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Browsing by Subject "stroke"

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  • Pihl, Enni-Eveliina (2023)
    Microglia, the resident macrophage-like glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS), form the first line of defense against pathogens in the brain, and regulate both innate and adaptive immunity. Any abnormalities in their microenvironment lead to microglial activation, characterized by alterations in their gene expression, morphology, and functional behavior. Once activated, microglia respond to CNS injury and inflammation by, e.g., migrating to the site of damage, releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as phagocyting cell debris and pathogens. Prolonged activation of microglia expressing pro-inflammatory phenotypes can lead to exacerbated CNS damage. Hence, limiting CNS inflammation by stimulating microglial polarization towards their pro-resolving phenotypes would be of great clinical relevance. The research of our laboratory focuses on CNS injury and repair, as well as finding novel therapies for ischemic stroke. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) derived from essential fatty acids have been proposed to offer a potential therapeutic approach for ischemic stroke via promoting resolution of post-stroke inflammation. Previous studies have revealed the ability of SPMs to induce a transformation of macrophages, the immune cells strongly resembling microglia, towards their anti-inflammatory phenotypes. The aim of this study was therefore to assess whether SPMs have similar effects on BV2 microglia, specifically on their lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). In addition to assessing the cytokine levels, our aim was to determine the optimal conditions for studying the effects of SPMs on microglial migration. In the present study, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were determined by specific ELISAs, and the transwell assay was used to measure microglial migration. Resolvins E1 (RvE1) and D1 (RvD1), as well as protectin D1 (PD1) and 15-epimer of lipoxin A4 (15-epi-LXA4) were all associated with decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-6, with RvE1 having the most potential as a resolving agent. In addition, we observed that serum starvation notably decreases the release of IL-6 and affects microglial migration. Overall, our results support the idea that SPMs could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for stroke therapy as they contribute to the resolution of CNS inflammation.
  • Tallberg, Robert Georg Michael (2021)
    The immune system is crucial in the central nervous system (CNS), protecting sensitive tissues, promoting regeneration, and maintaining homeostasis. It is involved in CNS-disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases and neurological insults related to stroke. Critical myeloid leukocytes in the CNS are microglia, divided into pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. This polarization achieves modulation of the inflammatory response by amplifying or dampening it. Therefore, microglia are widely investigated in CNS-disorders. β2-integrins are adhesion proteins that mediate inflammation. They are expressed explicitly on leukocytes, including microglia. Important processes, such as phagocytosis and cell motility, are regulated by β2-integrins. They also relay downstream signals, altering inflammation in many settings, although their effects on microglial properties and stroke are currently poorly understood. We here aimed to investigate the role of β2-integrins in stroke-related injury and microglia polarization in vivo using knock-in (KI) mice, which lack functional β2-integrins. Our results show that in a mouse model of haemorrhagic stroke, the functional outcome was less severe in β2-integrin KI versus wild-type (WT) mice (P = 0.0147), suggesting that β2-integrins are involved in stroke pathophysiology. Furthermore, by using flow cytometry we observed significantly lower frequencies of M1 microglia in the KI mouse brain (P = 0.0096). Therefore, our findings reveal neuroprotective aspects by inhibiting β2-integrins in neuroinflammation. Investigating microglial properties mediated by β2-integrins could contribute to the understanding of neuroinflammatory events, leading to the development of therapies for poorly treated CNS-disorders. Our results suggest that β2-integrins should be further explored as molecular targets for novel stroke treatments.