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  • Aalto, Angela (2019)
    Today it is desirable to utilise and reproductive sidestream materials from the industry. The food industry generates lot of sidestream waste which could be utilised in various products. Grain hulls are one example. The aim of this work was to study the structure and chemical features of sidestream oat and barley hulls from the industry. Furthermore, the potential to use hull fractions with pulp to produce kraft paper was examined. The grain structure and chemical features of oat and barley have been studied extensively in the food industry but hulls barely at all. The intention was to study lipids, hemicellulose sugars and lignins. From the perspective of paper production, it was important to examine hulls fibres (anatomy), fibre separation and fibre wall fibrillation. Kraft paper must possess specific mechanical properties. Sufficient fibrillation and fibre network of the plant fibres renders paper durable. The hull fibres were examined with a light microscope. The hulls were macerated before microscopy. Compounds, lipids, organic acids and sugars were extracted with hexane and acetone in the Accelerated Solvent Extraction. The samples were analysed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The hemicellulose sugars of the hulls were isolated with methanolysis and analysed with a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. The hull lignins were defined with pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The other compounds of the samples were extracted with acetone by Accelerated Solvent Extraction before pyrolysis determination. The oat and barley hulls were milled with a disc refiner and added to the softwood (pine) pulp in a Valley hollander beater. The pulp was milled for 90 min and the pulp filtration was measured with a Schopper-Riegler freenes tester. Also, water retention value was calculated. Sheets of paper were made with a conventional sheet mould. The aim grammage of the paper sheets was 60 g/m². The mechanical, physical and optical properties of the paper sheets were measured. The properties measured were thickness, density, surface smoothness/roughness, air permeability, opacity, light scattering, light absorption, brightness, tensile strength, breaking strength, elongation, bursting strength and tearing strength. Half of the paper sheets were calandered. The chemical properties of oat and barley hulls did not differ significantly from each other. The same hemicellulose sugars were found in the hulls of both grains, however more mannose and arabinose were found in oat hulls. The hulls of both grains had almost the same total hemicellulose quantity. The quantity and quality of lignins were also similar in both grain hulls. Guaiacyl lignin was dominant in both hulls. Minor differences in hemicellulose sugars does not have an impact on paper production. The hull fibres were very similar in microscopic examination, but oat hulls were somewhat longer than barley hulls. These differences did not impact the separation of fibres, the fibrillation of fibre wall or paper making. Oat hulls were harder, which became most apparent in the calandering and appearance of the sheets. Barley hulls were darker but the mechanical and physical properties of the grain hull paper sheets were quite similar. The hull fractions amount in the pulp (10% or 20%) did not significantly impact the results. The milled hull fractions were not distributed evenly in the sheets, the fibres did not separate properly and no internal or external fibrillation occurred. As mentioned before, the sheets were not homogeneous and the standard deviation of the sheet properties were partly significant. Adding the hull fractions to the pulp was successful and the milled hull fractions did not fall off the sheets. Calandered sheets were smooth and glossy. Moreover, the sheets were visually pleasing. This study indicated that it is possible to use hull fractions for paper and kraft paper production. The paper mostly met the same quality requirements as commercial paper. More research is needed for further optimisation. More research into the chemical properties of oat and barley hulls is also needed, because of the hulls of both grains contain antioxidant components and could provide more information about advanced fibre separation and fibre wall fibrillation.
  • Turula, Ari (2019)
    Ilmastonmuutos on yksi suurimmista eliöiden runsauteen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Keskilämpötilat nousevat pohjoisella pallonpuoliskolla etenkin talvella, mikä vaikuttaa talvehtiviin lintuyhteisöihin. Osa lajeista hyötyy lämpenemisestä ja osalle siitä on haittaa. Lauhtuvista talvista hyötyvät esimerkiksi eteläiset, lämpöä suosivat lajit, jotka leviävät pohjoista kohti. Pohjoiset lintulajit joutuvat taas vetäytymään pohjoiseen vähentyvistä elinalueista johtuen. Kylmien alueiden linnuilta voi loppua elintila, sillä ne eivät voi vetäytyä loputtomasti. Euroopassa esimerkiksi Jäämeri rajoittaa monien lajien leviämistä enää pohjoisemmaksi. Suomessa on talvella huomattavasti vähemmän lintuja kuin kesällä, sillä suurin osa linnuistamme muuttaa pois talveksi. Tämä saattaa tulevaisuudessa muuttua, mikäli talvet muuttuvat leudommiksi. Osa muuttajista voi viivytellä mahdolli-simman pitkään ennen muutolle lähtöä ja osa saattaa jäädä jopa yrittämään talvehtimista. Tästä seuraa, että lintuyhtei-söt voivat muuttua enemmän lämpöä suosiviksi, jolloin yhteisöjä dominoivat eteläiset, lämpöä suosivat lajit. Talvisia lintuyhteisöjen muutoksia voidaan tutkia esimerkiksi talvilintulaskentojen avulla, joita Suomessa on tehty vapaaehtoisten toimesta jo noin 60 vuoden ajan. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitin runsastuvatko eteläiset lämpöä suosivat lajit suhteessa pohjoisiin, kylmää sietäviin lajeihin Suomessa. Tutkimukseni aineistona olivat talvilintulaskennat koko Suomen alueelta alkaen talvesta 1956/1957 talveen 2014/2015. Aineisto sisältää yhteensä 609 laskentareittiä, joista jokaista reittiä oli laskettu vähintään 15 kertaa. Lisäksi selvitin, voidaanko joulukuun muuttuvilla koko Suomen keskilämpötiloilla selittää talvisten lintuyhteisöjen muutoksia. Keskilämpötilat olivat saatavilla vuodesta 1961. Suomen talviset lintuyhteisöt ovat muuttuneet enemmän lämpöä suosiviksi. Muutoksen voi aiheuttaa esimerkiksi muutaman eteläisen lajin yksilömäärien runsastuminen tai kylmää suosivien lajien katoaminen alueelta. Joulukuun nousevat keskilämpötilat selittivät puolestaan yhteisöjen muuttumista vuositasolla. Tulokset voivat tarkoittaa sitä, että leudon-tuvat alkutalvet tulevat muuttamaan lintuyhteisöjä myös jatkossa. Tutkimukseni osoitti, että lintuyhteisöt muuttuvat ilmastonmuutoksen myötä. Pohjoisille leveyksille jää yhä enemmän talvehtivia lajeja ja pohjoisen lajirikkaus saattaa jopa nousta. Koska ilmastonmuutos vaikuttaa lintuihin, on erittäin todennäköistä, että se vaikuttaa myös muihin eliöyhteisöihin. Linnut reagoivat ympäristön muutoksiin erittäin nopeasti, joten niiden avulla on mahdollista havaita muutoksia lyhyellä aikajänteellä. Suomalaiset lintulaskenta-aineistot ovat kansainvälisesti vertailtuna hyvin kattavat. Ne sisältävät arvokasta tietoa lintujen määristä, joten niitä on tärkeää hyödyntää tutkimuksessa myös tulevaisuudessa. Lisäksi on tärkeää tutkia ilmastonmuu-toksen ja elinympäristöjen muutosten yhteisvaikutusta lintuyhteisöihin, sillä nämä kaksi tekijää voivat vaikuttaa merkittävästi lajien kannankehityksiin.
