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  • Taskinen, Kirsti (2020)
    This study examines early childhood education teachers’ experiences of the participation of 1–3-year-old children in the early childhood education and care plan (known as an ECEC plan) process. The process includes prepara-tion for the discussion of the child’s ECEC plan, discussion and the creation of the plan, and implementing and evaluating the plan. Section 23 of the new Act on Early Childhood Education and Care states that the child’s opinion must be heard at every stage of the ECEC plan process. Previous studies have indicated that the partici-pation of the child has not been implemented in accordance with targets. The purpose of this study was to ascertain how early childhood education teachers define child participation. Another point of interest for the study was to map the methods used by early childhood education teachers to support the child’s participation in the ECEC plan process. The study was carried out using semi-structured interviews, with seven early childhood education teachers chosen for the study. Interviews were carried out individually and data-oriented content analysis was used to analyse the material. According to early childhood education teachers, the participation of 1–3-year-old children in the ECEC plan process involved observing the child and discussing with the child to ascertain their interests, strengths and needs, recording the information in the child’s ECEC plan, team discussions and expanding on the child’s perspective, listening to the child’s parents and making use of their knowledge of their own child, and implementing the ECEC plan in everyday life, as well as the child’s opportunity to influence joint activities. The participation of 1–3-year-olds in the ECEC plan process has also given some teachers pause for thought. One challenge was ascertaining the perspective of a small child if the child was not yet able to speak. According to the results of the study, observing and interviewing the child using a new ECEC form to ascertain the child’s wishes and interests were significant for the participation of the child during the preparation phase. Child participation was also supported by daily discussions with parents, information about the child obtained from the initial discussion meeting held when the child began day-care, and team discussion on observations of the child. The new ECEC form and shared information about the child highlighted the child’s perspective in discussions. Participation was strengthened by child group activities, which were organised based on the targets outlined in the children’s ECEC plans, as well as on an assessment of pedagogical methods. Flexibility in the daily routine, activities initiated by the child, pictures and supportive signs, and voting were all methods of implementing child participation. Photographs, storycrafting, an educational portfolio, naming a star child of the week, and video recording made activities and significant experiences of the child visible. In order to increase child participation in the ECEC plan process, illustrated support for interviews with children and the presence of the child at ECEC plan discussions were proposed.
  • Saarinen, Jade Luna (2018)
    Aims. The aim of my research was to study the use of social media of 15–17 year old Finnish teenagers and what effects social media has on them. Earlier studies have shown that an average Finnish teenager uses social media approximately 15 hours during a week. It has also been studied that the social media has an effect on self-esteem. I chose social media and it’s effects on teenagers as my research subject because as a phenomenom the social media is rather young, which is why there has not been done many Finnish studies focusing on the teenagers’ social media use. My research assignment is to find out what kind of social media users teenagers are and what kind of effects social media has on their self experiences. Methods. The study was qualitative and 45 teenagers from age 15 to 17 participated in it. The data was collected with an internet questionnaire which was shared through social media, and it contained mainly open questions. The data was analysed by using qualitative data-based content analysis. Results and conclusions. Most of the teenagers used social media 3–4 hours daily or more. It was used for entertainment, for finding information, communication, current affairs, sharing one’s own life experiences and for finding inspiration, among other things. Almost half of the teenagers were bullied over social media. Appearance was also essential in the social media. Social media created ideals for appearance for teenagers and set them under critique, gave them false image of reality and made the teenagers look for the acceptance through outlooks. 31 of them had gotten positive comments on their appearance from social media and 13 had gotten negative comments. Those comments had an impact on the teenagers’ self-esteem, mood and feelings. Teenagers had also objects of identification and admiration in social media, such as videobloggers, artists, models and their own friends, and they were influenced by them. They felt that social media had many positive and negative effects on their lives. Positive effects were the rise of self-esteem, being more brave in expressing one’s own opinion, the possibilities of keeping in touch with other people and being the source of inspiration, motivation and information, among other things. The negative effects were the social media taking too much time and creating pressure, its bad effect on physical condition and sleep, distortion of self-image, the mean people and the need to be always within reach, among other things. The results of this study implicate that the social media has a comprehensive effect on the lives of the teenagers and their self experiences.
