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Browsing by Subject "geneeriset taidot"

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  • Koivunen, Tiia (2016)
    Objectives. The objective of this study was to find out from Helsinki university's master graduates about their experiences on generic skills, approaches to learning and the similarities of those two. The study sought to answer three questions: 1. What kinds of generic skills students feel they learned during their university studies? 2. What kinds of approaches to learning can be found from the graduates' studying descriptions? 3. What kinds of similarities are there in generic skills and approaches to learning? Similarities have only been studied in quantitative researches so there is a need for qualitative analysis. Methods. The data is a part of a dissertation research of Tarja Tuononen (University of Helsinki) and it was collected in the spring of 2013. The data consist of 10 interviews from students who have already graduated. All the interviewees worked while studying and most of them studied in generalistic fields. First two research questions were conducted with theory-bound content analyses. Top categories were created based on theory because full detachment from previous knowledge would have been difficult. The third research question was conducted on the basis of the results from two previous research questions. Results and conclusions. From the students' descriptions of generic skills, six top categories were separated. Some of those skills were divided into subcategories. Top category skills were knowledge processing, reflection, organization skills, thinking skills, argumentation and social skills. Some of the students felt like they had not learnt any generic skills when asked directly but as the interview progressed, some generic skills appeared. In the second face of the research, students' descriptions of approaches to learning were studied. Three top categories were created based on previous theory: deep approach, surface approach and organized studying. Especially deep approach and organized studying were visible in the interviews and descriptions of surface approach appeared in a few interviews. When examining the similarities between generic skills and approaches to learning especially deep approach and organized studying included similarities. Surface approach had little similarities with generic skills. It can be said based on this research that for example organization skill is nearly identical with organized studying, when examining students' descriptions on both dimensions. Additionally, the descriptions of thinking skills and the descriptions of deep approach included many similarities. Social skills and argumentation from the generic skills did not contain similarities with approaches to learning in this study. It can be said on the basis of the analyses that generic skills and approaches to learning have some similarities but this topic needs to be further researched qualitatively underlining individual profiles.
  • Luuri, Tytti (2020)
    Objective of the study. Previous studies have shown that generic skills required in working life are learned during university studies. However, according to studies, some university graduates may lack generic skills or do not recognise them. This study aims to examine what generic skills graduates from generalist fields have learned during their university studies and whether work experience acquired during studies and participating in practical training correlate with generalist skills learned during university studies. Additionally, it was examined what kind of content graduates would have hoped for during their studies to develop their generic skills and the relationship between these hopes and generic skills learned during university studies. Methods. The data for the study were collected part of a broader study of working life skills (Tuononen, 2019). A total of 1023 University of Helsinki graduates responded to the survey. Respondents were master’s degree graduates from the university’s faculties of arts, social sciences and behavioural sciences (n=372) and their responses were analysed with quantitative methods. Answers to open-ended questions (n=127) were analysed with the abductive content analysis method. Results and conclusions. The results of the study show that graduates had, on average, learned the generic skills measured in the study well or quite well. The respondents had especially experienced to have learned critical thinking skills, multiple perspective viewing skills and structuring and analysing information skills. Co-operation and interaction skills were assessed to have been learned the least of the studied skills. In this study, practical training or work experience acquired during university studies did not correlate with generic skills learned during university studies. Hopes for content to develop working life readiness were divided into formal and informal learning environments. Formal learning environments included courses and practical training, whilst informal learning environments included working life events, alumni activities, study guidance and job-hunting training. The respondents especially hoped for practical university courses with tangible applications to working life. Respondents were divided into two groups based on their hopes for more content in formal or informal learning environments. There was no statistical difference in the assessment of generic skills learned between these groups. More attention should be given to developing co-operation and interaction skills during generalist studies and finding more efficient ways of teaching them. More research is needed to show how studies should be developed to better support the relevance of generalist studies to working life.
