Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Salmi, Rebekka (2023)
    Global warming and anthropogenic activity will change the environmental conditions in the northern regions. For example, precipitation and river flow are expected to increase, the amount of organic matter ending up in the sea from land will increase, and its quality will change. The impact of changes in organic matter on northern coastal ecosystems and the carbon cycle is poorly known and these impacts need to be studied. In this study, the amount, quality and variations of organic matter accumulated in the surface sediments of the Bothnian Bay coastal areas in the northern part of the Baltic Sea and in the Liminka Bay over the past 100 years are studied by analyzing the concentrations of organic carbon and nitrogen (TOC and TN), C/N ratio, and the stable isotope ratios δ13C and δ15N, thus assessing environmental change in the coastal area of the Bothnian Sea. The accumulation of organic matter along the coast of Bothnian Bay is affected by both the proximity of the rivers and the land cover and land use of the river basin. More organic matter accumulates on the coasts (average 3.5 wt%) than further into the open sea (average 1.9 wt%). Contrary to presuppositions, there is no clear variation in the quality of organic matter between the coast and the open sea, but the observed change is north-south: in the northern areas, organic matter is more terrestrial and autochthonous, and in the southern areas it is more aquatic and allochthonous. The northern regions are characterized by large rivers with large amounts of forests and peatlands in the catchment areas. Further south, the rivers are smaller and carry less organic matter in quantity. Further north in the coastal ecosystem, the amount of primary production is lower and nitrogen does not limit primary production, as opposed to more southern areas. Primary production of ice may also have affected the organic matter deposited in the Bothnian Sea sediments. The amount of organic matter deposited in Liminka Bay has been on the rise over the past century, probably due to global warming, increased river flow and the impact of human activity. Based on the C/N ratio, the material has been more terrestrial in the 1930s to 1970s, after which the material has become more aquatic. In addition, aquatic primary production has increased in the Liminka Bay and nitrogen has begun to restrict primary production more. The study shows that climate and environmental change and human activities affect the amount and quality of organic matter in northern coastal areas, but further research is needed to determine more accurate ecosystem impacts.
  • Laine, Eero-Veikko (2018)
    Internal startups are new ventures launched by companies seeking ways for radical innovation. Conceptually part of Lean Startup, they are strongly influenced by independent startup companies and agile software methodology. Internal startups favor a "lean" approach to their organization, usually have minimal resources and are expected to produce results fast. This thesis explores how to organize testing effectively in the difficult conditions internal startups operate in. We conducted a case study where we interviewed five IT professionals associated with an internal startup in a global IT service and software company. To systematically analyze the material collected in the interviews, we applied thematic synthesis. Our results suggest that the organization of testing in internal startups is affected by the resources provided by the startup's parent company, as well as the demands presented by the company. Our results also suggest that the lean approach favored by internal startups can have a negative effect on testing and product quality. These results are supported by the existing literature on the subject. ACM Classification: • Software and its engineering~Software testing and debugging • Social and professional topics~Project and people management
  • Laitinen, Niko (2020)
    The nature of developing digital products and services has changed to adjust to the emergent markets that change fast and are difficult to predict. This has prioritized time-to-market and customer validation. The increase in expectations and complexity of digital products has caused organizations to transform to better operate in the present market space. As a consequence the demand for user experience design in digital product development has grown. Design in this context is defined as a plan or specification for the construction of software applications or systems or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype, product or process. New ways of organizing design work are needed to adjust to the evolving organizations and end-customer markets. In this case study digital product design was examined as a craft, a process and methods of defining, creating and validating digital products for consumer markets. The significant adoption of Lean-Agile software methodologies has successfully spread to organizations in response to the changed market space. Yet incorporating these methodologies into digital design have not yet reached maturity. Results from extensive studies have shown that successfully applying Lean-Agile methodologies can improve the quality of user experience and team productivity. These results have increased the integration of user experience practices into Lean-Agile methodologies. Successfully integrating Lean-Agile development and design have been proven to have immense effects on business growth on a large scale. This has largely been due to increased customer engagement using user-centered design approaches. This thesis investigates how Lean-Agile methodologies, user-centered design, Lean UX, Design Thinking, Lean Startup Method, Agile Software Development, DesignOps and Design Systems could be incorporated into the design process in digital product development to improve the impact, efficiency and quality of design work outcomes. A case study was conducted to prove the benefits of using Lean-Agile methodologies in the development of customer facing digital products and services. The design organization was examined with participatory and action research to establish a model of design operations in the community of practice, a group of people who share design as a discipline. This constructed model is then evaluated against a DesignOps model constructed from applicable literature. The participation allowed use of operations management methods which aimed to make the design process rapid, robust and scalable. These operations are later referred to as DesignOps (design operations). Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to gather data. Qualitative methods included a team survey and an analysis of business metrics including the effects on business value and growth. Quantitative methods included discussion, interviews and observation in the design organization. The sustainability of the design practice was also evaluated. In addition the design organization put effort into building a company wide Design System and the benefits and considerations for building one are examined. The results indicated that the design practice at the studied company was still low in maturity. Especially DesignOps methods were noticeably beneficial. Efficiency in digital product development and increase in employee satisfaction could be identified from establishing design practices with DesignOps. Beyond these the establishment of a design organization with DesignOps enabled continuous improvement inside the company. Lean UX showed promising signs for establishing highly functioning digital product development teams that can efficiently produce design work in a sustainable manner. Design Systems spread knowledge and cultivate collaboration across disciplines which grows the impact of design inside the company. Establishing a design practice for continuous learning can increase market value, generate growth and improve employee and customer satisfaction.