  • Kettunen, Henna (2010)
    Elinympäristön vaikutusta eliölajien esiintymiseen voidaan tutkia habitaattimallinnuksen keinoin. Havainnot lajin esiintymisestä ja puuttumisesta eri kohdissa maisemaa suhteutetaan tilastollisen mallin avulla ympäristötekijöihin, jolloin saadaan kuva lajin elinympäristövaatimuksista. Tällöin oletetaan, että laji esiintyy kaikkialla siellä, missä sen elinympäristövaatimukset täyttyvät. Metapopulaatioteorian valossa näin ei kuitenkaan aina ole: maisemassa voi olla runsaasti lajille soveltuvia mutta asuttamattomia kasvupaikkoja, koska uusien yksilöiden leviäminen ja vanhojen häviäminen eivät välttämättä ole yksittäisten kasvupaikkojen tasolla tasapainossa. Siten myös lajin leviämiskyky vaikuttaa siihen, millaiseksi sen levinneisyyskuvio maisematasolla muodostuu. Tässä työssä keskityn tammen (Quercus robur) alueellisen levinneisyyden mallintamiseen. Tammen suhteellinen harvinaisuus Suomessa sekä sen rooli luonnon monimuotoisuuden merkittävänä tukipilarina tekevät siitä mielenkiintoisen kohdelajin ekologiselle tutkimukselle. Tutkimuskohteekseni valitsin Wattkastin saaren, n. 5 km2:n alueen Länsi-Turunmaalta. Wattkastissa on tutkittu kahdeksan vuoden ajan tammella elävien hyönteisyhteisöjen rakennetta ja kannanvaihteluita, ja saaressa kasvaa yli 1800 luonnonvaraista tammea, joiden tarkat sijainnit tiedetään. Tässä ympäristössä tutkin, rajoittaako tammen alueellista levinneisyyttä ensisijaisesti sopivien elinympäristöjen tilajakauma vai pikemminkin sen leviämiskyky. Yhdistin tammen esiintymiskuviota kuvaavaan habitaattimalliin kokeellisen aineiston, jonka avulla arvioin tammen paikallisen esiintymiskuvion ja tammelle soveltuvien elinympäristöjen tilajakauman vastaavuutta. Kokeellisen aineiston muodostivat 104 Wattkastiin vuonna 2004 istutettua pikkutammea, joiden selviytymisen ja kasvupaikkaolot kartoitin syksyllä 2009. Tutkin yleistetyillä lineaarisilla malleilla puiden menestymiseen - siis selviytymiseen ja kuntoon - vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Etsin potentiaalisia selittäjiä tammen menestymiselle kasvupaikan ympäristötekijöistä sekä istutetun puun sijainnista suhteessa luontaisiin tammikasvustoihin. Lisäksi tutkin habitaattimallin avulla, selittävätkö ympäristötekijät tammen nykyisen esiintymiskuvion Wattkastissa. Havaitsin, että istutetut puut olivat selviytyneet keskimäärin hyvin ja ettei niiden menestyminen riippunut sijainnista suhteessa luontaisiin tammikasvustoihin. Habitaattimallin selitysaste oli vain 19 %, eli kasvupaikkatekijät selittivät heikosti tammen nykyisen esiintymiskuvion Wattkastissa. Tulosten perusteella tammen paikallinen esiintymiskuvio ei vastaa sille soveltuvien elinympäristöjen jakaumaa maisemassa, joten tammen levinneisyyttä Wattkastissa rajoittaa ilmeisesti sen leviämiskyky. Tulokseni viittaavat siihen, ettei tammen elinympäristön laadussa ole suuria vaihteluita Wattkastin sisällä, koska sopivia kasvupaikkoja on tarjolla tammen nykyesiintymiseen nähden runsaasti. Tämä on tammihyönteistutkimusten kannalta kiinnostava tulos, koska se tarkoittaa, että aiemmat havainnot isäntäpuun sijainnin ja hyönteisten kannanvaihteluiden välisestä yhteydestä edustavat todellisia, tilaan sidottuja populaatioprosesseja eivätkä isäntäpuun välittämiä eroja elinympäristön laadussa. Lisäksi tutkimukseni osoittaa, että yhdistämällä habitaattimallinnukseen kokeellinen lähestymistapa saadaan realistisempi kuva lajin levinneisyyttä rajoittavista tekijöistä kuin tutkimalla pelkästään ympäristötekijöiden vaikutusta lajin esiintymiseen. Jos lajin rajoittunut leviämiskyky on vaikuttanut sen esiintymiskuvion syntyyn, pelkästään ympäristötekijöihin perustuva levinneisyysmalli liioittelee levinneisyyttä. Kokeellisen tutkimuksen avulla on tällaisessa tapauksessa mahdollista paljastaa myös leviämiskyvyn rooli esiintymiskuvion taustalla.
