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Browsing by Subject "dementia"

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  • Dove, Abigail (2019)
    Background: Despite the well-established link between diabetes and dementia risk, the impact of prediabetes and diabetes on the prodromal dementia phase remains controversial. In this study, we investigated whether prediabetes and diabetes increase the risk of cognitive impairment–no dementia (CIND) and accelerate its progression to dementia, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: In the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care-Kungsholmen (SNAC-K), one cohort of cognitively-intact individuals (n=1,837) and one cohort of individuals with CIND (n=671) aged ≥60 years were followed for up to 15 years. At baseline and each follow-up (every 3 or 6 years), a neuropsychological test battery was administered, and the domains of episodic memory, processing speed, executive function, visuospatial abilities, and language were derived. CIND was defined as having no dementia and cognitive performance ≤1.5 SDs below age group-specific means in at least one cognitive domain. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Diabetes (controlled and poorly-controlled) was diagnosed by physicians through medical assessment, clinical records, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%. Prediabetes was identified as HbA1c 5.7-6.4% in diabetes-free participants. Clinicians diagnosed heart disease and collected blood samples used to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were analyzed with Cox regression models adjusted for possible confounders. Results: At baseline, in the cognitively-intact cohort, 133 (7%) participants had diabetes and 615 (34%) had prediabetes. During follow-up (mean 9.2 ± 3.0 years [range=2.2-15.5 years]), 544 (30%) individuals in the cognitively-intact cohort developed CIND. Poorly-controlled diabetes (HbA1c ≥7.5%) was associated with 2-times higher risk of CIND (HR 2.0, 95% CI:1.11-3.48) than diabetes-free participants. In the CIND cohort, 84 (13%) had diabetes and 238 (36%) prediabetes. During follow-up (mean 7.7 ± 4.0 years [range=0.2-15.2 years]), 132 (20%) individuals progressed to dementia. Poorly-controlled diabetes was associated with 3-times higher risk of dementia progression (HR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.29-8.33). Furthermore, comorbid heart disease and diabetes was associated with 2.5-times higher risk of progression to dementia (HR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.17-5.47), particularly if the diabetes was poorly-controlled (HR 5.8, 95% CI: 1.72-19.3). Similarly, having elevated CRP levels and diabetes was associated with increased risk of progression to dementia (HR 4.1, 95% CI: 1.15-14.2), especially in participants with poorly-controlled diabetes (HR 13.6, 95% CI: 1.89-98). No associations between prediabetes and CIND were detected in either cohort. Conclusions: Diabetes, especially if poorly-controlled, increases the risk of cognitive impairment and accelerates its progression to dementia. The diabetes-associated progression from CIND to dementia is further exacerbated by the presence of heart disease and elevated levels of systemic inflammation.