating emotions and behavior management problems. In general, people with intellectual disabilities are offered psychodynamic individual therapy, psychodynamic group therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, counselling and systematic family therapy as an intervention. The purpose of this thesis was to examine the suitability and effectiveness of the mindfulness-based interventions for people with intellectual disabilities. As a point of interest was the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for decreasing aggression, depression and anxiety. This thesis also examined the effects of effectiveness in mindfulness-based interventions when staff members working with people with intellectual disabilities and parents of people with intellectual disabilities had mindfulness training and practice. Furthermore, the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for people with intellectual disabilities to have a greater self-determination and mindfulness-based intervetions as cost-effective interventions was discussed. The studies show sings of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for decreasing aggression, depression and anxiety with people with intellectual disabilities. Trainig staff led to benefits for people with intellectual disabilities, decreased use of physical restraint for aggressive behaviour and increased job satisfaction. Training parents led to reduced stress and improved parent–child interactions. Despite the long duration of mindfulness intervention and its cost mindfulness-based interventions are still cheaper for society. This is caused by the positive effects of mindfulness therapy, such as reduced acts of violence with people with intellectual disabilities and because of that costs of staff’s lost days of work and cost of medical and rehabilitation because of injury caused by people with intellectual disabilities were reduced. In addition to these positive effects offering mindfulness-based interventions to people with intellectual disabilities, mindfulness might be useful for people with intellectual disabilities to have a greater self-determination in everyday life. The use of restriction measures for calming people with intellectual disabilities is considered as a factor that weakens their delf-determination. As people with intellectual disabilities being able to calm themselves the use of restriction measures would be decreased.
  • Muukkonen, Ilkka (2016)
    Multivariate methods make it possible to examine the effects of several variables simultaneously. In cognitive neuroscience, the most frequently used multivariate method is multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), which has established its place especially in studies using fMRI. MVPA is more versatile and provides better accuracy than the traditional analysis methods. Studies using MVPA can be divided into three categories: studies classifying similar stimuli, studies classifying different stimuli, and representational similarity analysis (RSA). In classification studies the collected data is used to create an algorithm, which is then used to predict observed stimuli. When the observed stimuli are similar to the ones used in creating the algorithm, the accuracy of the predictions can reach remarkably high levels. Using different observed stimuli reduces the prediction accuracy but makes it possible to infer more about the information processing of the brain and improves the ecological validity. Representational similarity analysis allows straight comparison of different stimuli, theoretical models and data from different sources. In RSA, a representational dissimilarity matrix is created from the collected data, and it can be compared to for example the predictions of psychological theories or behavioral results. MVPA-studies have shown that it is possible to get more precise information of the functions of the brain with current imaging methods than was thought to be possible. At their best, multivariate methods can integrate cognitive neuroscience and psychological theories and increase our knowledge of the information processing in the brain.
  • Vestvik, Milla (2016)
    Models of moral judgment and decision-making are traditionally divided into rationalist and intuitionist models depending on whether moral judgments are thought to be the result of a rational reasoning process or moral intuitions. The social intuitionist model represents intuitionist models of moral judgment and suggests that moral judgments are the result of affectively based moral intuitions and that moral reasoning mainly occurs as a post-hoc rationalization. The objective of this thesis is to review recent neuroimaging studies on moral decision-making and to evaluate the validity of the social intuitionist model in that moral judgments are caused by moral intuitions and not by moral reasoning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies examining the neural correlates of moral decision-making indicate that affective processing and abstract reasoning can both result in moral judgments. Brain areas associated with emotion become more activated in moral personal dilemmas than in impersonal dilemmas, whereas impersonal dilemmas engage brain regions associated with working memory. In addition, utilitarian judgments made in difficult personal dilemmas depend more on brain areas associated with cognitive conflict monitoring and cognitive control compared with deontological judgments. Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies support the idea that moral intuitions arise early in the decision-making process. However, affective processing may begin even in the later stages of moral decision-making after moral intuitions have been initiated, thus questioning the role of emotion in moral intuitions. The social intuitionist model has both gained support and been criticized. In the light of neuroimaging studies, it appears that moral reasoning has a more significant role in moral judgments than assumed in the model. In addition, moral intuitions may not be affectively based as assumed in the social intuitionist model. It might be necessary to update the model regarding the role of reasoning in moral judgments and the relationship between emotion and moral intuition. In the future, more comparable experimental designs should be employed to make the comparison of the variety of neuroimaging studies more sensible.
  • Virta, Vilma-Lotta (2016)
    Motivational interviewing is a counseling approach for increasing the client’s readiness to change. This is done by helping the client explore their own values. In this review I am looking into its suitability for the treatment of anorexia nervosa. The review includes two case studies and three controlled studies about the e ectiveness of applications of motivational interviewing when treating eating disorders. One study about sta s’ and patients’ opinions about collaborative therapy style is also included, as well as two studies about the impact of readiness to change on recovery. Based on these ndings, motivational interview seems to increase clients’ motivation to change, but it did not lead to signi cantly better treatment outcomes, when compared to, for example, cognitive behavioural therapy. However, the sta and patiens seemed to prefer collaborative treatment style over directive style, and readiness to change appeared to lead to better recovery. These ndings are somewhat contradictory to the ndings of the controlled studies. Still, since the studies included here had many aws, the topic should be researched more thoroughly.
  • Mäkelä, Mari (2016)
    Mental training, or motor imagery training, refers to cognitive rehearsal of a motor task without overt physical movement. The focus of this thesis is to present an overview of motor imagery research and the neural mechanisms behind motor imagery. I also review some recent studies about motor imagery training and at the end of this thesis I shortly introduce the PETTLEP-model of motor imagery training. Imaging of performing the motor task relies widely on the same neural mechanisms than performance of the same task, and studies have shown that mental training can improve the actual performance. Motor imagery has been studied in the field of cognitive neuroscience and sport psychology, but there has been a lack of communication between these research fields. This has for example lead to the confusion of the different definitions. Current research knowledge suggests that motor imagery training can be most effective when combined with physical training.
  • Haveri, Laura (2016)
    The profession of a musician is defined by factors that can expose to specific health related issues. One of the most common ones is performance anxiety that can, in severe cases, cause suffering, impair the ability to function, and even lead to giving up one’s career. The ways of self-treatment might not be efficient or might even be harmful to musician’s health, and therefore professional help is vital in the treatment of music performance anxiety. There is no uniform theoretical view of music performance anxiety neither a common treatment practice, which makes successful treatment more challenging. The aim of this literature review is to form a more coherent view of music performance anxiety and summarize potential interventions studied so far. The literature used was recent research in the field of music performance anxiety. Music performance anxiety can be divided into different, greatly interconnected dimensions such as social, cognitive, and somatic dimensions. It is thought to be developed through a negative cycle, which is affected by for example the social characteristics of the performance situation, the arousal of the performer, and their cognitive appraisal. These can form specific learning experience, which possibly strengthens the negative cycle when repeated. The purpose of the intervention is to stop this negative cycle and help to unlearn the possible debilitating thought and action models behind it. The current research states that the behavioural and cognitive methods have the biggest role in the treatment of music performance anxiety. Methods using relaxing and breathing techniques can help especially with the symptoms caused by heightened arousal in performance situations. Also, medical treatment has proven to be one possible way to alleviate these somatic symptoms. Nevertheless, other kinds of intervention methods are preferable inter alia because of the side effects medication may have. All in all, recent research has broadened the understanding of the multidimensional nature of music performance anxiety. In addition, there are great amount of potential intervention methods for music performance anxiety, although more, higher-quality research is needed to prove their efficiency.