  • Lukkarinen, Iiris (2018)
    The aim of this study was to provide information about using citizen science in biology education. Citizen science is a form of scientific research, where public can participate in data collection or other phases of research. It is important to study educational use of citizen science, because citizen science has a lot of potential to increase students´ interest towards biology and knowledge about scientific research. In addition, citizen science could provide meaningful ways to use information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Using ICT, such as computers and smartphones, has become very common way to collect data in citizen science projects. This is a case study about using citizen science project called Matoseuranta, as part of biology education. Research questions were: (1.) How the teachers that participated in Matoseuranta experience the educational use of citizen science? (1.1) What benefits and challenges there is in the educational use of citizen science, according to the teachers? (2.) How well data collecting with mobile application is suited in citizen science project that is used in education? (2.1) What challenges and benefits there were related to collecting data with Matoseuranta-application according to the teachers? (2.2) How the teachers evaluate their skills and knowledge executing fieldwork that includes ICT? Survey was used to collect data from teachers that participated in Matoseuranta. 49 teachers answered to the survey (n=49). Open-end questions were used to collect qualitative data about teachers´ experiences about educational use of citizen science (1.1) and mobile app (2.1). This qualitative data was then categorised using qualitative content analysis. Likert-scaled questionnaire based on TPACK (=technological pedagogical content knowledge), was used to collect quantitative data about teachers´ self-efficacy related to executing fieldwork that includes using ICT (2.2). According to teachers, the most important benefit of educational use of citizen science was the autenthic research context, which increased student motivation. In addition, teachers mentioned that Matoseuranta increased students´ knowledge about scientific research. The unreliability of collected data was the most often mentioned challenge. Teachers felt that collected data was not reliable because students had no prior experience in executing scientific research. The mobile app was suited well in data collecting, because it provided an easy way to send data to researchers. In addition, few teachers mentioned that the app motivated students. Unfortunately, the app had many technical issues, which was the most often mentioned challenge about using the app. Most of the teachers felt that they master the use of technology and the skills needed in executing fieldwork. However, only few teachers felt that they have sufficient skills to execute fieldwork that icludes using ICT in a meaningful way. Based on the results of this study, it would be important to offer more citizen science projects that are suited in educational use to teachers. It would be beneficial to study what types of projects (theme, execution, ICT) teachers would want to use in their teaching. Results confirm prior assumption, that the task value is a very important factor influencing student motivation. It is important to make sure that students feel their work in school is meaningful. This study also suggest, that there is a need to provide training and materials about how ICT can be used in biology fieldwork.
  • Lin, Linh (2023)
    Lung cancer, the current leading cause of death by cancer, can be categorized into small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), lung adenocarcinoma of NSCLC being the most common. Advances have been made in lung adenocarcinoma treatment based on the tumor genetic profile, especially with epidermal growth receptor (EGFR) gene mutated lung cancers. The initial responses of targeted therapy have promising outcomes, but the patients acquire drug resistance against the selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as osimertinib. To find a way to prevent, revert, or bypass various EGFR TKI resistance mechanisms, they are studied in hopes of discovering new ways to inhibit or degrade EGFR, to target the bypass mechanisms, or tumor heterogeneity. This study aims to target intratumor heterogeneity of EGFR expression to prevent Osimertinib resistance/enhance Osimertinib efficacy in PC9 cells. It was detected that PC9 cells were a heterogeneous population, that could be separated into EGFR-low expressing and EGFR-high expressing cells. Based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) screening, EGFR-low cells had enriched expression of Ariadne RBR E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 2 (ARIH2) and RING finger protein 7 (RNF7) genes compared to EGFR-high cells. These genes encode proteins that are part of a ubiquitylation complex E3-E3 ligase, possibly mediating proteasomal degradation of EGFR. To verify this, the genes are first knocked out (KO) in PC9 EGFR-low cells with CRISPR-Cas9 method. Second, parental cells are treated with pevonedistat, which is an E3-E3 ligase activator inhibitor. The effects of ARIH2/RNF7 KO cells, and pevonedistat-treated cells are analyzed with flow cytometry. Lastly, an in vitro drug experiment to see, if the combination of osimertinib and pevonedistat would have a synergistic effect in killing PC9 EGFR-low cells. RNF7 KO cells and pevonedistat-treated cells appeared to have elevated levels of EGFR, insinuating EGFR is proteasomally degraded by E3-E3 ligase. The results of in vitro drug experiment looked promising as the combination drug treatment seemed to be the most effective. The E3-E3 ligase is an appealing target for cancer therapy but it has not been researched much in lung cancer context. Also, pevonedistat is still on clinical trials and has cytotoxic effects, therefore, the proteasomal degradation pathway of EGFR requires to be more studied.
  • Kari, Emma (2018)
