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Browsing by Subject "farmakogenetiikka"

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  • Koskela, Outi (2012)
    Pharmacogenetics is the study of variations in DNA sequence as related to drug response, i.e. pharmacokinetics, drug efficacy and adverse effects. The literature review of the thesis covers pharmacogenetics of analgesics. The most studied genetic variations affecting the analgesics response are the 118A>G variant of µ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) and several variations in the genes coding for cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes. Also variations in the COMT gene and the ABCB1 gene coding for P-glycoprotein have been shown to modify the response to analgesics. Genetic polymorphism of CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 enzymes was studied in the experimental part of the thesis. The aim of the study was to determine if the allele and haplotype frequencies of the CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 gene variations are different between Finnish breast cancer patients and healthy volunteers. The results will be further used to explore whether the genetic polymorphism of these metabolic enzymes affects the response to a certain drug substance. The study population consisted of 996 Finnish breast cancer patients. Common genetic variants affecting the enzymatic activity of CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were studied. In addition to gene copy number, ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the CYP2D6 gene were genotyped. For CYP3A4 gene, genotyping was done for intron 6 SNP rs35599367 shown to decrease CYP3A4 gene expression. CYP3A5 SNP 6986A>G leading to splicing defect and premature STOP codon was also genotyped. Genotyping and copy number determination was done using PCR-based TaqMan® 5'-nuclease method. CYP2D6 haplotype analysis and phenotype predictions were derived based on genotype data. According to CYP2D6 enzyme activity individuals are commonly classified as poor metabolizers (PM), intermediate metabolizers (IM), extensive metabolizers (EM) or ultra-rapid metabolizers (UM). The frequencies of CYP2D6 phenotypic classes in our study population were the following: PM, 2.8%; IM 2.0 %; EM 87.7% and UM 7.6%. The haplotype and phenotype frequencies determined for breast cancer patients coincide with the values observed earlier for Finnish healthy volunteers. In our study population, the minor allele frequency (MAF) of the CYP3A4 rs35599367 SNP was 2.7% and the MAF of the CYP3A5 6986G>A SNP 7.6%. The MAF of CYP3A5 6986G>A SNP found in our study is in line with the previous findings for Finnish healthy volunteers. There are no previous publications on the frequency of CYP3A4 rs35599367 SNP in Finnish population. In conclusion, no differences were detected in the frequency of the studied CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genetic variations between Finnish breast cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Frequency of CYP3A4 rs35599367 SNP in Finnish healthy volunteers should be determined in order to compare it with our findings in the population comprising of breast cancer patients. The results of this study can be further used to explore the effects of CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphism on drug response.
  • Leppänen, Riikka (2017)
    The effect of genes on drug response is studied in the field of pharmacogenetics. Genetic polymorphism occurs in several genes that code drug metabolizing enzymes or drug transporters. A protein coded by a variant gene may be dysfunctional, which can affect the efficiency and safety of the substrate drug individually. The common polymorphisms of the gene ABCG2 coding the efflux transporter BCRP and the gene SLCO1B1 coding the influx transporter OATP1B1 are associated with the interindividual variation in the effectiveness and tolerability of the cholesterol-lowering statins. In this study, the effects of the polymorphisms ABCG2 c.421C>A and SLCO1B1 c.521T>C on rosuvastatin concentration in plasma and the liver were studied with two different pharmacokinetic models. The developed liver model illustrating the enterohepatic circulation of drugs was compared to a commercial Simcyp model. According to the simulations with both models, the effect of the polymorphisms of OATP1B1 and BCRP on the plasma concentration of rosuvastatin is additive. The plasma concentration increases up to fourfold if the same individual has homozygous polymorphic forms of both the OATP1B1 and the BCRP. Based on the modellings, the change of the rosuvastatin concentration in the liver owing to polymorphism does not follow the same pattern as in plasma. In consequence of the polymorphism of the BCRP, the rosuvastatin concentration rises two to three times larger in the liver, which is the site of action of the statins. The polymorphism of the OATP1B1 instead causes the liver concentration to decrease little compared to the wild type. In conclusion, the efflux transporter BCRP seems to have a greater significance on regulating the concentration of rosuvastatin in the liver than the influx transporter OATP1B1. Computer modelling is worth exploiting as a supportive method of other study methods in the pharmacogenetic research, for example when the relative significance of separate transporter proteins is evaluated.
