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Browsing by Subject "saatavuushäiriöt"

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  • Korhonen, Mira (2021)
    Good availability of medicines means that authorised medicines are placed on the market and not in a short supply. Drug shortages have increasingly become a common problem that has compromised the continuous availability of medicines. Drug shortages are caused by many complex factors, such as capacity constraints, manufacturing difficulties, business decisions, availability of raw materials, and sudden increase in demand. Drug shortages can cause adverse effects, medication errors, allergies, and delays in necessary treatments. There have been studies that have explained the reasons behind medicines shortages. However, more information is needed especially from the perspective of markets in Finland. The aim of this study was to reinforce and deepen the knowledge concerning the availability of medicines in Finland. The aim was to identify the group of medicines that are more exposed in short supply than others and define the root causes of medicine shortages. In addition, the aim was to form an overview of the availability of medicines in Finland. The study was based on a Finnish medicine agency's registry. Data were collected retrospectively from materials that contained shortage notifications from marketing authorisation holders and mandatory reserve supplies permissions for exemption to maintain lower stock levels. The study was dated between the years 2017 and 2020. More detailed data from the medicine shortage was only available from the year 2020 because of changes in procedures. The study also contained data from the register for all marketed and non-marketed medicinal products with marketing authorisation. The data classified with ATC-codes, because it is used internationally and thus makes the study to comparative to other studies. Data were analysed with cross-tabulation and frequency distributions. The study addressed that drug shortages were reported of medicines that are commonly used in Finland, such as nervous and cardiovascular system drugs. These medicines covered almost half of the annual shortage notifications. The number of drug shortage notifications has increased annually by approximately 40 percent. Correspondingly mandatory reserve supplies permission for an exemption to maintain lower stock levels were reported most on nervous system drugs and anti-infectives for systemic use. The number of annual permissions remained quite constant. The amount of the permissions increased 14 percent between the years 2017 and 2018 and a further 6 percent to the year 2019. However, the amount of permissions increased 26 percent in the year 2020. There is clearly recognized the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic when considered the rate of shortage notifications and mandatory reserve supplies permissions. The main reasons for the shortages were capacity constraints (32%) and increased demand (21%). Most of the drugs in short supply were drugs with national (33%) or decentralised (30%) marketing authorisation procedures. Broadly were able to state that the availability of medicines was at an acceptable level. 62 percent of all medicinal products with marketing authorisation were placed on the market. In addition, only 29 percent of older drugs with marketing authorisation accept during the years 1996 to 2003 were withdrawn from the market. In future, more large-scale studies are needed based on this study to improve the system that maintains the continuous and high-quality medicine distribution. Most important is to create a better tracking system and co-operation between national and international officials.