    Metsällä on vahva asema suomalaisessa yhteiskunnassa niin historiallisesti, taloudellisesti kuin kulttuurillisestikin. Metsällä on myös merkittävä rooli maapallon hiilen kierrossa, mikä tekee metsien hoidosta ja metsätaloudesta keskeisiä kysymyksiä kansainvälisessä ilmastopolitiikassa. Kesällä 2017 Suomessa käytiin laaja julkinen keskustelu Euroopan parlamentin tulevasta metsien käyttöä säätelevästä LULUCF-päätöksestä. Keskustelu tarjoaa mielenkiintoisen mahdollisuuden tutkia metsien, ilmastonmuutoksen ja suomalaisuuden suhdetta. Heinäkuussa 2017 Euroopan parlamentin ympäristövaliokunta teki ehdotuksen maankäytöstä, maankäytön muutoksesta ja metsätaloudesta (ns. LULUCF-sektori) aiheutuvien kasvihuonekaasujen päästöjen ja poistumien sisällyttämisestä EU:n ilmasto- ja energiapolitiikan puitteisiin. Esitys pohjasi komission aiempaa esitykseen ja sen tavoitteena oli panna täytäntöön Pariisin ilmastosopimuksen mukaiset velvoitteet hiilinielujen kasvattamisesta. Esitys koettiin Suomen metsäteollisuuden ja Suomen hallituksen parissa kohtelevan Suomen metsäsektoria epäoikeudenmukaisesti, sillä se uhkasi rajoittaa hallituksen tavoitetta lisätä metsähakkuita merkittävästi. Ympäristöjärjestöt sekä monet metsä- ja ilmastotutkijat kritisoivat tätä hallituksen tavoitetta voimakkaasti. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena on diskurssianalyysin avulla selvittää, millaisia puhetapoja Euroopan parlamentin hiilinielupäätöksenteosta tehdyssä uutisoinnissa esiintyi kesän 2017 aikana. Erityisenä kiinnostuksen kohteena ovat eri toimijoiden valitsemat diskursiiviset strategiat ja kuinka valittujen puhetapojen avulla rakennettiin tukea omalle näkemykselle – pyrittiin oman puhetavan hegemonisointiin. Parlamentin hiilinielupäätöksentekoa käsittelevien uutisten diskurssianalyyttinen tarkastelu nostaa esiin kaksi valta-aseman saavuttanutta diskurssia. Käytän näistä hegemonisoituneista diskursseista nimiä metsäisen taistelun diskurssi ja eettisen metsätalouden diskurssi. Molemmissa diskursseissa Suomen hallituksen tavoite kasvattaa hakkuita näyttäytyi positiivisena. Tutkimusajanjakso ajoittui keskelle Suomen satavuotisjuhlavuotta. Tämän voidaan katsoa vaikuttaneen yhteiskunnalliseen keskusteluun helpottaen isänmaallisuutta korostavien diskurssien rakentamista. Molemmat hegemonisen aseman saavuttaneista diskursseista perustuivat isänmaallisuutta ja suomalaisia hyveitä painottavaan retoriikkaan. Tutkimus nosti esiin myös kaksi hakkuiden kasvattamiseen kriittisesti suhtautuvaa diskurssia. Ne eivät kuitenkaan saavuttaneet hegemonista valta-asemaa, eivätkä juuri kyenneet uhkaamaan valtadiskursseja. Näistä ei-hegemonisista diskursseista käytetään tässä tutkimuksessa nimiä ilmastokiireen diskurssi ja kansallisen itsekkyyden diskurssi. Molemmat nojaavat hegemonisia diskursseja vahvemmin tutkijoiden auktoriteettiin asiantuntijoina ja abstraktille tasolle jääneeseen argumentointiin ilmastonmuutoksen pysäyttämisen kiireellisyydestä. Näin ympäristönsuojelijoiden argumentaatio ei onnistunut vetoamaan suomalaisten tuntemuksiin yhtä voimakkaasti kuin hakkuiden kasvattamista tukevien toimijoiden retoriikka. Metsäteollisuuden etujärjestöt käyttävät merkittävää taloudellista ja poliittista valtaa Suomessa. Ympäristöjärjestöillä ja tutkijoilla ei ole käytössään vastaavaa valtaa. Tutkimuksen pohjalta tämä ei kuitenkaan täysin selitä sitä, että ympäristönsuojelijat eivät onnistuneet rakentamaan diskurssia, joka olisi pystynyt haastamaan metsähakkuiden kasvattamista tukevien diskurssien hegemonisoitumisen.
  • Stigell, Eveliina (2022)
    Talousmetsissä on huomattavasti vähemmän lahopuuta kuin luonnontilaisissa metsissä. Noin 25 % metsälajeista on riippuvaisia lahopuusta, ja lahopuun väheneminen on syynä monen lajin uhanalaisuuteen. Talousmetsiin on luotu lisää lahopuuta tekopökkelöiden avulla. Tekopökkelöitä tehdään harvennus- tai päätehakkuissa katkaisemalla puu noin 1–5 m korkeudelta. Tekopökkelöiden teko on yleistynyt 1990-luvulta lähtien, mutta niitä hyödyntävää lajistoa, etenkin lintuja, on tutkittu Suomessa vasta vähän. Tutkin, mitkä lintulajit käyttävät teko- ja luonnonpökkelöitä ja eroavatko niiden lajistot toisistaan. Lisäksi tutkin, millaisia pökkelöitä linnut käyttävät. Keräsin tutkimusaineistoni Viitasaarelta Keski-Suomesta tuoreilta päätehakkuilta, vanhoilta päätehakkuilta ja harvennushakkuilta. Laskin yhteensä 78 tekopökkelöstä ja 69 luonnonpökkelöstä (puulajeina kuusi ja koivu) lintujen syönnösjälkien ja pesäkolojen määrän sekä määritin ne tehneet lajit. Mittasin myös pökkelöistä ja tutkimuskuvioista ympäristömuuttujia selvittääkseni, millaisia pökkelöitä linnut käyttävät. Tutkimuskuvioilla ja niiden lähistöllä suoritettiin lisäksi lintujen linjalaskennat, jotta pystyin vertaamaan, eroavatko tutkimuskuvioiden lintulajiston laji- tai parimäärät lähialueen lintulajistosta. Vertasin tutkimusalueen linjalaskenta-aineistoa myös pohjoisen Keski-Suomen lintujen vakiolinjalaskenta-aineistoon saadakseni tietää, eroaako tutkimusalue yleisesti pohjoisen Keski-Suomen lintulajistosta laji- tai parimäärän suhteen. Käytin tilastollisissa analyyseissä lineaarisia sekamalleja ja yleistettyjä lineaarisia sekamalleja. Tutkimukseni perusteella linnut käyttävät tekopökkelöitä pesintään ja ruokailuun. Suurin osa syönnösjäljistä ja koloista oli tikkojen tekemiä, todennäköisesti käpytikan. Pökkelötyypillä (teko- tai luonnonpökkelö) ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevää yhteyttä pökkelön syönnösjälkien tai pesäkolojen määrään. Pökkelöllä oli tilastollisesti merkitsevästi enemmän syönnösjälkiä, kun pökkelö oli korkeampi, paksumpi, pidemmälle lahonnut, kaarnan peittävyys oli alhaisempi tai pökkelö sijaitsi lähellä metsän reunaa. Kolojen määrä oli tilastollisesti merkitsevästi suurempi, kun pökkelö oli korkeampi, paksumpi tai kun metsäkuviolla oli vähemmän maalahopuuta. Kolojen tai syönnösjälkien määrään ei vaikuttanut tilastollisesti merkitsevästi se, sijaitsiko pökkelö harvennushakkuulla vai päätehakkuulla säästöpuuryhmässä, keskellä päätehakkuuta tai päätehakkuun reunassa. Linjalaskennoissa tutkimuskuvioiden lintulajisto ei eronnut laji- tai parimäärältään lähialueen linnustosta. Tutkimusalueen lintulajisto ei myöskään poikennut pohjoisen Keski-Suomen linnustosta lajimäärältään, joten tuloksiani voi pitää yleistettävissä laajemminkin. Parimäärät olivat tutkimusalueen laskentalinjoilla alhaisempia, koska linjat olivat lyhyempiä kuin vakiolinjat. Tulosteni perusteella linnut hyötyvät eniten korkeammista ja paksummista tekopökkelöistä, jotka sijaitsevat lähellä metsän reunaa. Ajan myötä pökkelön lahotessa siitä tulee paremmin lintujen käyttöön soveltuva.
