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Browsing by Subject "metsätalous"

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  • Mäki, Ilona (2022)
    Biochar is a porous, carbon-rich material, made from organic material by pyrolysis in low oxygen conditions, and it can be used to sequester carbon into the soil. This review aspires to give an overview of the economic dimensions of using biochar in Finnish (Boreal and sub-boreal) forests. A literature review was conducted to collect and summarize the information about studies and applications elsewhere, and how we could possibly apply them into Finnish forest ecosystems. This thesis is done as part of Helsus Co-Creation Lab -project, where our group was tasked with looking into how biochar could enhance biodiversity in soil and accelerate transformation to low carbon economy. From this larger topic, this paper is looking into the economic side, and whether it is economically viable to use biochar to enhance and uphold biodiversity. This is evaluated by reviewing and categorizing 164 papers and conducting a literature review. My conclusions are that the current biochar applications show lower economic efficiency than other carbon dioxide abatement technologies. The stability of biochar in soil is a key factor, as the half-lives of biochars may not be as long as commonly suggested. Furthermore, competition for biomass resource use can restrict the availability of feedstock, and make it more expensive. Subsidies for biochar application are required if biochar is to be- come a significant part of the national or global climate mitigation policy. The results in different articles are quite variable and there is currently no standard approach to them. There is a need for specific research on what kind of biochar benefits what soil and vegetation, which is expensive. A primary goal is to incorporate a consistent and standardized testing or analysis method for biochar stability into the certification programs run and administered by the International and the European Biochar Initiatives. In the foreseeable future, biochar by itself is unlikely to play a significant role in climate mitigation strategies. Biochar might be just one of several alternatives in a bundle strategy to re- duce carbon emissions. However, its potential use must still be researched more.
  • Saarni, Matti (2019)
    Climate change affects the human habitat and the mechanics that cause this scientific phenomenon are somewhat well known. This study examines how forest policy, agricultural policy and environmental policy can control the mechanisms that cause climate change. The material of the study consists of interviews of 12-13 Finnish experts, each representing one of the previously mentioned sectors. Each of the experts have been asked 13-14 questions about the importance of climate change mitigation, as well as the mechanisms by which agriculture and forests affect the climate and how climate change should be considered in environmental policy. The data was collected between October 8th and November 8th of 2019. This was in five weeks after the IPCC 1,5-degree climate report was published. A series of topics was constructed from the answers, and they are meant to be used as topics to be discussed in the Finnish 2019 parliamentary election. In addition, on how important scientific academics see the control of climate change, they were also asked how critical climate change is. The interview material is stored in the Finnish Social Science Data Archive ( The experts’ answers to the importance of controlling climate change were almost unanimous and considered to be highly important. Carbon sink and storage were considered the most effective methods to control climate change. According to the results, the study proposes topics that should be discussed in politics and when a person wants to advance the control of climate change in forest, agriculture and environment politics. Political decisions are often based on value judgement, which again are based on the information of different methods efficacy. The results that are discussed in this study are not the only options, but they give guidelines and reasons for discussions related to effective choices. Forest policies should recognize the effects of forest industry to the development of carbon sink and storage. Forest industries prerequisite for operation and decision making in addition to considering employment and export industry, must also consider the effect for Finland’s net carbon emissions. Activities which lengthen the forest rotation time would have multiple positive benefits and increase forest carbon storage. Agricultural politics should broaden the discussion to reach food politics. Consumption habits have big effect on agricultural production structure and it can be directed by many ways. The structure of agricultural production should also be considered from the emission point of view, because the land use is substantially large and changes in production can affect Finland’s emission in a scale, that would have large effect on our nations net carbon emissions. To strengthen carbon sinks, landowners should have compensation mechanism methods, that increase carbon sinks, and which are combined to the size of the carbon storage. In environmental policy climate change must be paid more attention and governmental boundaries must not intervene significant decision making. The strengthening of the role of Ministry of the Environment and adding co-operation between different ministries supports the decision making regarding environmentally positive issues.