  • Peuhkuri, Ulla (2017)
    The focus in recent research related to household work has been the allocation of time. The results suggest that the overall time spent in household chores has dropped especially amongst the youth and that the work is shared unevenly between genders. Household cleaning is generally regarded as the least pleasant chore despite its necessity in a functional household. Reducing the burden of routine household work has been attempted through rationalization with varying degrees of success. Inspired by this, the major goal of this study is to find out whether understanding the motivation of individuals will provide means for developing more effective methods of rationalization. The focus in this study is the cleaning motivation of young people and, in particular, measuring the motivation through Job Characteristics Model. The research gives insight what factors explain the changes in the cleaning motivation amongst the youth. The motivation is quantified using the so-called motivation potential score. The research data was gathered through a questionnaire based on Job Diagnostic Survey. The answers (N=140) were collected mainly through two Finnish Facebook groups (HC-partiolaiset and Kopeda) although the questionnaire was open to anyone with the correct hyperlink. The answers were analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis software using explorative factor analysis and regression analysis. The results suggest that Job Characteristic Model may work for describing the motivation of household cleaning. The measured mean motivation potential score of the youth was 50.5 with minimum and maximum values 17.5 and 109.6, respectively. Out of the measured factors, only the cleaning frequency clearly explains the changes in the motivation potential score. The results cannot be generalized to the population level due to a small sample size and missing repeated study. More research is required in order to adapt the used models to household cleaning motivation.
  • Vanne, Elina (2022)
    The aim of this master's thesis was to study the childhood food memories of 67-76-year-olds. In the first theoretical part of my dissertation I deal with food culture, its formation and the factors that shape it. I write about the history of Finnish food culture since 1945 and the journey towards the current state of Finnish food culture. In the second part of the theory, I write about food memories, previous studies of childhood food memories in Finland and childhood eating habits. My dissertation becomes part of home economics food research, because it deals with Finnish food culture, food memories, cooking skills, food service and even the history of Finnish families' daily lives. My research questions were: How childhood food memories are perceived? Who or what is involved? And in what ways do childhood memories appear in a person’s life at a later age? I did not make hypotheses or presuppositions, as I wanted interview material to speak for itself. The study was conducted as a qualitative study. The research material was collected through pair interviews involving people aged 67–76 years. The subjects were siblings and all of the interviewees were born and have spent their childhoods mainly in the cities of southern Finland. The interviewees were selected at discretion. They have lived their childhoods during the greatest food culture changes in Finland in the last hundred years. The interviews were collected as semi-structured thematic interviews, and the collected material was transcribed, themed and analyzed by means of material-based content analysis. The results of the study show that the role of the mother was the most important in childhood food memories, but the father and grandmother also play a major role in them. Food memories strongly reflected the spirit of the period studied, such as the availability of food, the possibilities of choice, the appreciation of food, Finnish food culture and the social situation. Childhood food memories perceived as positive and negative. Negative food memories are often ignored and there are less negative food memories than positive. There are a lot of positive food memories and they evoke nice and warm thoughts and feelings. In addition to the people, the sensory experiences were emphasized in the food memories. Of the sensory memories, the experiences related to the sense of smell and taste were the most pronounced, but the appearance of the food also affected the attractiveness of the food. The results of my research are largely consistent with previous research. The purpose of the study was to store unique and important Finnish food memorabilia that contain valuable information about history, create an understanding of the present and strengthen the field of home economics research.
  • Penttinen, Kaarina (2013)
    Aims. The post-war time in Finland was a golden era of reconstruction and the baby boomers were born. Earlier the 1950's have been a subject of studies in architecture, suburban studies, home technology and social politics. The following research questions arose from the ageing of the baby boomers: what actually occurred in everyday life in Finnish families during the 50's and how well-being manifested itself in demanding circumstances? The aim of this research was to let the contemporaries themselves tell the story of the 50 s, in the context of home economics. The themes and the questions of the research are as follows: 1.Well-being in families: Which factors contribute to well-being in families? 2.Connections between everyday life, built environment and surrounding nature: Which factors connect the everyday life to environment? 3.Functionality in families and the technological development at homes: Which technological innovations are utilized by families? Data and methods. The research approach was narrative. The data for this qualitative research consists of 15 narrative stories from informants (n=16) in different age groups from different parts of Finland. Informants were invited through the organization Marttaliitto and via the researcher's own interest groups. The theoretical framework lies in the interpretive oral history. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results and conclusions. There were five themes which contributed to well-being in families. Functional housing and development of the built environment were important contributing factors. Target-oriented action to achieve a good life and responsible human agency to increase solicitude both between the family members and in community. Everyday life was connected to the environment on many levels, through economical and emotional factors. There was a wide variety of the artifacts that families used. They can be categorized whether they were used in housekeeping, if they promoted functionality at homes or were used during the leisure time. Societal factors have a great impact on forming the relationship between everyday life and environment. To raise the standard of living through target-oriented action is dependent on the development of the infrastructure. Political actions to promote the welfare state have been a carrying force of development of the 50 s, having a positive effect on households activity. Societal factors to promote welfare improve health and increase equality in education.