  • Sutinen, Suvi (2023)
    Metsätalouden seurauksena lahopuu on vähentynyt Suomen metsissä ja siten useat lahopuusta riippuvaiset lajit ovat päätyneet uhanalaisiksi. Lahopuun määrän lisäämiseksi metsähakkuiden yhteydessä on alettu jättämään säästöpuita ja tekopökkelöitä. Tekopökkelöt hyödyttävät lahotessaan lahopuusta riippuvaisia lajeja, kuten kolopesiviä myrkkypistiäisiä. Kolopesivät myrkkypistiäiset rakentavat pesänsä yleensä kovakuoriaisten puiden runkoihin kaivamiin koloihin. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, millaista myrkkypistiäislajistoa tekopökkelöt tukevat, millaiset ja miten sijoitetut tekopökkelöt ovat hyödyllisimpiä myrkkypistiäisille, onko tekopökkelön vai ympäristön laatu merkittävämpää myrkkypistiäisille ja eroavatko eri ekologisten ryhmien (mesipistiäiset, petoina elävät myrkkypistiäiset ja pesäloiset) myrkkypistiäiset pesäpaikkavaatimuksiltaan. Tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin kesällä 2021 Keski-Suomessa Viitasaarella, kuusivaltaisilta eri tavoin käsitellyiltä metsäkuviolta. Kuvioista kahdeksan oli harvennuksia, tuoreita päätehakkuita kahdeksan ja vanhoja päätehakkuita kymmenen. Tekopökkelöiden myrkkypistiäislajistoa tutkittiin keinopesien avulla. Keinopesät koostuivat muoviputkilosta, jonka sisällä oli eri kokoisia järviruo’on (Phragmites australis) korsia, monenlaisten myrkkypistiäislajien houkuttelemiseksi. Keinopesiä kiinnitettiin yhteensä 120 kappaletta teko- ja luonnonpökkelöihin, sekä kantoihin. Puulajeina oli kuusi ja koivu, sekä yksi haapa. Pökkelöistä ja metsäkuvioilta mitattiin niiden laatua kuvaavia muuttujia. Keinopesät olivat maastossa keväästä syksyyn, jolloin ne haettiin säilytykseen ulkovarastoon. Keinopesät siirrettiin huoneenlämpöön alkuvuonna 2022 pistiäisten aikuiseksi kehittymisen vauhdittamiseksi. Korret avattiin ja aikuiset myrkkypistiäiset tunnistettiin pesittäin lajilleen mikroskooppia apuna käyttäen. Tilastolliset analyysit suoritettiin R-Studiolla. Yksilö- ja lajimäärän muutoksia suhteessa selittäviin muuttujiin arvioitiin yleistetyillä lineaarisilla sekamalleilla (GLMM). Selittävinä muuttujina toimivat lämpötila, pökkelön korkeus, kaarnan peittävyys, alustan tyyppi, puulaji, lahopuun määrä, ravintokasvien määrä, hakkuutyyppi, pökkelön sijainti ja pesäkolojen määrä. Myrkkypistiäislajiyhteisöjen erilaisuutta arvioitiin NMDS-analyysillä. Sen avulla havainnollistettiin lajiyhteisöjen erilaisuutta eri hakkuutyyppien välillä. Keinopesistä löydettiin kolopesiviä myrkkypistiäisiä ja niiden myrkkypistiäispesäloisia yhteensä yli 3000 yksilöä. Petoina eläviä myrkkypistiäisiä löytyi eniten harvennusmetsistä, joissa oli alhaisempi lämpötila kuin tuoreilla ja vanhoilla päätehakkuilla. Mesipistiäisiä, jotka ruokailevat sekä toukka että aikuisvaiheessa medellä ja siitepölyllä, löytyi eniten tuoreilta ja vanhoilta päätehakkuilta. Näillä kuvioilla oli korkeamman lämpötilan lisäksi aurinkoisempaa ja enemmän ravintokasveja kuin harvennusmetsissä. Kaikkia myrkkypistiäisiä löytyi eniten korkeilta pökkelöiltä, joiden rungoilla oli vain vähän kaarnaa. Myrkkypistiäiset suosivat enemmän teko- ja luonnonpökkelöitä kuin kantoja. Pökkelön ympäristön ominaisuudet olivat kuitenkin tärkeämpiä kuin pökkelön ominaisuudet niin lajimäärälle kuin yksilörunsaudelle. Koska eri ekologisten ryhmien lajit suosivat erilaisia elinympäristöjä, tekopökkelöitä kannattaa jatkossakin tehdä sekä pääte- että harvennushakkuiden yhteydessä. Tekopökkelöitä tehdessä kannattaa myös huomioida niiden monipuolinen sijoittuminen reunoille ja keskelle hakkuuta, jotta niitä jää hakkuualueelle monenlaisiin ympäristöoloihin. Tekopökkelö tulisi katkaista mahdollisimman korkealta, sillä korkeisiin pökkelöihin mahtuu enemmän pesiä kuin mataliin ja matalat pökkelöt ovat alttiimpia kosteudelle, sekä pesien homehtumiselle kuin korkeat pökkelöt.
  • Lankinen, Venla (2023)
    Stories matter for climate change, as they help us make sense of the complexity, uncertainty and abstract nature of the phenomenon as well as imagine alternative, potentially better futures and process our emotions. In this thesis I look at how the most culturally relevant stories about climate change relate to those of climate activists. To study the culturally relevant climate change stories, a literary review is conducted. Based on the review, an analytical framework is created. In the framework, the different cultural perspectives on climate change are grouped under six categories called climate change tropes. The tropes are i) Climate Change Apocalypse, ii) Techno-optimism, iii) Business-as-usual, iv) Romantic Ecotopia v) Sustainable Growth and vi) Systemic Change. The stories in each trope share a similar plot and/or setting, a guiding emotion and an approach to solutions. To gather empirical data, two climate change storytelling workshops are hosted for climate activists. The participants are Finnish climate activists predominately from the group Elokapina (Extinction Rebellion of Finland). The workshops consist of two creative writing exercises and a semi-structured focus-group interview. In the first exercise, the participants are asked to write a story about climate change and in the second to write an ideal ending to this story. The interview is divided into three sections conducted before, in-between and after the writing. The stories written and the data from the interviews are analysed using a qualitive content analysis. The previously created analytical framework is used to look for similarities as well as differences in the stories the activists tell to those present in literature. In addition to the storylines, the emotions and the sense of authorship these activists experience in relation to the story of climate change are analysed. The stories of the activists are diverse and multifaceted. Most stories written in the first exercise relate to the trope of Climate Change Apocalypse. The activists’ emotions correspond the trope, being dominantly fear, sadness and guilt. The ideal endings relate most to the trope of Systemic Change. The emotion of radical hope associated with the trope, while not exclusively worded by the participants comes out in the action of being an activist and hoping for better futures even in the face of well-justified despair. All other tropes are also mentioned in discussion. In addition, three novel storylines emerge: misanthropy, individual change and climate changed living. In turn, a novel emotion emerging from the data is love. These storylines’ and emotions’ relationship to the six tropes is explored in analysis. In terms of authorship, the participants express a sense of collective authorship and shared responsibility. Lastly, risks about storytelling climate change are identified. As a complex phenomenon climate change does not necessarily comply to narrative format. This may lead to over-simplification of the issue. To counter this risk, I suggest building awareness around telling stories of climate change, as well as advocating for a multitude of stories rather than a single one – as there are as many stories about climate change as there are people telling them. There is also a risk of a story lock-in, where viewing one story of climate change as truth and thus the only possible future may hinder action. Yet, community-based and creative approaches can be useful in escaping these lock-ins and imagining alternatives.
