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Browsing by Subject "plant functional group"

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  • Lindholm, Viivi (2022)
    Environmental factors are important tools in constructing methane flux models and estimations. Among the abiotic factors, plants and their functional groups have been noted to have significant effect on methane fluxes for three reasons. First, the vegetation community compositions express their abiotic environmental factors that affect not only the plants, but also local methanogen and methanotroph communities. Second, the vegetation itself might produce methane emissions and have a direct effect on methane balance. Third, the plant functional groups and species have differences in their chemical and physical properties that support different methanogen communities and therefore have an indirect impact on methane fluxes. In this study, methane fluxes of different plant communities were observed during one growing season in northern boreal catchment area in Muonio. Study focuses to determine the link between methane fluxes and abiotic and biotic environmental factors in different vegetation types. Closed chamber technique was used to measure methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from 23 plots every two weeks in period of June-August. Environmental data, such as moisture, temperature species composition etc. were collected from the plots. Vegetation types for each plot were determined via ordination analysis. Linear mixed-effects regression model and generalized additive model were applied and compared to observe the relationships of methane and environmental factors in different vegetation types. Dataset was divided into four vegetation types in clustering analysis: wet fen, pine bog, spruce swamp and forest. The greatest amount (average 5959 µg/m²/h) and biggest range (standard deviation 5285 µg/m²/h) of methane emissions were observed on wettest fen-like study sites. Peatland types in general acted as net methane sources. The driest, forest-like vegetation type acted as a net methane sink. The amount (average -107 µg/m²/h) and range (standard deviation 117 µg/m²/h) of methane fluxes were very moderate in comparison to peatland types. These effects intensified towards the climax of growing season. The most significant environmental factors were mostly abiotic on driest study sites and the whole plant biomass was more significant biotic methane flux regulating factor than plant functional groups. On wetter study sites, the role of abiotic factors decreased, and plant functional group increased. Graminoids were linked to bigger methane emissions especially on wetter study sites. Forest mosses and different shrub types seemed to have a link with lower methane emissions or methane absorption. The effect of other plant functional groups on methane fluxes varied more, and their role remains unclear. None of the environmental factors could estimate the methane flux alone, and the methane budget seems to be a sum of multiple variables in each vegetation type. The role of plant functional groups varied in different vegetation types and was dependent on surrounding vegetation. More research is needed to get better tools to estimate methane balance and to understand the underlying mechanisms in climate and environmental change.