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Browsing by Subject "lääkehoidon kokonaisarviointi"

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  • Rydman, Saara (2013)
    With advancing age the kidneys undergo anatomical and physiological changes. The most significant physiological changes are decreased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is declined approximately in two thirds of the aged. Dosages of drugs eliminated mainly by the kidney should be adjusted carefully in patients with renal insufficiency. Nevertheless, according to earlier studies renal insufficiency among elderly patients is underdiagnosed and renal function is often overlooked when prescribing. Serum creatinine level is used as a screening test for renal dysfunction. However, it is a poor measure among elderly patients. Instead, calculated GFR should be the preferred method in estimating kidney function among this patient group. The aim of this study was to assess if comprehensive medication review can improve the quality of drug therapy among aged nursing home residents with impaired renal function. The data consisted of 153 comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) conducted by Farenta Oy. CMR case reports were used to assess intervention recommendations made by pharmacists because of renal insufficiency, other kidney-related findings and resulting medication-related interventions. In addition, the prevalence of renal insufficiency, degree of renal insufficiency diagnoses and relationship between serum creatinine and estimated GFR were assessed. Clinical significance of the interventions was not assessed. The mean age of patients was 82,4 years. The estimated GFR was available for 145 patients (94,8%). 86,9% (n=126) had declined renal function (GFR<80 ml/min). Of these, serum creatinine levels were within normal range or under in 73,8% of all patients with renal insufficiency. Physicians had documented 4,8% of renal insufficiency cases in clinical patient files. Pharmacists identified inappropriate drugs due to renal function in 34,9% (n=44) of the patients with renal insufficiency. In total, pharmacists made 71 intervention recommendations. Physicians approved 60,6% of the pharmacists' recommendations as made. At least one intervention recommendation was approved as made in nearly one fourth (23,0%) of the patients with renal insufficiency. The most common drug-related intervention was changing the drug (25,4 %). Cardiovascular drugs accounted for 33,8% of the intervention recommendations, nervous system drugs 19,7 %. According to this study renal insufficiency among aged nursing home residents is common but underdiagnosed. Approximately one third of patients with renal insufficiency are using inappropriate medicines or dosages. These drug-related problems can be indentified and resolved during the comprehensive medication review procedure.
  • Vanhanen, Saara (2015)
    Different kind of medication reviews have been developed in different countries. In Finland comprehensive medication review was developed in the late 2000th. Only few researches of medication review exist in Finland. In other countries more studies on the subject have been done. This Master's thesis's aim in the literature review was to examine what kind of outcome measurements were used in medication review studies and what kind of results were obtained from these measurements. In many medication review studies different kind of drug related parameters were used to evaluate the effectiveness of medication review. These parameters are Drug Related Problems (DRP), Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) and different kind of criteria's for potentially inappropriate medication for elderly. Medication reviews have showed a positive effect on these parameters. To the health-related quality of life medication reviews have not shown any statistical effect. Physical performance meters have not been used a lot in medication review studies. And results have been controversial. Omahoitosuunnitelma 2100 (OMA21) research project, that examines the effectiveness of the comprehensive medication review in Finnish health care, could potentially due to its long follow-up time produce results also from the quality of life and physical performance instruments. In the Master's thesis's experimental part the aim was to evaluate unity of the medication reviews in OMA21 research project. For four intervention patients in the OMA21 research project parallel medication reviews were done. From these reviews were examined how many of the problems found in the reviews were the same with different reviewers. There was a lot of dispersion in the problems found in the reviews. Only 17.5 % of the 40 different problems found in the reviews were the same with all the reviewers. From 12 patients medication reviews drug related problems were categorized by PCNE classification V6.2. 69 drug related problems were found from the medication reviews. Most common problem was the treatment effectiveness (P1) (37.7 %). For the problems 92 potential causes were found and the most common of them was drug selection (C1) (39.1 %). The aim was also examine whether Evidence-Based Medicine electronic Decision Support (EBMeDS) tool, developed by Duodecim Medical Publications Ltd, could be useful in the OMA21 research project. It was shown that EBMeDS have limited advantage if patients' information has not been reported right in the electronic health records. Only 30 % of the examined drugs had indication. In the future if the patients' information was reported right in the electronic health records the EBMeDS tools could be useful help in medication reviews, because EBMeDS contains many electronic databases that are often used in medication reviews.P50O48
  • Lipsanen, Tuomas (2010)