  • Lemoine, Gabriela (2024)
    Lichens are symbioses between fungi, photosynthetic algae and other organisms. The fact that several different fungi may occur in the same lichen thallus adds a further dimension to the diversity of these miniature ecosystems. Calicioids are a polyphyletic group of predominantly lichenised fungi which includes many species with stalked ascomata, topped with a persistent spore mass (mazaedium). One such species is Chaenotheca chrysocephala, a relatively common crustose lichen with a wide distribution. The lichenicolous fungus Chaenothecopsis consociata grows on the thallus of C. chrysocephala and is generally considered to be a parasite. This study aims to map the temporal and geographical distribution of C. chrysocephala and C. consociata in Europe in order to find out whether the parasite was present there before the year 1942, when the species was described, and to identify possible patterns which may affect the population dynamics of these two species. This study found that C. consociata was indeed present in Europe before 1942, at least in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Additionally, the percentage of infected C. chrysocephala thalli seems to have increased in Europe since the parasite was first found. The GBIF dataset showed a significant increase in infected C. chrysocephala thalli in northern Europe (N-EU) compared to central-southern Europe (CS-EU). Although the exact reason is unclear, this increase may be related to differences in forest structure across Europe. Firstly, the host lichen seems to prefer Picea and Pinus as its substrate, these being typical trees of needleleaf forests in Europe. Furthermore, the decrease of old-growth forest stands in Sweden and Finland may have reduced suitable habitat for the host, while the concurrent increase of disturbed stands may have favoured the dispersal of the parasite.
  • Saarnisalo, Ona (2019)
    Lack of Ectodysplasin (EDA), caused by a mutated Eda gene, leads to a syndrome called hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) with defects in ectodermal organs such as teeth, hair and sweat glands. The molar teeth of Eda knock out (Eda KO) mice are absolutely and relatively smaller and have fewer cusps than the wild type (WT) molar teeth. In the absence of the EDA protein, the receptor of the EDA signalling pathway (EDAR) remains functional, and therefore EDA-protein therapy can rescue the development of ectodermal organs. The aim of this study was to determine EDA sensitivity windows and to describe the Edar expression pattern in developing mouse lower molars. Eda KO mouse skulls treated with EDA for 24 hours at different stages of development were imaged using x-ray microtomography. The response was studied by analysing the cusp patterns and size proportions of lower molars. In situ hybridisation was used to detect the Edar expression in the developing Eda KO and WT molars at different stages. The results show that molars are sensitive to EDA at the early stages of crown patterning, at the time when Edar is expressed in the primary enamel knot and the secondary enamel knots. The Edar expression pattern suggests that EDA signalling regulates molar size and cusp development through these signalling centres. EDA-treatment during a sensitivity window enhances the growth of the EDA sensitive molar, thereby breaking the previously reported inhibitory cascade –rule. The results of this study provide information for optimising the EDA therapy for XLHED patients.
  • Vesanen, Anna-Roosa (2023)
    Coastal habitats contribute significantly to global carbon cycling. These ecosystems store carbon into the sediment and provide a crucial ecosystem service of sequestering carbon from atmosphere. In situ carbon degradation assessment methods in coastal sediments have not been widely developed. A novel, cost-effective method for assessing degradation rates, ROMA (rapid organic matter assessment), has been developed recently, but it has not been tested yet in cool, shallow subtidal coastal areas. In this Master’s thesis, the aim is to test the ROMA methodology in shallow coastal habitats in Northern Baltic Sea. To investigate the method, following research questions were studied: (1) can carbon degradation be assessed by using the ROMA- method in the shallow coastal habitats, (2) whether carbon degradation rates differ between two sites with varying sediment characteristics, (3) how various diversity metrics and environmental context can be linked to carbon degradation rates. Results of this study show that ROMA method is feasible to assess carbon degradation rates in shallow coastal areas. There was a difference in the degradation rates between the study sites with different environmental characteristics, but the driver for the carbon degradation still seemed somewhat unclear. The methodology should be developed and trialled further, as it is promising cost-effective way to measure carbon degradation in situ.