  • Salo, Vili-Taneli (2018)
    Tämä tutkielma käsittelee siirtovedytystä, eli vedyn additioreaktoita kohdemolekyyliin siten, että vedyn lähteenä on jokin muu kuin molekulaarinen vety. Siirtovedytystutkimuksen suurimpana motiivina on korvata molekulaarinen vety sen aiheuttamien turvallisuusriskien vuoksi. Tutkielman kirjallisuuskatsaus painottuu siirtovedytysreaktioiden mekanismeihin ja erilaisten siirtovedytyskatalyyttien rakenteisiin ja katalyyttisiin aktiivisuuksiin. Tutkielmassa esitetään, miten lähtöaineiden ja katalyyttien erilaiset ominaisuudet vaikuttavat siihen, miten siirtovedytysreaktiot toimivat. Erityisen tärkeänä korostuu erilaisten ligandien ja metallien vaikutus katalyyttisten keskusten elektronisiin ominaisuuksiin ja katalyytin toimintamekanismiin. Siirtovedytyskemian mekanistinen ymmärrys antaa mahdollisuuden niin parempien siirtovedytyskatalyyttien valmistamiseen kuin muidenkin katalyyttien kehittämiseen, koska samantyyppisiä siirtymätiloja, kompleksirakenteita ja ligandeja tavataan myös muissa kemiallisissa prosesseissa. Tutkielman kokeellisessa osuudessa tutkittiin mahdollisuutta käyttää Wilkinsonin katalyyttiä orgaanisten superemästen kanssa siirtovedytyskatalyyttinä ketonien pelkistyksessä sekundäärisiksi alkoholeiksi. Siirtovedytysreaktioiden seuraamiseen käytettiin in-situ IR-spektrometriä, jonka avulla pystyttiin optimoimaan reaktioajat jokaiselle käytetylle lähtöaineelle. Menetelmä soveltuu erityisesti sellaisten reaktioiden seuraamiseen, joissa jokin tietty funktionaalisuus lisääntyy tai vähenee reaktion edetessä, edellyttäen että funktionaalisuudella on vahva spesifinen signaali IR-alueella. Tutkimuksessa osoitettiin, että tällä katalyyttisysteemillä on mahdollista tehdä ketonien siirtovedytystä, ja että katalyytti on sopivien lähtöaineiden siirtovedytyksessä erittäin aktiivinen.
  • Djupsjöbacka, Jemina (2024)
    Maaperän keskilämpötila on noussut viime vuosikymmeninä pohjoisilla alueilla kahdesta kuuteen kertaa muita leveysasteita nopeammin, ja muuttuvien lämpö- ja kosteusolosuhteiden myötä myös kasvihuonekaasupäästöissä on havaittu muutoksia. Erityisesti pohjoisten soiden päästöt ovat ajankohtainen tutkimusaihe. Viimeaikainen tutkimus korostaa suon pieneliöiden vaikutusta hiilipäästöihin ja ehdottaa, että eliöyhteisöjen muutoksilla voi olla aiemmin ymmärrettyä tärkeämpi merkitys päästöjen synnyssä. Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkin kahden eliöyhteisön, sammalpunkkien ja kuoriamebojen, yhteyksiä suon vedenpinnan korkeuteen, lämpötilaan ja happipitoisuuteen sekä hiilidioksidi- ja metaaninvoihin. Erottelen mittauskammioiden vierestä ottamistani pintanäytteistä punkki- ja amebaesiintymät, ja vertaan niiden runsautta ja lajirikkautta ympäristö- ja kaasumuuttujiin. Tutkimuksessa huomaan, että kahden vierekkäisen suon lajisto ja ympäristö- sekä kaasumuuttujat ovat huomattavan erilaisia. Vertailen myös punkkien ja amebojen sopivuutta näiden muuttujien prokseiksi eli epäsuoriksi indikaattoreiksi. Amebat ovat paleoekologisessa tutkimuksessa vakiintuneempi eliöryhmä, mutta tutkimukseni pohjalta näyttää siltä, että myös punkkiyhteisöt voivat kertoa meille nykyisistä ja menneistä elinympäristöstä ja hiilipäästöistä. Punkkiyhteisöjen korrelaatio vedenpinnan korkeuden kanssa on liki samaa luokkaa kuin amebojen ja vedenpinnan korkeuden. Erityisesti kuivemman ja ravinneköyhemmän suotyypin metaanivoiden ja sammalpunkkiyhteisön välillä on merkittävä korrelaatio, ja tätä yhteyttä olisi jatkossa mielenkiintoista tutkia tarkemmin. Johtopäätöksenä esitän, että sammalpunkkien käyttö ympäristömuuttujien ja hiilivoiden proksina ja siirtofunktioiden kehittäminen punkkiyhteisöille voisi laajentaa paleoekologisen tutkimuksen näkökulmaa ja tuoda lisätietoa pieneliöyhteisöjen merkityksestä kasvihuonepäästöjen synnyssä.