  • Asmala, Laura (2017)
    This research focuses on the children's clothing of the 1950's. Especially this research has its focus on the meanings of children's clothes. Children's clothes had not been researched widely before, and there was no research of Finnish children's clothes from the 1950's. The decade was remarkable in the lives of families and children, there was some big changes in society, which had a direct effect on both families and children. Costume research has proven that people use clothes to communicate to one another. This is why it is interesting to research how we can see the changed position of the children in her clothes. I studied 12 clothes from Satakunnan Museo's collections. My aim was to choose clothes that would represent as good as possible the children's fashion of the 1950's. I chose not to research underwear, pyjamas, or accessories like shoes or hats. I created an analyse for this research, where I utilized semiotics, artefacts studies and earlier costume research. Children's position could be seen in many ways in her clothes. Urbanization, school systems generalization, could be seen as formality in the clothes. Also the conservative perspective on families and gender could be seen as differences in the clothes of boys and girls. As medicine and psychology as well as behavioural sciences, developed their theories, started the emphasizing of outdoor activities and playing for children's health. These matters could be seen as loose clothes and material choices. On the other hand no elastic materials were used in the clothes of matter, even though the guide books of raising children up, did recommend elastic materials. This research indicated that the society's and adult's aspects on children, could be seen in her clothes in the 1950's.
  • Vaajoki, Vicky (2016)
    Change is often viewed as the essence of fashion, but many who operate in the field have observed that certain features and events recur either in a linear, cyclical, swinging or fragmented matter. The purpose of my thesis is to forecast the next 1950s revival by developing and testing a new tool for forecasting. To achieve my goal I examined, if the revivals show common always recurring features and what the similarities and differences are like. I studied the two most recent recurrences in the years 1996 and 2012 by focusing on two retrotrends, apparel and Zeitgeist. The perspective of my thesis was a qualitative and hermeneutic future study. I examined the apparel features with photographs of Chanel's and Dior's collections. For the interpretation of the Zeitgeist factors I used Mitä, missä, milloin -books and collected the research material from the section on culture, news and international politics. For the analysis I employed the hermeneutic circle and two types of qualitative content analysis. On the first round I expanded my pre-understanding and defined the factors with which I grouped, measured and interpreted the material in the content analyses. On rounds two, three and four I analyzed the photographs by applying content analysis of visual images, and examined the text with inductive content analysis. On the fifth and final round I formed the base for my forecast by comparing my expanded understanding and the results of the previous rounds with one another. According to the results the most common characteristic features of the dresses and jackets, in Chanel's and Dior's collections from the years 1996 and 2012, resembled the features of the 1950s. The greatest differences where in the lengths of the sleeves and skirts. All of the Zeitgeist factors recurred in each revival, except for the "racial riots", youth culture and the buy now pay later -mentality. Based on my findings I predict that the common characteristic features of the 1950s apparel and Zeitgeist will recur in the next revival.
  • Inkeroinen, Tiia (2016)
    The purpose of this study was to research patients with Type 1 diabetes and (of) their experiences and perceptions of supportive communication, as well as (and) social support received from the diabetes doctor and the diabetes nurse. The aim was to understand supportive communication at doctor or diabetes nurse's office, (as well as) what kind of social support for Type 1 diabetes was typically received from doctor or nurse, and (as well as) what kind of support would be desired. In the field of speech communication, interest has been a particular aspect of interaction. Supportive communication is described as verbal or nonverbal communication, which aims to provide assistance or support to another person. At it(')s best, supportive communication can have positive effects on both the physical and psychological well-being of a person. In this study the subjects of the review have been instrumental in regards to emotional support for self-esteem and informational support. In this research, the data was collected interviewing nine people with Type 1 diabetes, five of whom were men and four women. Based on the results of this study, a number of Type 1 diabetes patients have experienced supportive communication and social support from their diabetes doctor and nurse. There are many factors that influence of the possibility to get support. These factors are related to sender, message, recipient or context. This study shows that doctor offers most of the instrumental and informational support. From the nurse, in some situations, it is possible to get the emotional support. Support that patients have been receiving from their doctor or nurse has help related to blood sugar values and in terms of writing a referral to another specialist. Support has also been defined as listening and comforting, or encouragement with disease-related problems. One of the major factors related to social support and supportive communication is that the doctor and the nurse has to be aware of the patient's individuality and the fact that patients want and need different types of support. When interacting with a patient, it is important for the doctor and the nurse to use person-centered messages as much as possible. When person-centered messages are used, the support seems more real and focused. Supportive communication and social support needs from doctor and nurse also vary depending on (related to that) how much support is obtained from elsewhere. Peer group support is important for many Type 1 diabetics and it has at least partly replaced the need for support from diabetes doctor and a nurse. Despite this, many still consider that help from doctor and nurse could be useful.