  • Laiho, Helene (2022)
    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal acknowledged as a worldwide contaminant that accumulates in organisms and biomagnifies in food webs. The organic methylmercury (MeHg) species is harmful to animals, including humans, and mainly derived from the diet. The dietary Hg consumed by fish is mostly removed through the intestine, but some of the MeHg bioaccumulates, especially in the white muscle tissue of fish. Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) are commonly found fish species in Finland. Perch has additional im-portance as it is the national fish of Finland, a popular food fish, as well as a monitoring species used to evaluate the chemical status of lakes. Seasonal variation of Hg in muscle tissue of fish is supposedly caused by starvation in winter, which condenses Hg in the muscle, and growth dilution in summer, which refers to fast somatic growth during the growing season, which dilutes Hg in the muscle. Similar to winter, spawning has also been found to condense Hg in muscle tissue of fish due to high energy investment into gonad development. Seasonal variation of Hg and variables driving seasonal changes have been shown to differ between fish species. Seasonal variation has been studied mainly during the open-water season. However, less is known about how winter conditions under ice affect Hg levels in fish. In this MSc thesis, I asked (Q1) How total mercury (THg) content in the muscle tissue of perch and roach change annually? (Q2) How THg bioaccumulation in the muscle tissue of perch and roach change annually? (Q3) What are the factors explaining annual variation in THg content in the muscle tissue of perch and roach? The practical application of results was to discuss if annual variation should be considered in monitoring programs and human health questions. The materials used in this study were collected from Lake Pääjärvi monthly from March 2020 to March 2021. Fish were collected using gillnet series. Length, weight, sex, sexual maturity, stomach fullness, Fulton’s condition factor (K), and muscle THg were determined from each fish. The annual length-corrected THg content variation was tested using analysis of variance. The annual THg bioaccumulation variation in the relationship between muscle and fish length was tested using simple linear regression analysis, and the seasonal variation in THg bioaccumulation was tested with LOESS regression analysis. Variables affecting seasonal variation were tested with stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. THg content of perch was the highest in winter and spring and the lowest in fall, while roach showed no significant seasonal variation. THg bioaccumulation of both species was highest in winter, spring, and early summer and lowest in fall. Perch displayed more substantial seasonal variation than roach. Biological and environmental variables that explained the THg content of perch were length, ice thickness, gonadosomatic index (GSI), light, and condition factor. Variables that explained the THg content of roach were length, sex, and total phosphorus (Tot-P). This study confirmed that starvation in winter, growth dilution in summer, and spawning in spring/early summer are vital factors driving seasonal variation. Due to evident seasonal variation, monitoring month should be pre-set in current monitoring programs.
  • Hölttä, Jenna Katariina (2024)
    Climate change has caused a vital need to identify the coastal ecosystems with high carbon sequestration capacity, i.e. Blue Carbon ecosystems. The ability of these ecosystems to sequester carbon is strongly influenced by the physical environment. However, previous research on Blue Carbon potential of coastal macrophyte ecosystems has mainly focused on single seagrass species whereas research on multispecies meadows along environmental gradients, such as wave exposure has been scarce. Nonetheless, exposure and depth are known to shape the functional structure of macrophyte communities. The aim of this study was to investigate if exposure and depth affect the functional structure and biomass-bound carbon stocks of macrophyte communities along an exposure gradient in an archipelago area in the western Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. Macrophyte samples were collected at two different depths (1-2 m and 3-4 m) from 20 soft-bottom sites with different exposure levels. At each site, the functional community structure was quantified by measuring four functional traits (maximum height, root depth, root-to-shoot ratio, specific leaf area), associated with the variation in plant life history strategies and in addition, the plant biomass-bound carbon was determined. The results showed that when moving from the outer to the inner archipelago, the species composition shifted from marine to limnic species, and the community functional structure was shaped by environmental conditions (i.e. wave exposure, light availability, salinity) and depended on the depth. The plant carbon stocks did not differ significantly along the exposure gradient in the shallow areas, while at increasing depth, exposed sites had the highest plant carbon stocks, which can be likely explained with the environmental factors such as light availability. To conclude, these results highlight the need for further research that investigates the connection between environmental drivers, functional traits, and plant carbon stocks to assess the Blue Carbon potential of multispecies macrophyte communities in heterogenous environments.
  • Mattila, Bernd-Niklas (2020)
    Cladocerans play a key role in the aquatic ecosystem. They are abundant in lakes and are an essential part in the carbon and energy transfer of the food webs. These species are, however, prone to various environmental changes. Estimates have shown that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in northern lakes are likely to increase in the future. This increase of DOC in lakes has multiple impacts ranging from nutrient levels to shading impacts reducing primary productions. Investigating changes in cladocerans along a DOC gradient could help us understand how these species might develop in the future in our changing climate. In this Master’s Thesis, I studied how the cladoceran body length and community structure varied between 9 lakes with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration ranging from 2.4-33.5 mg l-1. For the analyses, these lakes where divided into two groups with a threshold of 12 mg l-1 or into groups of three based on their DOC concentrations. Then, the results were compared with cladoceran length data from an earlier study. Additionally, the changes in phytoplankton abundances and communities as well as the relation between DOC concentration and other environmental variables were analysed. The results showed an increase in the cladoceran body length above the DOC threshold. Moreover, the changes in body length varied between the studied genera. Both Ceriodaphnia sp. and Diaphanosoma sp. body length decreased in groups with higher DOC concentrations while Bosmina sp. were larger at high DOC concentrations. DOC concentration did not have any significant effect on the community structure of zooplankton. The studied lakes varied from their environmental condition making comparisons and general statements challenging. The results indicated that DOC concentration regulates the planktonic communities, but it is solely an imprecise predictor for changes in zooplankton communities. However, cladoceran densities seemed to benefit from increased DOC concentrations as nutrient levels also increased. Changes in cladoceran body lengths were challenging to interpret, because there are multiple factors that can have an impact both alone and combined with others.
  • Torvinen, Ida (2022)
    More than half of the global population lives in urban areas. Urban sprawl and densification have affected urban ecosystems and the services they provide. Urban vegetation is one of the most important providers of ecosystem services. Previous studies have shown that plant functional type and age of parks/trees affect soil properties in urban environments. However, knowledge on the effects of plant roots on ecosystem services is limited. In this thesis I focused on exploring the contribution of root biomass to soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation under evergreen and deciduous trees in urban greenspaces. In addition, I explored how soil properties differ based on tree type and age of the park/tree, and how sampling distance from the tree affects root biomass and soil properties. Soil samples were taken at five distances: 1) under the canopy (midway between the trunk and the canopy edge), 2) at the canopy edge, and 3)–5) 1 m apart, starting from the canopy edge. This transect of five distances was replicated three times per tree (30 trees in total). Trees belonging to two functional types were sampled, evergreen (mostly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and deciduous (Linden, Tilia x europaea L.) trees. Sampling was done in young (ca. 15 years) and old (>70 years) urban parks in Lahti and Helsinki. The results show higher root biomass under young trees than old trees, and spruces had higher root biomass compared to lindens. Root biomass was positively correlated with soil organic matter, soil carbon and soil nitrogen. Sampling distance from the tree affected both root biomass and soil properties in young and old parks. Plant functional type affected soil organic matter, soil carbon, C/N ratio and acidity, but not soil nitrogen. Irrespective of tree type, soil properties varied less in old parks than in young parks between the sampling distances. Soils under old spruces had higher total carbon content compared to young spruces, whereas for lindens, tree age affected soil carbon less on. Total nitrogen content was higher in old parks than in young parks for both tree types. My study provides new information about how park tree roots affect urban park soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation. There are no previous studies on how far this root effect extends, and my study fills this knowledge gap. My results show that tree roots are an important factor in urban park carbon stocks. I also showed that age of the park/tree has an evident effect on urban soil properties. In the light of my research findings, it seems that a significant portion of ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation is produced underground.
