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Browsing by Subject "taloudellinen arvottaminen"

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  • Ahdekivi, Ellen (2022)
    Peatlands are ecosystems of global importance for biodiversity conservation. Peatlands are wetland ecosystems which provide a critical habitat for many rare and specialized species. Biodiversity maintains the provision of ecosystem services, which are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. The loss of biodiversity and peatland degradation constitute global challenges. One of the main reasons why biodiversity loss and peatland degradation remain challenges is nested in the failure to account for the range of economic benefits of ecosystem services and biodiversity in relevant policy making. The role of peatlands in maintaining global biodiversity has often been underestimated in global, regional and local land use planning and conservation measures. This thesis undertakes a systematic literature review on the empirical economic valuation literature on peatland ecosystem services and biodiversity. The two main aims of this literature review are to synthesize the current state of knowledge on this phenomenon and analyse the role of biodiversity in the economic valuation of peatland ecosystem services by answering specific research questions. This systematic literature review employs the data of 23 peer-reviewed English language papers published between 2006 and June 2021. The studies were chosen for analysis based on a selected search strategy and screening process. The data analysis was undertaken using the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti which is a tool used to help organize analysed material with the help of descriptive codes. Based on the findings of this thesis, the inclusion of biodiversity in the economic valuation of peatland ecosystem services has become a standard procedure. This is showcased by the number of studies applying stated preference approaches. The sample included studies applying different valuation methods in order to value many ecosystem services. The studies including biodiversity in economic valuation often find that biodiversity conservation policies can be cost-effective, and that people are generally willing to pay for biodiversity conservation and would derive economic benefits from this. Biodiversity is included in the studies as different elements, mainly as a specific species or as a reference to wildlife. Biodiversity is also found to be closely related to cultural ecosystem services and their benefits. Many studies find that people value familiar peatland landscapes, and biodiversity plays an important part in defining that value. Some studies find that human activity plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity in semi-natural peatland landscapes. Hence, biodiversity conservation needs to be in some accordance with local interests. Biodiversity provided founding principles for policy making, but previously implemented practices, such as existing conservation measures and the extractive use of peatlands exerted much influence on final economic values. Moreover, biodiversity plays different roles in determining the objectives of the studies. Eight studies use biodiversity as the justification for conducting the economic analysis. Most studies include biodiversity as a study component among others under valuation. The portrayal of biodiversity influences the focus of the studies and how biodiversity contributes to the findings of the literature. The body of literature on the economic valuation of peatland ecosystem services remains small. The geographical distribution of the sample is skewed towards Europe and Southeast Asia. There is a notable upward trend in the number of studies which have been published in the last five years. The literature demonstrates that the economic valuation of peatland ecosystem services and the need to adopt sustainable peatland management with biodiversity conservation have become relevant and topical issues in policy making. There is a significant need to address the issue of peatland degradation and biodiversity loss by increasing awareness. Further research is needed to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the links between peatlands, ecosystem services and their values. In addition, future research could study how the provision of information and the contribution of biodiversity awareness and knowledge influence economic valuation.