  • Naskali, Tuomo (2014)
    In the past few decades, Western countries have evolved from industrial societies to information societies. Skills that are useful in life and work are not the same as before. Schools as an institution have been criticized for lagging behind in change. For this reason,21st Century Skills have been developed to work as a model of skills useful in the future. The aim of this study is to observe the ICT projects of some first-graders in one school through the lens of 21st Century Skills. My goal is to study which 21st Century Skills were learned in the projects and how. iPads were used in the projects; two classes made multimedia books of themselves and one made video interviews about different professions. The pupils also used Edmodo, which is a social media and learning environment aimed at schools. Their activity in Edmodo is also studied from the viewpoint of 21st Century Skills. Social media has changed the way people live and work in a global level, but it has not been used or studied much in elementary schools. My study is a case study whose subjects were pupils from three 1st grade classes (age ~7) in an elementary school in Helsinki metropolitan area. The school has a pedagogical ICT support person who planned and carried out the projects together with the class teachers. The projects took place in April-May 2013 and I was present at the school to observe the lessons. The data of my study comprises of my own observation notes, the video material I filmed and the content the pupils produced in Edmodo. The data is analyzed with theorybased themes as per a model of 21st Century Skills. All three classes were analyzed together. The data reflects the future challenges of teaching. Many contents of 21st Century Skills were learned in the projects. Especially, skills related to social interaction, technology, creativity and problem solving were learned. The pupils shared ideas and solved problems together. Their actions were creative and target-oriented. By using iPads the pupils worked on their ICT skills and learned to use new apps and services quickly. Edmodo supported social and technological learning goals. Some pupils uploaded a lot of content to Edmodo, some only a little. Although social media was used only briefly by the students, they learned vital skills for upcoming years in school.
  • Joki, Johanna (2019)
    The aim of this study was to research the prosocial behavior of children from three to four years old during their playtime at daycare. This subject has links with some current questions concerning the early education. The theoretical background is based on the theories of moral development and play. The earlier research has given different views on young childrens capability to behave prosocially. The latest studies have shown that some forms of prosocial behavior are possible for children during their first year of life. The purpose of this study is to research the forms of childrens prosocial behavior and to find out the most frequent form. The connections between the prosocial behavior and different plays are also considered. The qualitative methods were used in this study. The material was collected through ethnographic observation at a daycare center in Espoo. 13 children were participated in the observation. In the addition of ethnographic methods also conversation analysis was used. The data was litterated and analysed by conversation analysis. The ethnographic notebook based on the observation was utilised over the analysis. Four main classes of prosocial behaviour were found out. They are helping, comforting, pleasing and sharing. The new sub class of prosocial behaviour was composed and named as “predicting one’s desires”. Sharing turned out to be the most frequent form of prosocial behaviour among the observated children. Prosocial behaviour was more frequent during home play compared to other playing situations. All the children were capable to behave prosocially at least in some situations. Based on these results is possible to think that children from 3 to 4 years old already have some capacities to perspective taking and empathy. The connection between home play and prosocial behaviour can be explained partially by the nature of home play. At this age home play includes a lot of features of role play. The information concerning childrens prosocial behaviour can be utilised in the early education and specially in positive pedagogy.