  • Neuvonen, Eerika (2019)
    Corporations’ desire to act in a responsible way as well as the amount of sustainability guidelines has increased during the past decades. Responsible Care (RC) program is an international sustainable development guideline practiced in chemical industry. The program focuses on sustainable use of natural resources, safety and sustainability of production and products, well-being of work community and reduction of waste and emissions. This study seeks to examine the correspondence of contents between national Responsible Care (RC) program in Finland and sustainability framework guidelines known worldwide. The aim of the study is to examine how corporations in chemical industry who follow the national RC program can meet the goals of sustainability framework guidelines, what are the main differences between the national RC program and other sustainability guidelines, and how the national RC program should be improved. The research methods include the content analysis and in-depth interview for corporations. In this research, the sustainability framework is built and the involved guidelines are specified. The national RC program is reflected on the sustainability framework guidelines through content analysis. A model for comparative content analysis is developed to compare the contents of sustainability guidelines by the means of qualitative data visualization through radar charts. The corporate in-depth interviews are applied with a view to obtain complete and comprehensive responses. This study demonstrates that the national RC program highly corresponds to sustainability framework guidelines in terms of environmental responsibility and safety, while the RC program less highlights the dimensions of social and economic responsibility. Based on the main differences, the possible targets for improvement in the national RC program are suggested to enhance consideration of economic and social aspects in the program. From the in-depth interviews, corporations recognize the national RC program to be a useful tool to implement and develop corporation’s sustainability work, yet there is a need to better correspondence with sustainability framework guidelines and to be more user-friendly in practice.
  • Tiihonen, Katariina (2021)
    Forests have become one of the key themes when it comes to sustainability and have been subject to many demands and pressures from various stakeholders in recent years. In particular, the responsible use of forests has surfaced in discussions during the past 20 years. As the world and overall atmosphere is becoming more favorable to sustainability, companies are required to adapt to a changed society. The forest industry has a significant impact on Finland’s sustainable development and economy. In the forest industry corporate responsibility work has developed as demands from society have grown and the work has become more holistic over time as knowledge on the matter has increased. Pressures on companies' environmental work have come from outside companies from society, as well as from internal actors within companies. One well established forest industry company in Finland is Metsä Group, which has long been profiled as an environmentally responsible company. Therefore, corporate responsibility work and its development in Metsä Group has been selected as my research topic. In this thesis, I examine how environmental responsibility work has changed from the point of view of sustainability professionals in Metsä Group during the years 2000-2020. As research material, I use interviews with Metsä Group's sustainability professionals, as well as responsibility and annual reports from 2000-2020. For the interviews, I selected former and current Metsä Group employees who have worked in the company, either the whole duration or partly, during the years 2000-2020. I have analyzed the materials using content analysis as a method. The interviews revealed that, in general, employees felt that, compared to the early 2000s, in 2020 Metsä Group took more and more holistic action for its environmental responsibility. In general, it was seen that the most significant factors influencing corporate responsibility were megatrends such as climate change and biodiversity loss, as well as a general change in societal perceptions related to corporate responsibility. Leaders’ commitment and attitude towards environmental responsibility, as well as customer requirements, were also perceived as significant factors in promoting responsibility work. It was generally felt that if customers or management saw the matter as important it was invested in. All in all, the environmental corporate responsibility of Metsä Group had steadily improved during 2000-2020. Overall, the interviewees felt that environmental responsibility has been incorporated into Metsä Group's strategy, and that corporate responsibility work has become more holistic and professionalized.
  • Karlsson, Thomas Malte Molnár (2021)
    The way environmental issues are discursively constructed matters for how they are understood and what possibilities there are to solve them. This makes it relevant to investigate discourses around environmental issues and their proposed solutions. One such solution is ecological compensation, which has been widely implemented as a way to avoid environmental degradation and achieve no net loss of biodiversity. Compensation is also a contested mechanism, however, which has been shaped by the interplay of various discourses with diverging understandings of nature conservation. In this study, I investigate how ecological compensation is constructed by experts in Finland. Using the concept of storylines (Hajer 1995) I analyse 9 interviews conducted with experts involved in the discussion around ecological compensation, which is currently being implemented into Finnish legislation. Three storylines are identified which construct ecological compensation either as 1) a way to enable private actors to take environmental responsibility, 2) additional legislation to fill a “gap” in current conservation practices, or 3) a possibility to modify the relationship with nature by fostering local deliberations. This shows diverging understandings of ecological compensation among the experts and contestation over the way it should be implemented. What is at stake in the discussion are questions of how nature conservation should be understood, which makes ecological compensation pivotal for reconfiguring the field of nature conservation by shifting understandings of the roles and responsibilities involved. At the same time, consensus exists about the need to implement ecological compensation, which the experts all agree is the only possibility to stop biodiversity loss in Finland. This is traced to the interpretative flexibility of the ecological compensation concept which accommodates conflicting understandings and enables the experts to agree about the need for ecological compensation while contesting the “details” of how the implementation should take place. In that way, the implementation is supported despite contestation, and the discussion is focused on how – rather than whether – ecological compensation should be implemented.
  • Mäkelä, Iida (2021)
    Microbial diversity can be found everywhere around us. The diversity is however declining globally and the diversity loss is most visible in highly urbanized areas. The lack of microbial biodiversity has been linked to increased risk of certain im-mune mediated diseases most prevalent within urban population. Understanding how diversity differs between urban and rural areas can help us to figure out mechanisms behind biodiversity loss and higher frequency of immune-mediated dis-eases and develop prevention methods for the latter. The aim of the thesis is to study how bacterial communities differ between urban and rural areas using indicator species as proxy. The aim is also to find out if the results support the biodiversity hypothesis. The results of the thesis found out significant differences in diversity indexes between bacterial communities in urban and rural areas, which supports the biodiversity hypothesis. The study also found differences in Proteobacteria diversity index-es, which have been linked to some immune mediated diseases in previous studies.