  • Koskinen, Paula (2013)
    Finland is situated in an intraplate area of low seismicity. Seismic hazard analyses require an assessment of regional maximum earthquake magnitude. One of the methods for estimating maximum magnitude is relating it to the dimensions of active faults. Intraplate earthquakes usually occur when pre-existing zones of weakness are reactivated in response to the ambient stress field. Because minor earthquakes rarely cause surface ruptures, the reactivated faults have to be studied by indirect means. In this study structural lineaments are used as proxies for old shear zones, faults and fractures. Their orientation with respect to the crustal stress field is determined in order to find potentially unstable faults. Firstly the orientation of the stress field is determined by reviewing literature and available data on crustal stress in Finland. The main force causing the compressive stress field in Fennoscandia is the spreading of the mid-Atlantic ridge, which is why the plate motion of Finland relative to North America is also taken into account. An estimate of 115° to 135° is reached for the azimuth of the maximum horizontal stress in Finland. The stress regime is mostly reverse (minimum principal stress is vertical) according to stress indicators and focal mechanisms. The lineaments are split into straight segments for azimuth calculation. The segments are then divided into optimal orientation categories based on the horizontal angle between the segment and the maximum horizontal stress. Reverse faulting takes place perpendicular to and normal as well as transfer faulting takes place parallel to the maximum horizontal stress. The direction of strike-slip faulting depends on the coefficient of internal friction, which is around 0.6 for solid rock and as low as 0.2-0.4 for pre-existing fractures. With these values the Coulomb failure criterion gives an optimal angle of 30° to 40° to the maximum horizontal stress for strike-slip faulting. The lineament segments with the different faulting categories are shown with different colours in order to better visualise the regions hosting similar faulting directions. Some coefficients of internal friction were also calculated based on available stress magnitudes by assuming frictional equilibrium of pre-existing, optimally oriented zones of weakness. The data were scarce and only available for shallow depths. The calculated coefficients are quite high (0.7-0.8) near the surface and decrease with depth down to 0.4. A maximum earthquake magnitude of approximately 7 is suggested based on lengths of the lineament segments. An earthquake of such magnitude has a very low probability of occurring in Finland. This leads to the conclusion that the datasets used are too coarse for reliable estimates of fault length. Finally, the lineament orientations are compared with seismicity data. In western Lapland earthquakes are clearly linked to a reverse and transfer faulting system. In order to find differences in earthquake source mechanisms the earthquakes are divided into three depth categories. It seems that shallow earthquakes of depths less than 5 km most often occur near lineaments likely to reactivate as reverse and transfer faults, whereas earthquakes deeper than 15 km occur closer to lineaments optimal for strike-slip faulting. Earthquakes between the depths of 5 km and 15 km occur near lineaments of all orientations. The lineament orientation and seismicity maps will hopefully prove useful in further studies concerning the present structural framework of the Finnish crust. For reliable estimates of maximum earthquake magnitude based on fault length in Finland, faults should be studied in greater detail.