  • Vesalainen, Elina (2013)
    The purpose of this study was to examine what type of sleep pedagogy is used in kindergarten groups consisting of 3- to 5-year-old children. The term sleep pedagogy, in this content, means such pedagogical practices, which enhance falling asleep and gaining restfulness. The goal was to increase information about attitudes and pedagogical practices regarding naptime. At the same time the intention was to learn more about how children's needs for rest and sleep are catered to and on whose conditions naps and rest time is organised. There is very little prior research done on kindergarten children's naps and rest time. Most of the existing knowledge is about toddlers sleep or is focused on sleep disturbances. The study was conducted in April 2012. It included 14 kindergarten groups from one municipal day care area. The data was collected by interviewing the kindergarten teachers and by observing the groups. The observations were based on a semi-structured observation sheet, which focused on the physical environment as well as on the events and the atmosphere. The observations were carried out so that they began when the activity prior to naptime was ended (typically lunch). They lasted until most of the children were peaceful and the adult stopped the activity (for example reading a story) in the nap room. The study was performed during one day in each group. Besides the interviews and observations, kindergarten teachers filled in a background form and the nap rooms were photographed. The analysis method was phenomenological, which means that the subject was examined as a phenomenon entity. The interviews were analysed following the stages of the phenomenological analysis method. For analysing the observations a specific scale was created. The scale consisted of four parts, which measured 1) the structure of the activity, 2) the quality of the adults interaction, 3) the adults essence in the nap room and 4) the physical distance between the adult and the children. These four areas were measured, and compared to the tranquillity of the children. The results of this study show that the groups of 3- to 5-year-old children are balancing between different sleep needs. Besides the different needs, the attitudes of the pedagogues, the whole system of kindergarten tasks, the physical environment and children's' parents all have their impact on the way how nap time is arranged. The interviews indicate that kindergarten teachers value highly the naptime, but they underline the difference in napping and resting. The study shows clear connections between children's' restfulness and the pedagogical acts. According to this study, factors that increase children's' tranquillity are a tranquil essence and a child-oriented interaction of the adult as well as the clear structure of the transition activities and naptime. The study offers valuable information on kindergartens naps and rest time. This information can directly be utilized in planning naptime and especially in situations were naptime is considered challenging.
  • Suortti, Outi Elina (2008)
    Aims. The beginning point of this research was confusion between studies claiming, that children mature Metalinguistic to read at 6-7 of age, and the fact, that in Montessori playschools children easily start writing and reading at age 3 to 5. Aim was also find out how conception of slow Metalinguistic development has started, and if there is some evidence of phoneme awareness of reading of young children in the field of research of reading. Aim was also seek evidence of the sensitive period of reading as Montessori described it. The research also wanted to turn up, if phoneme awareness only develops in children, who work with graphemes and with reading, or could it be found in children, who do not. The mean was to research how the Montessori reading material supports child's Metalinguistic development, when child begins learning to read. The research plans to represent knowledge about how young children learn to write and read. Methods. Research performed in ordinary kindergarten and in Montessori playschool in Espoo. In kindergarten observed six children, age 3-4, at eight grapheme-rhyme sessions from January to April 2007, and conducting a test based on Chaney's (1992) study of phoneme awareness of young children. In Montessori kindergarten were observed 17 children about their phoneme awareness and reading competition from January 2007 to March 2008. Their developments in reading were also measured three times from 1.9.07 to 20.3.08 with classification constructed for this study, loosely based on Chall's (1983) reading stages. The Montessori reading material was analyzed about the influence they have to a child's Metalinguistic development. This was done based to theory and its concepts from the field of research of reading; phoneme awareness, morphological, syntactical and semantic consciousness. Results and conclusions. Research proved that children 3-5 have naturally developed phoneme awareness. In kindergarten and in Montessori playschool children between 2 and 4 could do phoneme synthesis, and in the latter they also could do phoneme segmentation of words. Montessori reading material guided children gradually, except to read, also to observe and absorb Metalinguistic knowledge. Children learned to write and read. At the last evaluating day almost 50 % of children write and read clauses or stories, and 82 % could read at least words. Children can develop Metalinguistic awareness, while using the Montessori materials for learning to write and read. To reach literacy is easy for children because of their phoneme awareness.