  • Schrader, Marko (2011)
    Liito-orava (Pteromys volans) on havumetsävyöhykkeen varttuneissa sekametsissä esiintyvä pieni yöaktiivinen nisäkäs. Suomen liito-oravakannan on arvioitu taantuneen viimeisten vuosikymmenien aikana ja laji on luokiteltu Suomessa vaarantuneeksi. EU:n luontodirektiivissä liito-orava on mainittu erityistä suojelua vaativana lajina, jonka lisääntymis- tai levähdyspaikkoja ei saa hävittää. Liito-oravan suosimat varttuneet kuusivaltaiset sekametsät ovat yleisiä useiden suomalaisten kaupunkien taajama-asutusten tuntumissa. Näihin metsiin kohdistuu suuri kaavoituspaine. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää metsämaiseman rakenteen muutoksen vaikutusta liito-oravaan ja arvioida eroavatko kaupunki- ja metsätalousalueet liito-oravan elinympäristönä. Selvitin Tampereen kaupungin ja Kangasalan kunnan alueella sijaitsevan tutkimusalueen metsärakenteen muutokset vuosina 1966–2004 ja liito-oravaesiintymät vuonna 2004. Tarkoituksena on selvittää miten metsärakenteen muutos on vaikuttanut alueen liito-oravakantaan ja liito-oravien esiintymiseen. Ilmakuvatulkinnalla rajasin 52 km2 kokoisen tutkimusalueen metsät niiden rakenteen perusteella metsäkuvioihin. Keväällä 2004 kartoitettiin tutkimusalueen liito-oravaesiintymiä ja kirjasin metsäkuvioiden tärkeimmät puustotiedot. Luokittelin kaikki metsäkuviot neljään, liito-oravalle soveltuvuuteen perustuvaan luokkaan. Paikkatieto-ohjelmassa annoin kullekin kuvioluokalle eri värin ja lopputuloksena oli monivärinen kartta josta pystyy helposti havaitsemaan liito-oravalle soveltuvat, sopimattomat sekä liikkumiseen soveltuvat alueet. Ilmakuvatulkinnalla tein vastaavia karttoja myös vuosille 1966, 1979, 1987 ja 1995. Metsäkuviotietojen perusteella laskin eri vuosille pirstoutumista kuvaavan läheisyysindeksin. Aiemmin Etelä-Suomesta saatuja liito-orava radiopantatutkimustuloksia ja monivuotisia kartoitustuloksia vertailuaineistona käyttäen tein arvion liito-oravaesiintymien määrän kehityksestä vuosina 1966–2004. Tutkimusalueen liito-oravakartoituksessa löysin 318 papanahavaintopaikkaa. Papanahavainnoista 78 % olivat enintään 500 m päässä lähimmästä ihmisasutuksesta. Tampereen kaupungin alueen havainnoista 73 % sijaitsevat Tampereen kaupungin omistamilla alueilla. Liito-oravalle sopivien metsien pinta-ala on vuosina 1966–2004 laskenut 48,8 %. ja liito-oravalle sopimattomien alueiden pinta-ala on kasvanut 22 %. Liikkumiselle soveltuva metsäpinta-ala on kasvanut 46,3 %. Liito-oravalle sopivien laikkujen keskikoko on laskenut 13,1 hehtaarista 4,7 hehtaariin ja alue on voimakkaasti pirstoutunut. Arvion mukaan Tampereen tutkimusalueen asuttujen liito-orava elinpiirien määrä on laskenut vuosina 1966–2004 yli 59 %. Tutkimusalueen metsiköiden kehitys on ollut vastaava kuin muilla metsätalousalueilla eteläisessä Suomessa. Kaupungin läheisyys ei ole merkittävästi vaikuttanut kehitykseen. Metsänhakkuiden ja asutuksen pirstomassa maisemassa viherkäytävien merkitys korostuu. Kuitenkin suuri osa liito-oravaesiintymistä sijaitsee kaupungin mailla ja jäljellä oleva soveltuvan metsän määrä on niin pieni ja pirstoutunut, että tulevaisuuden kaavoitustoimilla ja metsänkäsittelyllä tulee olemaan suuri vaikutus paikalliseen liito-oravakantaan.
  • Pösö, Antti (2020)
    In the years 2017-2019 there was quite vivid discussion about the level of logging in Finland. Finland, as forested country, had put high hopes of bioeconomy as a strategyline for future. In addition the demand of cellulose and other woodproducts had been on rising track and there was plans to build numereous pulp- and bioproduct plants in Finland. Hence the pressure to increase the level of logging had been risen. In the meantime European union tried to achieve more ambitious climatepolicy and conceived a new LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry)-act, which allows to take into acount carbon sinks of forests in each of the member country. Aspiration to increase logging and mitigate climate change and preserve forestnature did not go together very well. As a method in this study theory-based content analysis is used, in which thoughts of economic historian Karl Polanyi of self-regulated markets, fictitious commodities and double movement is applied. According to Polanyi self-regulated markets wake protective counter movements in society. These counter reactions are spontanious and they can emerge from various parts of society. They softened the hit caused to people and nature by markets. Polanyi called this mechanism doudle movement. The material contains mediasources such as articles from Helsingin Sanomat and Yleisradio and also public documents of the state. According to this study the markets determinate the use of forests and the level of logging in Finland. Public policy doesn’t want to compromise the strong export industry and employer such as forestry. The use of forest is organized by the rules of markets and tree is now used as a commodity as a timber, even if nature is not originally produced to sale. Finnish forestry is a small part of growth demanding global capitalist system. As counter movements in this case appear environmental organizations, scientists, journalists, politics and citizens. Those groups were worried about carbon sinks and biodiversity of forests. Also European unoion acted as counter movement, when it demanded reduction of emissions of other sectors like housing and transport if carbon sinks of forests decrease. All in all the power of counter movements wasn’t high enough to change the direction of forestry in Finland, which is over the years embedded in finnish society. A potential conflict can still emerge, when traditional nature based industry navigates in the field of international commerce, which resemble Polanyi’s selfregulated markets. There was clear evidence of counter movements and they got more value from the discussion of climate change and the overall greening of society. On the other hand also lumber industry could present them as green, because they use renewable resources, which also replace fossil fuels. The larger impact on the level of logging is system-based pendulumus counter movement, like depression, which swing the world economy.