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Browsing by Subject "tableting"

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  • Savolainen, Heikki (2018)
    Tablet manufacturing requires both high-quality equipment and powder blend with high flowability and compactability and low segregation tendency. The process is complex and tablet formation process still remains not fully understood. Adequate powder flow is a necessity for the pharmaceutical manufacturing process, i.e., powder flowability and flow properties play a great role when designing manufacturing processes for solid dosage forms. As such, the powder characteristics need to be investigated. However, one property is seldom enough to predict the flowability of a powder in specific processes and different test methods need to be used to fully understand the tableting performance of a particular powder. It is crucial to know how the assessed properties reflect the manufacturing conditions. The need for test batches and the use of empirical testing still exists despite the numerous powder characterization tests available. The main aim of the study was to understand the influence of material properties, flow properties and segregation tendencies on both the processability of a formulation during tablet compression and the critical quality attributes, such as mass, tensile strength and dose uniformity of the final drug product. Additionally, testing of an in-line NIR method to observe the homogeneity of the powder inside the force feeder right before the compression step and transmission Raman as an at-line method for tablet content were also evaluated. A number of powder characterization tests were employed in order to fully understand the impact of the formulation on the process performance. Three formulations with different particle size of the active substance and mannitol were used throughout the study. Both the sifting segregation and fluidization segregation tests’ results predicted the formulations’ tabletability particularly well. Fluidization segregation test predicted the changing composition of the formulation throughout tableting whereas sifting segregation results showed the constantly fluctuating API concentration in the manufactured tablets. Moreover, the Raman results confirmed the tablets of variable content despite the offset caused by the different particle size of the raw materials used. The functionality of the NIR in the force feeder was tested successfully. The residence time distribution could be determined at a sufficient level to point out tablets of a bad quality from the batch on grounds of the NIR data. Results from the powder flow property tests were rather conflicting. Angle of repose, Carr’s index and volume flow rate gave the best characterizing results, whereas the mass flow rate, shear test with higher normal stress in pre-shear gave the worst results, considering the experienced flow character of the formulations. As stated above, different flow property tests may give conflicting result, and hence, it is crucial to know which results are the most relevant ones. Furthermore, the right settings for the test should be known to gain applicable results, best exemplified by the shear cell test.
  • Lehtola, Minna (2018)
    Tramadol products for cats are not commercially available. Problems may occur when dividing a tablet registered for humans due to uneven distribution of active ingredient within a tablet and bitter taste of tramadol. Minitablets have multiple benefits, including small size, better uniformity of content, coatability and fast administration, in comparison to a divided conventional tablet. The purpose of this study was to develop minitablets which are possible to coat with a taste masking coating. Physical and chemical properties of tramadol hydrochloride, such as water solubility, temperature behavior and hygroscopicity were studied. Additionally, compatibility of tramadol hydrochloride with excipients was studied by a 3-month stability exam. The pre-tests of granulation were carried out by using lactose or ascorbic acid as an active ingredient to model tramadol hydrochloride. The granulation was performed with high shear granulator and tableting with a rotary tablet press. The only variable factor between the granulation batches was the amount of granulation fluid. The impact of the amount of granulation fluid to the tableting properties was examined by determining particle size distribution, Carr index and Hausner ratio. Uniformity of mass, uniformity of content, hardness, disintegration time and dissolution were examined. The study revealed that tramadol hydrochloride did not have incompatibilities with the examined excipients. Tramadol hydrochloride was not hygroscopic even though it was found out to be freely soluble in water. Tablets with adequate hardness were successfully compressed of both granulated masses and the direct compression mass. However, the direct compression mass had more undesirable properties regarding the processes. Most batches fulfilled the requirements set for uniformity of mass and uniformity of content. Although the purpose of this study was to develop a tablet for veterinary medicine, the results in this study may be utilized in developing a formulation for pediatric medicine.