  • Rautaoja, Inka (2022)
    Goals. The aim of this thesis was to examine the relationship between the assessments made on the teacher rating scale and the results of the direct measures of language development when assessing 4-year-old children’s language skills. The second aim was to find out how well early educators identify 4-year-old children who are at risk and those not at risk for language skills when using the teacher rating scale. Previous research has shown that form-based assessment tools are considered practical and efficient ways to assess children’s early language skills. The accuracy and consistency of the assessments have not been thoroughly investigated. This thesis will provide information on whether early educators identify those children who are at greater risk for language problems than their peers. Early identification is important to targeting the right kind of support. Methods. This study is a quantitative Master’s thesis. The research data included the results of the Lene and the Lukiva tests and the assessments made on the teacher rating scale for 4-year-old children (N=189) obtained in the initial sample of the Toimi ja opi research in 2019. The relationship between the assessments made on the teacher rating scale and the results of direct measures of language development was examined using Spearman’s and Pearson’s correlation analyses. The ability of early educators to identify 4-year-old children who are at risk and those not at risk for language skills was examined through configural frequency analysis. IBM SPSS Statistics 27 and Excel were used for data analysis. Results and conclusions. The results of the Master’s thesis showed a moderate and statistically significant relationship between the assessments made on the teacher rating scale and the direct measures of language development. The strongest connection was measured between the teacher rating scale and the Lene’s language comprehension test. The results also showed that the early educators were able to identify those 4-years-old children who are at risk and those not at risk for language skills when using the teacher rating scale. The findings show that the teacher rating scale is a viable tool for early educators to assess children’s language skills and to identify those who are at risk for language problems.
  • Koivumäki, Anu (2015)
    The purpose of this thesis is to find out how five to six year old boys' need for support with their gross motor skills is associated with their other skills, such as cognitive and social skills. The scope of the material also allowed to study the associations between gross motor skills and daily functions of early childhood education. I study these other functions in my third research problem; how does the need for support with gross motor skills impact the daily activities of the child in his early childhood education. Based on earlier research, it is known that motor skills have an impact on the development of the child. My assumption was that my research data would support earlier research. The data used in this thesis was part of the University of Helsinki "Orientaation lähteillä" research project material. The data had been collected from 45 day cares, including both kindergartens and childminders in Central Uusimaa and Hämeenlinna. The material had been collected by interviewing and observing the children, and having the teachers evaluate the children's different skills. Background information and information about the learning environment was also collected. This thesis is based on the material's Needs plenty of support with gross motor skills claim, which had been evaluated on a five point scale. The data was delimited to boys aged five to six (N=243). The data was analysed using cross tabulation and correlations from child observations and skills assessments. This thesis is quantitative, and the SPSS software was used to study the associations between gross motor skills and other skills and functions. The results of this thesis show that children who needed support with their gross motor skills, often also needed support with their cognitive and social skills. The need for support with gross motor skills also impacted the child's everyday activities. A child who had a need for support with their gross motor skills played less imaginary games, spent less time in guided outdoor activities, and focused his attention more frequently on non-social targets than other children. The children who needed plenty of support where physically less active and less committed during the kindergarten day. In conclusion, motor development influences many other areas of a child's development, and therefore special attention needs to be paid to promoting motor development in early childhood education.
  • Palm, Noora (2020)
    Objectives. The purpose of the study is to study the experiences of 5–6-year-old kindergarteners from swimming school. The study is interested in what kind of experiences children have from swimming school, how they describe their own swimming skills and what significance play plays in swimming school. The theoretical background of the study is built on three main themes. Initially, pre-school children are treated as mobile, physical activity, motor development and learning, basic motor skills, exercise skills and motivation in children's exercise. The next big theme is swimming lessons and the concepts that are central to it. Finally, we turn to experience as a phenomenon. The study has a self-reflective approach. Methods. Twelve children aged 5 to 6 years participated in the study. The group of children was from a kindergarten in South Helsinki. The research material was obtained through participatory observation and an individual interview. I myself work as a teacher in a swimming school group. The analysis of the research interview material was performed by phenomenological and narrative analysis. Results and conclusions. Children’s experiences of swimming school varied according to their previous experiences in the water. They also felt, for example, that different things were nice and not nice things at a swimming school. Most of the children felt that they had learned to swim during swimming school. The children were motivated towards the swimming school. This was evident in their interest in training, and their motivation also emerged in the children's speeches. The importance of free play in the swimming school was highlighted in the children's interviews as well as during the swimming school period. Time must be left for free play, even if it is a guided swimming school. Free play was important for the children and learning also takes place during it. In general, good teaching and differentiation as well as individualization are emphasized in swimming lessons.