  • Pietarinen, Paavo (2012)
    Most xenobiotics are biotransformed by phase I enzymes to a more hydrophilic form in order to get excreted out from the body. In most cases xenobiotics are in lipophilic form when entering body. The most important group in phase I enzymes is cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily. Of CYP enzymes probably the most studied is CYP2D6, which is responsible for metabolism of 20-25% of drugs currently on market. Many CYP2D6 substrates belong to therapeutically important drug groups, such as antiarrhytmics, antidepressants, beta-blockers, or neuroleptics. CYP2D6 gene, which encodes the enzyme, exhibits large interindividual variability, which has an effect on the metabolic activity of the enzyme. The frequencies of these genetic variances differ globally on wide scale between and inside populations. Through genotyping it is possible to predict the CYP2D6 metabolic rate, which can be divided into four classes: ultra-rapid metabolizers (UM), extensive metabolizers (EM), intermediate metabolizers (IM), and poor metabolizers (PM). The purpose of our study was to examine the frequencies of CYP2D6 genotypes in Finnish population in detail and compare the results to previous studies. Our study population consisted of 857 healthy volunteers whose DNA was extracted. From DNA sample we genotyped 10 different CYP2D6 genetic variants and the copy number of the gene using Applied Biosystems TaqMan genotyping and copy number assays. This study was the largest CYP2D6 genotype frequency study in Finnish population so far. The results supported the findings of a similar study in a Finnish population of smaller scale. Large majority of study subjects were EMs (87.3%) and the second largest group was Ums (7.2%). IMs and PMs were in clear minority (3.0% and 2.5%, respectively). The expected frequencies for UMs (1-2%) are much lower and for PMs higher (~8%) in other North European populations than in Finns. Accordingly, CYP2D6 genetic profile of Finnish population differs from its neighbours, which may be important for the dose requirements, efficacy, and safety for drugs metabolized by CYP2D6.
  • Vieraankivi, Marika (2021)
    The ABCG2-protein is an ATP-dependent half transporter. It is found on apical membranes in intestine, liver, kidney, blood-brain barrier and placenta where it regulates absorption, distribution and elimination of many drugs, but also natural compounds and endogenous metabolites. Natural variation found on the ABCG2-gene can alter protein expression and transport activity. The altered function has been linked to pharmacokinetic changes and developing of diseases like gout. Studying natural ABCG2-variants and their effect gathers knowledge not only on their effect on pharmacokinetics but also on the ABCG2- transporters’ mechanism of function. The aim of this study was to combine an activating (I456V or H457R) and an inactivating (Q141K, F431L or T542A) non-synonymous single nucleotide variant in the same gene to study their combined effect on the ABCG2-transporter expression and active transport. Mutations were incorporated into the ABCG2- gene by site directed mutagenesis and the protein was expressed on HEK293-cells. The transport activity for Lucifer-Yellow and estrone sulfate was measured using HEK293-ABCG2-vesicles produced from cell membranes. The protein expression was measured with Western blot and mass spectrometry proteomics. Based on this study, different mutations together can alter each other’s effects, but the combined result is not always equal to the sum of variations. T542A-mutation did not show significant increase on the protein expression on any of the T542A-combinations, even though it has had such an effect in earlier studies. I456V, earlier expressed like wild type ABCG2, seemed to increase protein expression in all combinations. Q141K, F431L and T542A -mutations had lowering not expression dependent effect on the transport activity. F431L-mutation being so dominant that either of the two activating mutations could not restore the active transport in combinations. As seen before, H457R-variant seemed to cause a significant substrate specific activating effect on transport activity also in this study when combined with other mutations. However, H457R had a strong lowering effect on the protein expression and two of the combinations did not produce enough protein for active transport. As seen in this study, the ABCG2-doublemutations can cause altered ABCG2-function and lead to pharmacokinetic changes. These types of in vitro studies are important in studying these less common genetic variants which in lack of study subjects can be hard to study on clinical trials.
  • Lehto, Kristiina (2023)
    Migreeni on toistuvia päänsärkykohtauksia aiheuttava neurologinen sairaus, jonka esiintyvyys on hyvin laajaa – Suomessa migreeniä sairastaa lähes joka kymmenes väestöstä. Migreenin puhkeamisella on tutkimusten mukaan vahva yhteys genetiikkaan, ja migreenin hoidossa käytettyjen lääkevalmisteiden metabolia on oleellisesti sidoksissa geeneihin. Farmakogenetiikka tutkii tieteenalana, miten perintötekijät vaikuttavat lääkeaineiden aineenvaihduntaan ja niistä syntyvään lääkevasteeseen. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin migreenin estolääkkeenä käytetyn trisyklisen masennuslääkkeen, amitriptyliinin, metaboliassa esiintyviä mahdollisia geneettisiä eroja itä- ja länsisuomalaisten välillä. Tutkimus toteutettiin tarkastelemalla yli 10 000 Terveystalon Biopankin biopankkinäytettä, joista määritettiin kolmen CYP-entsyymin (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6) fenotyyppien esiintyvyys itä- ja länsisuomalaisissa. Tutkimustulosten mukaan eroavaisuudet fenotyyppien esiintyvyydessä itä- ja länsisuomalaisten välillä olivat maltillisia. Amitriptyliinin metaboliassa erityisen oleellisen CYP2C19 geenin osalta sekä normaalia hitaampi että hidas metabolia olivat yleisempiä idässä kuin lännessä. Hitaan metabolian riskinä on tavallista suuremmat plasmapitoisuudet ja siten lisääntyneet lääkevalmisteen haittavaikutusriskit. Näin ollen amitriptyliiniä tulisi hitailla metaboloijilla käyttää harkiten, aloittaa vaihtoehtoinen lääkitys tai pienentää aloitusannosta puoleen tavanomaisesta. Oikean annostuksen löytämisessä tulisi hyödyntää laboratorion pitoisuusmäärityskokeita. Lisäksi farmakogeneettisillä testeillä voitaisiin havaita mahdollinen geenien tarkempi polymorfia, ja siten varmistaa sekä turvallinen että tehokas yksilöllinen lääkehoito.