  • Uimonen, Viiri (2016)
    Objectives: Rapid and continuing changes in working life puts great pressure on universities to ensure that their students be provided with the tools and capabilities needed for encountering the growing challenges in the field of work. Today, generic skills are considered increasingly important in order to succeed in working life. According to previous studies, generic skills as well as self-regulatory skills play an important role in learning overall. The aim of this present study is to investigate the Faculty of Arts students' experiences of how university studies have supported them in the development of generic skills and self-regulatory skills. The study will also examine various of background variables (age, gender, previous studies, stage of the current studies, employment) for connection to the skills. In addition, the study examines a possible connection for self-regulation skills and development of generic skills. Methods: The research was quantitative and a questionnaire was used to investigate the skills of both Bachelor's and Master's degree students. In total there were 245 participants from the Faculty of Arts. T-tests and One-way ANOVAs were conducted to explore the possible connection between background variables and development of generic skills and self-regulatory skills. Regression analysis was carried out to investigate the connection between self-regulation skills, previous studies and the development of generic skills. Results and conclusions: The results imply that students' generic skills are developed during their studies. Previous studies and the stage of current studies were connected for the development of generic skills. Master's students experienced their skills more advanced than Bachelor's students. Students also assessed their self-regulation skills relatively high. Previous studies and self- regulation skills were connected with the development of generic skills, but the connection must be explored further in future studies.
  • Sällström, Ada (2020)
    The Bachelor’s degree should prepare students for the working life. Previous research has shown that especially students from generalist study fields have challenges to transfer to working life. In order to succeed in an ever-changing working life, students must learn during their studies the needed generic skills. The aim of this Master’s Thesis was to explore what generic skills the Bachelor’s graduates experienced that they had learned during their university studies, and which generic skills were the most important that should be learnt during university studies. Many previous studies have explored generic skills using quantitative methods, so there is a clear need for a qualitative approach. The research material of present study consists of 10 interviews of graduated generalist Bachelor students from The Faculty of Arts at the University of Helsinki. The research was conducted using theory-bound content analysis. The graduates described that they had learnt the following generic skills during their university studies: academic knowledge and thinking skills, knowledge integration skills, social and communication skills, leadership and network skills, IT skills and lifelong learning skills. The graduates experienced that academic knowledge and thinking skills were the most learnt skills, and they considered the skills to be the most important generic skills that should be learned during university studies. Other skills perceived important were knowledge integration skills, social and communication skills and lifelong learning skills. Identifying generic skills appeared to be challenging for some of the graduates. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the graduates emphasised that they have learnt generic skills moderately well during their studies. However, social and communications skills should be further developed during studies because challenges in learning them have been observed as this study shows.
  • Pahkala, Mari (2015)
    Goals. Generic skills are skills that are needed in every field of study and occupation. The term generic skills has been used widely especially during the past few decades because of the rapid change in society and working life. Thus, skills mentioned above are also important study skills that every student needs during the higher education studies. The aim of this study was to find out what kind of text-related generic skills first year class teacher students have. Methods. The data used in the study was gathered as a part of the Learning Generic Skills during University Teaching and Learning research project (Hyytinen, Toom & Lindblom-Ylänne 2012). Generic skills were studied using the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) that is a standardized testing instrument designed to test critical thinking, analytic reasoning, problem solving, and written communicational skills. The data consisted of 45 CLA answers written by the first year class teacher students in University of Helsinki, and it was gathered in Fall 2013. In order to examine students' writing skills in a more specific way, the answers that got the highest and the lowest scores in the CLA analysis were studied using Rich feature analysis. Results & Conclusions. The study showed that the generic skills among the first year class teacher students were mediocre: the amount of the answers with low or average CLA scores were high, whereas answers with high scores were rarely found in the data. The most significant problems were found in the synthetisation of given information, but also the skills of argumentation were generally poor. The rich feature analysis showed that uses of conjunctions and different theme structures varied between the answers with high and low CLA scores, and that these had impact on the logic and the coherence of the texts. There were also differences between the two studied groups regarding to the dialogic occurring in the texts. In the answers with high CLA scores the elements of dialogic (reporting clause, summary and interpretation) could always be pointed out; in the answers with low CLA scores the dialogic was not always clear and the elements of dialogic could not always be distinguished.