  • Suomalainen, Iina (2021)
    The symptoms of ADHD can cause many challenges for children and adolescents in school. Today, traditional learning environments are challenged by more open, flexible learning environments. However, there is only little earlier research on classroom experiences in flexible learning environments and classroom experiences comparing traditional and flexible learning environments have not been studied from the perspective of students with ADHD symptoms. In addition, previous research has shown that students with symptoms of ADHD often experience lower self-esteem than their peers. It is also known that girls are more likely to report lower self-esteem than boys. The purpose of this study is to examine how students at risk for ADHD experience their self-esteem, engagement, autonomy, relatedness and competence in traditional and flexible learning environments. In addition, this study examines whether there is a gender difference in the above-mentioned experiences. The theoretical basis of the research is the self-determination theory, to which autonomy, competence, relatedness and engagement are essentially connected. The data was collected from students in grades 7 and 8 who had participated in the Learning, grouping, evaluation and well-being in large learning areas project of the city of Vantaa and the University of Helsinki Education Assessment Center in 2019–2020. Of all 7–8th graders (N 1446), students at risk of ADHD (n 113) were selected for the study. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to examine the connections between attention, self-esteem, and the components of self-determination theory. Next, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine whether there is a difference between traditional and flexible learning environments in self-esteem, autonomy, competence, relatedness and student engagement in students at risk for ADHD. The same method of analysis was used again to examine whether there is a gender difference in self-esteem, autonomy, competence, relatedness and student engagement in students in the risk group of ADHD. The data was analyzed by using IBM SPSS Statistics 26. The results showed that the experiences of self-esteem and the components of self-determination theory (student engagement, autonomy, relatedness and competence) did not differ depending on the learning environment in students at risk of ADHD between traditional and open plan (flexible) learning environments. However, experiences of self-esteem, autonomy and engagement among at-risk students in ADHD differed between the sexes, with girls having lower self-esteem and experiencing less autonomy and engagement than boys.
  • Aalto, Severi (2017)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine the motivation of 7th to 9th graders in secular ethics and the factors related to that. The study also examined the connections between the factors behind motivation and connections related to pupils background information. Pupils' interest in different contents of secular ethics was also explored. Method. This study was a quantitative survey, but it also included a qualitative section. The motivation scale of the questionnaire is based on Pintrich's (1988) MSLQ ((Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) and Ruohotie's (1993) APLQ (Abilities for Professional Learning Questionnaire). The data was collected in April 2015. 75 pupils from four schools in Helsinki answered the questionnaire. The quantitative data was analyzed by using PASW Statistics 18. The answers from qualitative section were analyzed by using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The study showed that pupils were motivated by and interested in secular ethics. Secular ethics was also regarded as an important and useful subject. Several correlating factors affected to pupils' motivation. The intrinsic orientation correlated with many motivation factors. One of the crucial findings was the strong correlation between intrinsic orientation and the way teachers interacted with the pupils. There were no differences between boys and girls in their motivation factors except (in relation to) teaching material and methods. Good grades were connected between expectations of success and beliefs of intrinsic succeeding. The study also revealed that pupils were motivated by several contents of the secular ethics but moral and ethics were the most important. The results of this study can be utilized in the teaching of secular ethics in increasing pupils' motivation.
  • Vihavainen, Tiina (2016)
    The aim of this master's thesis was to find out what kind of promoting and hindering supervisory experiences doctors who have graduated from Aalto University School of Engineering had during their doctoral studies and what kind of differences were found between those experiences. Based on previous research literature it can be stated that the quality of supervision of doctoral studies has an effect on the experiences of doctoral students, their well-being and their graduation. My data consists of 10 theme interviews of doctors who have graduated from Aalto University School of Engineering in 2012-2014. I used qualitative content analysis to analyse my data. Based on my research results, the promoting factors of doctoral studies include high-quality and sufficient supervisory relationships and supervision of the research process. The most significant supervisory relationship was the one with the personal supervisor. Competence, pedagogical know-how, enthusiasm, prioritizing supervising and regularity of the supervisory meetings were valued when the personal supervisor is concerned. Supervision of the research process had promoted doctoral studies if supervision and feedback were received regularly; supervision was supportive and motivating; and it was focused on the content of the doctoral thesis, usage of research methods and the study processes of the doctoral student. Poor-quality and insufficient supervisory relationships and supervision of the research process were experienced as hindering factors of doctoral studies. Personal supervisor who lacked competence, interest and time on academic supervising was a significant hindering factor in doctoral studies. Research group activities did not promote student's own research if the research agenda of the group was remarkably different from the research topic of the student. The lack of peer group activities was also experienced as a hindering factor. Supervision of the research process was experienced hindering one's doctoral studies if the student did not receive enough support on the contents of the doctoral thesis, usage of research methods, planning his or her studies and research, academic writing and publishing or applying for finances. Based on the differences of the supervisory experiences I split the interviewees into four groups: 1) satisfied with supervision, 2) those who described contradictory supervisory experiences, 3) unsatisfied with supervision and, 4) those who extended their supervisory network. Based on my results it can be stated that there were remarkable differences between supervisory experiences of the interviewees. The quantity of supervision varied from daily supervisory discussions to years of lonely work and the quality of supervision varied from productive collaboration with supervisor and other researchers to indifferent and insufficient supervision. To improve the supervisory experiences of doctoral students it is recommended in this master's thesis that supervisory teams could be used, peer group activities could be organized, supervision could be increased especially in the planning stage of studies and research, more research method courses could be organized and postgraduates could be given support in applying for finances.
