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Browsing by Subject "FAM-labeled dsDNA"

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  • Salovuori, Noora (2019)
    Background and objectives: Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EV) and it has been found that cells communicate via EVs. EVs are liposome-like vesicles. Membrane is consisting of a lipid bilayer and hydrophilic moiety is inside the vesicle. It has been found that EVs carry e.g. nucleic acids, lipids and proteins. The aim of this master thesis was to determine whether EVs can transport non-coding RNA (siRNA) into the central nervous system through the blood-brain barrier. In the literature review, investigated methods which has been used to load siRNA into the EVs and how EVs are transported through the blood-brain barrier. The aim of the experimental part was to produce and isolate EVs and to load FAM-labeled dsDNA and siRNA into EVs by physical methods such as sonication and electroporation. Fluorescence measurements were taken to demonstrate FAM-labeled DNA loading into EVs and the functionality of the siRNA-loaded EVs was measured by measuring the expression level of the gapdh gene. Methods: Extracellular vesicles were produced in ARPE-19 and PC-3 cells. EVs were isolated from the cell culture medium by two-step differential centrifugation (DC) and further purified by gradient centrifugation (GC) by using the OptiPrep™-reagent. OptiPrep™-reagent was purified by Amicon 10kDa filtration tubes. The average particle size and size distribution of the isolated EVs were determined by NTA analysis, protein concentration was measured by colorimetric BCA method and EVs were characterized by Western blot method using HSP70 and CD9 antibodies. EVs were loaded with 21 bp length FAM-labeled dsDNA or siRNA by sonication or electroporation. Free nucleic acid and OptiPrep™-reagent were purified from EVs by the size-exclusion chromatography with Sephacryl (S-300) column. Loading efficient of the EVs were studied by measuring the fluorescence (ex 485 nm, em 520 nm) and qPCR method was used to demonstrate the functionality of the siRNA loaded EVs. In qPCR, the expression level of the gapdh gene was measured in dividing ARPE-19 cells. Results: DC and GC purified ARPE-19 and PC-3 EVs had an average particle size of about 140 nm and were successfully characterized by Western blot method. PC-3 EVs were produced in the bioreactor and the yields were enough for loading experiments. ARPE-19 cells produced only small amounts of EVs in culture flasks. The size-exclusion chromatography was a good method to purification free nucleic acids from EVs. The sonication method did not cause EVs to be degradation under the conditions used. Based on fluorescence measurement, FAM-labeled dsDNA could not be loaded into EVs. The functionality of siRNA-loaded EVs could not be demonstrated in ARPE-19 cell experiments. After electroporation large number of EVs were lost and this method of loading siRNA into EVs did not proved to be suitable. Conclusions: ARPE-19 EVs must be produced in the bioreactor to produce enough EVs for loading experiments. The EV purification protocol should be further optimized since the recovery-% of EVs were low after several purification steps. The size-exclusion chromatography is suitable for the purification of the free siRNA from EVs, but the chromatography method needs further optimization and miniaturization. Loaded EVs should be produced by aseptically or alternatively sterilized prior to ARPE-19 cell assay. Physical loading method, such as sonication, can be scaled to larger scale. Sonication method should be optimized e.g. by experimenting with higher temperatures and longer sonication times. The probe sonicator should be tested instead of the water bath sonicator. According to the literature review, the use of extracellular vesicles as carriers for biomolecule delivery into the central nervous system seems to be promising.