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Browsing by Subject "unilääkkeet"

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  • Eronen, Sini-Tuulia (2022)
    Introduction: When people age, the composition of sleep changes and sleep becomes more sensitive to external disturbances, making insomnia also more common. Medication is not the first-line treatment option for insomnia. Benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine receptor agonists for the treatment of insomnia have been in the focus of past studies. The content of the dosing instructions for the supplied medicines has not been studied. The dosing instructions should provide clear instructions on how to dose the medicine prescribed to the patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the content and quality of dosing instructions prescribed for the treatment of insomnia for Finns aged ≥75 years in 2020 based on the prospective reimbursement register data by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela). Materials and methods: The reimbursed purchases of all medicines by persons aged ≥75 years from 1.1.2020 to 31.12.2020 were selected by ATC code from the medicines data according to the Insomnia: Current Care guidelines. The data was gathered from Kela’s dispensations reimbursed under the National Health Insurance scheme. The dataset consisted of 1,080,843 delivery lines, which were screened, and 328,285 lines were included in the analyses. Dosage instructions were reviewed according to the following predetermined five categories: frequency of use, dose, timing, warnings or remarks, and inappropriate instructions. In addition, 1000 dosing instructions were randomly derived to study the phrasing and appropriateness of the dosing instructions in more detail. Results: In 2020, an average of 3.8 reimbursed hypnotic drug deliveries were made per elderly person. Of the deliveries, 68% were for women. 52% of drug deliveries were partially made later and not by original prescription. In the hypnotic dataset, the three most administered drugs were zopiclone (41%), mirtazapine (34%) and zolpidem (12%). The dosage was prescribed in 98–99% of the dosage instructions. Dosing schedule was reported in 83% of dosing instructions and regularity of use was reported in 57% of them. Only 3-6% of the dosing instructions had comments or warnings. 1–2% of the dosing instructions were vague. The duration or regularity of use was clearly indicated in 5% of the dosing instructions. Only 0.1% of dosage instructions contained instructions for discontinuation or reduction. Discussion: The dose and timing of administration were well reported, but the frequency of use was reported in only about half of the dosing instructions. Only few dosing instructions contained remarks or warnings even though hypnotics are at risk for the elderly. Among the three most administered drugs for the treatment of insomnia were two benzodiazepine receptor agonists, zopiclone and zolpidem. However, they may not be suitable for the elderly according to Beers criteria and their use should be avoided. During 2020, an average of four drug deliveries were made per elderly person for the treatment of insomnia, which may indicate prolonged hypnotics use. In addition, more than half of the deliveries were partially made later and not by original prescription. Thus, several drug packages are prescribed for prescriptions, although the drug-based treatment of insomnia should only be short-lived. Conclusions: There are significant deficiencies in the contents and quality in the dosing instructions for drugs delivered to the elderly for insomnia. Minimum information on dose, timing and duration of use was not found in all dosing instructions in this study. Understandable dosing instructions and the reduction in the amount of medication in the prescription could have a further effect on reducing the long-term use of hypnotics, also increasing the safety of medicine use in the elderly.
  • Kleme, Jenni (2012)
    The medicines information and counseling given by health care professionals are essential in supporting patients' medication therapy. Given that medication therapies are often associated with medicine-related problems among the elderly, proper knowledge on medicines and their use is especially important for this particular patient group. Benzodiazepines and related drugs are of special concern in the elderly. Despite the current care guidelines, they are commonly used by the elderly, often also regularly and long-term basis. Benzodiazepines and related drugs are associated with multiple potential adverse drug reactions that their elderly users should be aware of. This study aimed at assessing the knowledge on medications, and needs and sources of medicines information on benzodiazepines and related drugs in the elderly. Especially, medicines information related to benefits and adverse drug reactions was studied. Additionally, data on use and subjective experiences of benzodiazepines or related drugs in the elderly were explored. Structured interviews were conducted among patients aged 65 years and using benzodiazepines or related drugs (n = 38) in acute wards (n = 2) of Pori City Hospital in 2004. Elderly patients reported that the package leaflet was the main source of medicines information on benefits and adverse drug reactions relating to medicines they used. The physician was reported as a second source after the package leaflet. More than 50 percent of the elderly (n = 20) had not received information about the benefits or adverse drug reactions of benzodiazepines from their health care providers or relatives. The information received had merely focused on benefits of drug than adverse drug reactions. Most commonly the elderly (61 %, n = 23) knew, that the use of benzodiazepines can cause drug dependence. Least commonly, they were aware that benzodiazepines can cause muscular weakness, depression and falling over. Eight elderly were not aware of any asked adverse drug reactions and nearly two thirds of the patients (63 %, n = 24) knew less than four adverse drug reactions out of eleven. The results indicate that elderly patients are not well aware of the effects of benzodiazepines and related drugs they use. Additionally, they may more often receive information from the package leaflet than health care professionals. Physicians and other health care professionals should pay more attention to counseling elderly patients especially about the benefits and adverse drug reactions of benzodiazepines and related drugs.
  • Tähkäpää, Sanna-Mari (2016)
    Many mental disorders, such as anxiety, mood and substance use disorders, become prevalent in adolescence and continue into young adulthood. Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders in adolescents and approximately 6-13 % of adolescents and young adults suffer from them. Benzodiazepines have been used for the treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders for several years but they are not recommended for young patients due to risk of dependence and abuse. Nevertheless, benzodiazepines are also prescribed to treat mental disorders in children and adolescents under 18 -years of age. There is limited population-based evidence on the use of benzodiazepines among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine related drugs as anxiolytics and hypnotics in the Finnish population aged 0-25 years during 2006-2014. Data of this study were obtained from the Prescription Register of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland covering reimbursed drug purchases of benzodiazepines (N03AE, N05BA, N05CD, N06CA01) and benzodiazepine related drugs (N05CF) dispensed to 0-25 year olds. Purchases of orally administered dosage forms were included in this study. The majority (97 %) of anxiolytic and hypnotic users in the group of 0-25 year olds were 16-25-year-old adolescents and young adults. Use of anxiolytics and hypnotics among 16-25-year-olds decreased from the prevalence 19.9 / 1 000 to 15.9 / 1 000 inhabitants during the years 2006-2014. There were also decrease in incidence and prevalence of long-term use. The prevalence of long-term use among young adults decreased from 5.5 / 1 000 in 2006 to 3.3 / 1 000 young adults in 2014. The majority of anxiolytic and hypnotic users were females but long-term use was more common in males than in females. There was a decrease in use of almost every studied drug. Oxazepam was the only drug with increased number of users during the study period. Use of benzodiazepines as anxiolytics and hypnotics has decreased among adolescents and young adults since 2008 in Finland. Furthermore, long-term use of these drugs has decreased among young adults. Results indicate that rational drug therapy has been paid more attention in recent years which was reflected in decreased use of benzodiazepines.