  • Pääkkönen, Siiri (2015)
    Aim of the study. The fundamental frequency of speech (f0), the fundamental frequency minimum and maximum (f0min-f0max) and the vowel formant frequencies (F1-F3) are acoustical elements that make the difference between the voice of a man and a woman. Making a solid judgment of ones gender based on his/hers voice is not easy, but based on the acoustical elements mentioned above it can be judged quite reliably. F0 is considered to be the best acoustical element in making gender judgments, but also F1-F3 and f0max-f0min have been proven to be important. No Finnish research has been made. The aim of this study was to gather data about acoustical properties (f0, f0min-f0max, F1-F3) of voice and investigate the correlation between the acoustical properties and perceived gender and voice femininity or masculinity. This study investigated also did the subjective evaluations and the listeners evaluations differ from each other. Methods. Ten female, nine men, three male-to-female transgender people and two female-to-male transgender people participated as speakers in this study. They evaluated subjectively did their voice sound like male or female and how feminine or masculine it sounded on a VAS scale. They also gave prolonged vowel, reading and spontaneous speech samples that were acoustically analysed. The vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ and two read sentences were collected into a listening test that was held for 25 people performing as listeners. They evaluated on a separate forms did the voice sound like male or female and how feminine or masculine it sounded on a VAS scale. Results. The men of this research had the lowest and the women the highest acoustical properties of voice (f0, f0min-max, F1-F3). Between all of the acoustical properties (except /i/ F2) of voice and evaluation of gender and voice masculinity or femininity there were statistically significant or very significant strong or very strong correlation. When the fundamental frequency was 153–244 Hz, the fundamental frequency minimum was 68–137 Hz and maximum was 233–359 Hz the voice was evaluated more often (over 50 % of the evaluations) as female voice and feminine. Also the higher the vowel formant frequencies were the more often the voice was evaluated as female and feminine. The listeners evaluated the reading speech very differently than the speakers evaluated their own speech. With the women's and men's gender judgments there was almost a 100 % agreement, but this was not the case with the transgender people. The listeners evaluations of the voice femininity or masculinity differed most of the time (75 %) statistically significantly from the speakers own evaluations.
  • Repo, Oskari (2018)
    In this research I analyzed how music is described in Tove Jansson's moomin books. I also analyzed descriptions of music as an element of characterization. Many researches concerning moomin books have been done earlier. Earlier research points out that music has a significant role in the world of moomins and in the life of moomin characters. Analyzing music as an element in characterization was however recent opening to the field of research. I chose four moomin books to be my main material because there were clearly most of descriptions of music in these books. My material were Comet in Moominland, Moominland Midwinter, Tales from Moominvalley and Moominvalley in November. Most of descriptions of music played role in characterizations of Snufkin, Fillyjonk and Too-ticky, so I focused on these characters. I used content analysis based thematic approach as my method when finding answer to the question how music is described in moomin books. With the help of close reading, I tried to find out how characters are constructed with music. In this research it found out that music is described in Tove Jansson's moomin books with songs and lyrics, with descriptions of instruments and with descriptions of tunes and notes. Songs and lyrics constructed character of Too-ticky by telling Too-ticky's accepting attitude towards the uncertainty that exists in the world. Songs and lyrics didn't significantly construct character of Snufkin. There were lots of different instruments in moomin books but the only instrument which constructed characters in a significant way was the mouth-organ. The mouth-organ constructed character of Snufkin by showing his features and emotions. The mouth-organ constructed character of Fillyjonk by acting as the symbol of creativity and balance. In this research also the nature was considered as an instrument. Snufkin heard his longing of freedom and loneliness in the sound of the nature. Tunes and notes told about Snufkin's inner conflict between loneliness and communality. Tunes and notes also described Snufkin's process of composing. That process of composing personificated as a little creature called Teety-woo in The Spring Tune- short story. Tunes and notes constructed character of Fillyjonk in the way that they took her to the new levels of her identity.