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Browsing by Subject "obesity"

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  • Mäkelä, Alexandra (2023)
    During recent years obesity has been under extra scrutiny due to its globally rising prevalence, multifaceted effects on the human body and common occurrence of comorbidities. It is estimated that one third of the Finnish population over age 40 will be obese by 2028 (THL, 2022). Consequently, development of mitigation strategies has become a high priority in today’s societies leading to a rising need for new treatments. Several studies have shown how pathological adipogenesis has deleterious effect on brain functionality. The neuropathology of obesity could be explained by increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and glial activation. Pathologically activated astrocytes (astrogliosis) exhibit phenotypical and functional differences compared to healthy astrocytes, typically exhibiting enlarged cell bodies and swollen cytoskeleton. Astrogliosis has been mainly studied in the context of CNS diseases. Recent studies also shed light on the role of astrocytes in the progression of peripheral diseases including cancer metastasis or inflammation (Ma et al., 2023). However, the active astrocytic profile in obesity is relatively underexplored. In this study we report astroglial phenotypic shifts induced by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and weight loss (WL). No significant change in GFAP expression was seen between mice that were given an HFD for different durations and their corresponding controls. However, we noted a non-significant trend for increased GFAP expression in response to shorter timepoints (5 days of diet change). This suggested an early astrocytic response to diet, which later normalizes over time. We reported healthy morphologies in astrocytes from chow group exhibiting typical simple thin cytoskeleton with long cell protrusions. Astrocytes in HFD-conditions exhibited reactive phenotypes evidenced by swollen cytoskeletal structures and high GFAP immunofluorescence, extensive lipid droplet (LD) accumulation and upregulated metabolic activity. These observations indicated stressful conditions caused by the diet. Astrocytes in WLconditions exhibited varying phenotypes displaying both reactive and healthy characteristics, slight increase of metabolic activity and lipid accumulation. In addition, we reported different immunofluorescence profiles between glial differentiation promoting marker Meteorin and ER stress regulated cytoprotective marker MANF between the experimental groups. These results show that HFD-induced obesity and consecutive weight loss induce a reactive-like phenotypic shift on astrocytes involving both morphological and functional changes.