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Browsing by Subject "psyykenlääkkeet"

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  • Valkohaapa, Anna-Mari (2014)
    In Finland the elderly residents of long-term care facilities are often prescribed a lot of medications, especially psychotropic drugs. It also happens that a patient or a resident has to be physically or chemically restrained. Chemical restraining can be defined in many ways, for example as using a drug - usually an antipsychotic - to restrict the freedom or movement of a patient and to control his or her behavior. In nursing homes the staff is in a key position when it comes to deciding on the use of chemical restraining or PRN medication. A legislation to guarantee the self-determination of a patient and to define how physical restraining can be used is now being prepared in Finland. Only a few studies on chemical restraining from a nurses' point of view have been made so far. Thus, the aim of this study is to provide more information on the level of knowledge, the attitudes and perceptions of nurses regarding chemical restraining and the effect of those on deciding whether to use chemical restraints or not. Three focus groups with nurses were conducted in Hyvinkää nursing homes (n=13). The groups were recruited both by e-mail and directly from the wards. The focus group discussions were digitally audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The content of the transcripts was then analyzed using a constant comparative method. According to the study most of the antipsychotics used in long-term care were used daily. However, it is not uncommon for the nurses to be unsure about their knowledge on the use of medicines. It is thus important to help the nursing staff to increase their knowledge and skills in pharmacology. The nurses also wished to get extra training for treating people with dementia. The concept of chemical restraining is quite ambiguous, and the use of chemical restraints is a complex ethical issue because the reasons for and effects of administering it vary depending on the situation. The study shows that the chemical restraining is most often considered justified when it is used to ensure the safety of a patient, relieve anxiety or to keep the working conditions of the staff tolerable. Also a shortage of manpower and a request by the family can influence the decision on using chemical restraints. The lack of proper common guidelines causes confusion and wide variation in the use of chemical restraints. Many interviewees were hoping for more open discussion and cooperation on using chemical restraining. The nurses also mentioned many alternatives to rely on instead of using chemical restraints, such as soothing, comforting and creating a safe feeling for the patients, daily routines and stimulus. One of the key factors for taking to these instead of chemical restraints are the manpower resources in the facilities. Educating the staff can also help them to find more options for chemical restraining and make staff members recognize new or remember forgotten routines for caring for the patients without using psychotropic drugs.
  • Pylkkö, Tuomas (2013)
    It is well known that the central nervous system is a highly isolated tissue. Because of this the physico-chemical criteria to be met by an orally administered central nervous system drug are very strict. This work describes methods that can be used to select drug candidates and screening collections that have a higher possibility of being relevant to central nervous system drug development projects. This work also argues that small molecular space is so vast that it is difficult to imagine any progress without focusing screening collections in some way or another. Given that most available commercial compounds are very similar in some respects, it is very much possible that this presents a bottle-neck for the progress of drug development as a whole. Therefore, research on novel methods for compound production are also evaluated. In addition, this work describes the miniaturization and automation of a previously published ELISA-based assay. This assay measures the activation of a tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkB), expressed in a fibroblast cell line. The receptor, and it's endogenous ligand, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, have been linked to the mechanism of action of previously discovered medical interventions used in the treatment of depression. Such an assay can be used to discover either small molecule agonists or antagonists acting upon the receptor. These molecules could possibly be clinically relevant in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. It is demonstrated that it is indeed possible to miniaturize and automate the method, making it significantly more suitable for high-throughput screening. The original method was carried out in 24-well plates, transferring the samples to another plate for measurement. The new design uses 96-well plates and performs the entire process on the same plate.
  • Pylkkänen, Sarita (2013)
    Harmful drug effects are common among older medicine users. Potentially harmful drugs for older people have been defined by different criteria. Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) defined by Beers criteria have been associated with adverse effects, increased costs, need of hospital care and disabilities. Drugs with anticholinergic properties (DAPs) are associated with anticholinergic side effects, cognitive decline and delirium. Psychotropic drugs have been associated with increased risk of falls and mortality. Concurrent use (≥3) of psychotropic drugs has been considered harmful for older people by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of potentially harmful drug (PHD) use (DAPs, PIMs, or concurrent use of ≥3 psychotropic drugs) and the accumulation of PHDs in aged people living in nursing homes and assisted living facilities. The objective was also to investigate which patient characteristics are associated with PHD use or accumulation of these drugs. The cross-sectional data was collected in 2011-2012 as a part of a larger study "Reducing inappropriate, anticholinergic and psychotropic drug use among older residents in institutional care". The study population (N=326) consisted of ≥ 65-aged residents living in nursing homes or assisted living facilities in Helsinki (n=227) and Kouvola (n=99). The mean age was 83.5 years, 70.0 % were women and mean Charlson comorbidity index was 2.6. Residents were divided into four groups: aged using 1) DAPs, 2) PIMs defined by Beers criteria, 3) concurrent use of ≥3 psychotropic drugs and 4) no PHDs in use. Both those fulfilling any of these criteria and those fulfilling all the three criteria (accumulation of PHD) are described. Users in these groups were compared to the non-users. A majority of the residents, 78,8 % (95 % CI: 74,4 - 83,3) used ≥1 PHDs: 67,8 % (95 % CI: 62,7- 72,9) used ≥1 DAPs, 32,2 % (95 % CI: 27,1- 37,3) ≥1 PIMs and 32,2 % (95 % CI: 27,1-37,3) used ≥3 psychotropics concurrently. Of the residents, 41 (12.6 %) had a medication treatment that fulfilled all the three criteria of PHD use. These residents used significantly more PHDs than others (average mean 4,8 [range 3-7] vs. 1,6 [range 0-6]). The residents having the PHD accumulation were more often males and used more drugs than others. There were no statistical differences among the other characteristics of these groups. The most common PHDs were mirtazapine (n=66), lorazepam (n=64), oxazepam (n=62), ketiapine (n=58) and stimulant laxatives without opioids (n=58). Use of DAPs was associated with multimorbidity, use of PIMs with weaker health related quality of life, and use of psychotropics with younger age. High number of drugs was associated with all these criteria. Use and accumulation of potentially harmful drugs is common among the aged living in nursing homes and assisted living facilities. New means are needed to optimize drug treatments and to educate professionals taking care of these patients. Special attention should be paid on the use of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mirtazapine and stimulant laxatives.