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Browsing by Subject "Deubiquitinating enzyme"

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  • Staskiewicz, Aleksandra (2022)
    Pathogenic variants in BRCA-associated protein 1 (BAP1) cause BAP1 tumour predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS) with increased risk of several cancers including uveal melanoma (UM). UM originates from the melanocytes of the choroid, iris or ciliary body in the eye. UM is a rare cancer with a high metastatic rate and is usually seen in Caucasian people. BAP1 is a deubiquitinating enzyme and to function as a tumour suppressor it needs to retain enzymatic activity. To retain its enzymatic activity, it needs a functioning UCH-domain and nuclear localisation signal. Loss of function variants in BAP1 are easily interpreted as pathogenic, however, many missense variants remain as unclear on their status of pathogenicity. We aimed to study the enzymatic activity of missense variants in the UCH domain of BAP1. We selected 22 missense variants near or in the BAP1 UCH domain (aa1-240). Nineteen were identified in patients with UM and three rare variants from gnomAD database detected in the general population. The variants were cloned to a bacterial expression vector and expressed as a GST-fusion protein. Then we assayed the purified proteins for their ability to cleave ubiquitin. Ten patient derived variants reduced the deubiquitinating activity of BAP1. Seven mutants with variants from patients with familial BAP1-TPDS, retained <20% of their activity. Three variants previously classified as Variant of unknown significance (VUS) and one pathogenic decreased the activity to half. The function of twelve variants was interpreted as normal (80-120%). Of these, two were previously interpreted as pathogenic. Functional studies are needed for accurate BAP1 missense variant classification. Although BAP1 variants are dominant, penetrance might be affected by variants effect on enzymatic activity and patients with pathogenic variants might not exhibit familial BAP1 -TPDS. If enzymatic activity is retained and patient exhibits familial BAP1-TPDS, further studies need to be conducted on effects on splicing and protein-protein interactions. However, if patient exhibits only familial UM and harbours a BAP1 VUS with normal activity, other genes predisposing to UM should be considered.