    Medication review is relatively new intervention in Finland that potentially promotes safe and rational use of medicines. During the recent years, the effectiveness of different kind of medication review procedures has been evaluated in many countries. The results considering the cost-effectiveness have varied and conclusions have been difficult to make. Because of the limited resources, the funders and decisionmakers need evidence-based effectiveness data to get the best possible value for the money spent in health care. The aim of the study was to gather, analyze and summarize the published data of costeffectiveness of the medication review by means of a systematic review. The aim was also to represent the medication review as a concept, procedure and study objective. This study was conducted as an analysis of study methods applied in published studies on cost-effectiveness of medication review procedures. In total, 947 references were found using a systematic literature search covering three electronic databases (Medline, CRD and IPA). Most of the references were excluded based on titles and abstracts, and 85 full-text articles were evaluated. After the duplicates were removed, 11 articles met the requested inclusion criteria and were entered to the study. There was a lot of variation between selected articles. In five articles the description of the medication review was not detailed or the intervention was not equal to the expected content level. Also the outcomes measures used in the studies varied. Most studies measured the use of medicines or the number of drug-related problems in different ways. Quality of life was applied as an outcome measure only in five studies and none of the studies were able to show statistically significant differences between intervention and control groups. Mortality was measured in four studies. In most studies the definition and calculation of the costs was limited and inadequate for proper economic evaluation. It was also common that only the direct drug costs from patient's perspective were calculated. The cost of pharmacist's working hours was taken into account in five studies. The incremental analysis was performed only in one study which also got high quality scores compared to all other studies. On the whole the economic evaluations in the selected studies were of low quality and performed in simple a way.
  • Äijö, Nelli (2019)
    As the population becomes older and the amount of multimorbid patients increases, also health care spending increases. New care models are needed where patients’ needs are taken into consideration by providing preventive and patient-centred care. In Finland and internationally, new ways to treat elderly, chronically ill patients have been developed. One of the new models is the health and care plan model. This longitudinal, randomised, controlled trial studied the health and care plan model’s impact on healthcare costs, patients’ physical functioning and patients’ quality of life. The aim of the study was to study the cost-effectiveness of the health and care plan model compared to standard care practice. The goal of this study was to study if rational pharmacotherapy and self-management support can prevent the decline in physical functioning, the decline in quality of life and the increase in health service use and costs among elderly population. This study was conducted between 2014-2018 as a multi-disciplinary cooperation between Tornio health station, University of Helsinki Faculty of Pharmacy and Alatornio pharmacy. The patients in this study were over 75-year old, multimorbid, community dwelling, polypharmacy patients. The patients in the intervention group received an interview based clinical medication review and were formed a medication plan. Furthermore, the patients in the intervention group were planned a health and care plan that was combined with the medication plan into a comprehensive self-management plan in a multi-disciplinary meeting. A case manager was appointed for the patients in the intervention group and the case manager could be contacted by the patients in the intervention group at any point of the study if there arose a non-acute concern with the patient’s health. The patients in the control group were conducted a prescription review based on the information available in the electronic health records system and continued receiving the standard care practice. Cost and effectiveness data were gathered from the patients over the period of two years. The effectiveness data were gathered at Tornio health station where the intervention and control group’s quality of life was measured with the SF-36 generic quality of life measure and physical functioning was measured with Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). The quality of life data gathered with SF-36 were transformed into one preference based single index score SF-6D to calculate the quality of life and quality adjusted life years (QALY). Data about the use of health services were extracted from the electronic health records system and transformed into costs by using the national reference costs. At the beginning of the study, the intervention and control group were statistically significantly similar. During the two-year follow-up, no statistically or clinically significant differences were observed between the intervention and control group in their quality of life, in their physical functioning or in the costs of used health services. However, in the intervention group, the cost of used health services was on average 2 406 euros smaller than those of the control group’s during the two-year follow-up. The health and care plan model was cost-effective compared to standard care practice. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was -64 504 € per one QALY. Based on this study, it is recommended to support the self-management and physical functioning of the elderly with an intervention like health and care plan model to decrease the health care spending. The results of this study can be applied to Finnish healthcare system to decrease the health care spending of multimorbid, community dwelling and polypharmacy elderly patients. The use of real-world evidence increases the reliability of this study.