  • Mäkinen, Tuula (2014)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the kindergarten teachers' experiences of university studies and working life. The research questions were: 1) How do the kindergarten teachers see their own professional skills at the induction stage? 2) What kind of do the kindergarten teachers experience the relation between themselves and the work at the induction stage? The theoretical framework of the study was influenced by prior literature on central concepts such as the kindergarten teacher's profession, expertise, professional development and generic skills. The study was a qualitative study. The data were collected by personal theme interviews. Ten kindergarten teachers graduated from Helsinki university took part in the research. In the profession they had worked at most three years after their graduation. The respondents of the study were chosen randomly. The data were analysed using the content analysis based predominantly on the original data of the informants. The phenomena concerning the first main research question were classified to four main categories of professional knowledge; educational knowledge, knowledge of working life, independently learned skills and personal qualities. The phenomena concerning the other research question were classified to two main categories; what things do match to work and what things do not match to work. The research findings showed that the kindergarten teachers had got good theoretical basic knowledge and the generic skills such as the critical thinking skills during university education. The kindergarten teachers experienced that especially the practical teaching gave the best readiness for the practical work and their cooperation and communication skills developed. The positive feedback given by children, parents and colleagues created belief in knowing. Professional development began gradually. The contradiction between education and working life arose most dissatisfaction. The loading and stressing work and the unclear division of duties and trades were seen the biggest drawbacks of the kindergarten teachers work. The conclusion of the study is that the cooperation between the kindergarten teachers, the university staff and the day care personal should develop. University education should reform so, that it will match more to today's day care.
  • Lemmetyinen, Lari (2014)
    The purpose of this study was to examine how students perceive their employability and generic skills at the time of graduation. In addition to students' perceptions, aim was to find out how individual factors explain the development of employability and generic skills. Therefore a theory-based analysis model was formed based on prior research (Yorke 2006; Sampson, Reardon, Peterson & Lenz, 2004). Structuring the model was conducted with the objective of understanding the different dimensions that affect individual employability: self-efficacy beliefs, self-regulation skills, strategic competence and motivational factors. The data consisted of twenty interviews of graduates from University of Helsinki. The study utilized both inductive and deductive methods processing the qualitative data. Inductive content analysis was used to explore the subjective experiences related to employability and generic skills. Deductive analysis was done to help understand the variations between the graduates via using the theory-based model and to explain how the individual factors affect the development of employability and generic skills. From the standpoint of transition phase between university education and working life, the results consisted of five student profiles: academic oriented, work-life oriented, self-developers, difficulties faced during the transition phase and major difficulties faced during the transition phase. Results emphasize the role of self-efficacy beliefs, self-regulation skills, future goals and the ability to find utility value in the development of individual employability. The study offers a broad and reciprocal way of understanding the link between the phenomena of employability and generic skills. In conclusion, universities should focus on improving internship and job opportunities for students. Therefore, it is important to offer career guidance and to promote skills needed for future working life. The development of individual self-efficacy beliefs and self-regulation skills should also be supported.
  • Piironen, Tanja (2014)
    Aims: The aim of this study was to explore graduated students' experiences of learning, studying and generic skills development at the university of Helsinki. The present labour market demands wide variety of generic skills in addition to extensive substance knowledge. Universities have noticed the demand and have increased the development of these skills in curriculums. The elements of high-quality learning has found to be related to better generic skill development but also the development of generic skills has been seen to encourage better learning. The aim of this study is to explore students' experiences of their generic skills development during the university studies and their relations to students' approaches to learning. Methods: The data consists of 546 master graduated students' questionnaire responses and ten student interviews. Questionnaire responses were analysed by cluster analysis's where five different profiles were identified based on approaches to learning, organised studying and generic skills. Two different profiles (deep and organized & surface approach) were selected to more accurate qualitative analysis. Five student interviews were randomly selected from both profiles. Interviews were analyzed by using inductive content analysis. Results and conclusions: Five different profiles were identified as a result of cluster analysis. The results of content analysis confirm the results of cluster analysis. Deep and organized students emphasized understanding in their studies and their learning was based on knowledge construction. Also students applying the surface approach tend to understand, but differed from deep and organized students in learning strategies and intentions. Profiles differed only slightly from each other in generic skills development. Students experienced generic skills as employment skills which may relate to weak recognition of these skills. Students in both profiles experienced generic skills useful in their studies. They also found these skills to develop both in university studies and in extracurricular activities. Results of this study indicate that regardless of students' learning approach generic skills were developed during their university studies.