  • Lähteenmäki, Tanja (2016)
    Orijärvi mine was the first coppermine in Finland and it's located in Kisko area (Varsinais-Suomi, Salon Seutukunta). Orijärvi mine was operating in years 1757–1956 and during that time sulfide ore (Cu, Pb, Zn) was exploit. Mine was closed without any after treatment done on its operating areas. Studies concerning heavy metal analysis and diatom analysis has been carried out earlier from lake sediments of nearby Lake Orijärvi. Results of these studies reach out up to year 2000. Previous studies testify that acid mine drainage leaching from Orijärvi mine area has affected harmfully to lake Orijärvi during the mining and especially after the closure of the mine. Even though significant environmental impacts of the mine area are demonstrated, there is still no reclamation plan to take care of the mining area. Environmental research of present effect of Orijärvi mine tailing area to lake Orijärvi and to its diatom communities was carried out by diatom analysis from the lake sediment core, by investigating locations of all the mining operations and surveying the loading routes from mine to Lake Orijärvi. Some reclamation options for the tailing area are proposed in this study. In autumn 2014 a lake sediment core was taken from Orijärvi and diatom analysis was carried out to observe diatom taxa representing years 2000–2014. Lake Orijärvi water quality was observed using water quality information from Hertta-database and from previous studies. The functionality of peat covered dam witch partly blocks tailing area was also estimated. Loading routes were detected by using previous studies, stream diatom analysis and watershed modeling. The results reveals that the mining area still affects harmfully lake Orijärvi. Based on the water quality and diatom analysis, biological status of Lake Orijärvi is poor. There are no signs of recovery in diatom communities and heavy metal concentration are high in the lake water. Two loading routes from Orijärvi mine to Lake Orijärvi were identified. One route transports pollution from northern part of the mine and the other route transports pollution from the tailing area to Lake Orijärvi. There was insufficient evidence to properly evaluate functionality of the dams. In situ -cleaning options and passive water treatment options are recommended for reclamation options of the tailing area. Orijärvi mine has a significant environmental effect on nearby areas and Lake Orijärvi and therefore whole mining environment should be restored.
  • Ridaskoski, Timo (2014)
    Gold from orogenic deposits represents one third of the world's total gold production. Most orogenic gold ores contain significant amounts of barren waste rocks that are costly to process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of sensor-based sorting (SBS) of quartz vein hosted orogenic gold ores. Jokisivu is an orogenic gold deposit operated by Dragon Mining Oy. A diorite to gabbro intrusion host the ore body that is located in Häme-belt near to Pirkanmaa belt, which are characterized by metamorphic sedimentary and igneous rocks. The deformed and boudinaged quartz vein ore zone thickness varies from centimeters to few meters and is constrained to a shear zone in WNW-ESE- and WSW-ENE- directions. Variably thick pegmatite veins occur often in close contact within the ore zone. The statistical diamond drill core database evaluation showed a clear correlation between gold and quartz veins. According to the drill cores photos auriferous quartz veins and barren host rocks have sharp visually observable contacts. The quartz rocks are white and diorite waste rocks are black. From the two development ores bulk samples were collected: one 18-ton marginal-grade sample from the Arpola ore body and 29-ton high-grade sample from the Kujankallio ore body. A jaw crusher was used for primary crushing. The bulk samples were crushed and screened, which resulted in an approximately 50/50 coarse to fine particles ratio. Over 1.5 tons of screen overflow (> 30 mm) was sampled for SBS tests. Additionally 900 kg of underflow were collected for a secondary sorting study. The SBS tests were done at Tomra in Germany. PRO (Processing) series chute-type optical sorter was used. It divides a conditioned materials feed to ore and waste rocks by color difference. A rock was sorted waste if its surfaces contained less than two percent white pixels. Similarly five percent sorting threshold was tested. Results showed that 41 – 61 wt% of waste was removed from the marginal-grade Arpola ore with 96 % to 93 % gold recovery. In addition, the gold grade improved from 5.1 ppm to 8.2 – 12.0 ppm. The high-grade Kujankallio ore showed 15 – 31 wt% waste rock removal and 97 to 92 % gold recoveries. The gold grade rose from 7.2 ppm to 8.2 – 9.6 ppm. In addition, the quality of the products improved when harmful minerals such as arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite were reduced. Hand sorting was used for evaluation of the SBS results. Approximately 1.5 tons of sorted rocks were classified according to increasing quartz-vein content and the rock type features. The hand sorting showed that optical sorting is sensitive and adjustable even to subtle materials features. The diorite waste, altered rocks and low-grade quartz rocks were easily separated from the sorting feed material. The gold concentration in the waste rocks was low in the Arpola SBS sample (0.5 – 0.6 ppm) and slightly higher in the Kujankallio sample (0.8 – 1.7 ppm) Economic evaluation of SBS is challenging, because a valid calculation needs to account for the entire production chain from mining to tailings handling. Decreased waste rock dilution (WRD) has the most significant impact on economy as it reduces milling, transportation and tailings costs. More importantly, a significant reduction in mill capacity requirements is achievable by SBS. Numerous positive effects of sorting are significant increment in head grade, homogenous feed, various environmental aspects, decreased chemicals and water usage. The SBS is suitable for marginal- and low-grade orogenic gold ores where sharp and detectable contact between the ore and waste rocks exists. The results indicate that certain low-grade deposits, which were previously considered uneconomic mineralizations, are convertible to ore by SBS. In Brownfield mines, SBS can allow the utilization of the marginal mineral resources more accurately. Greenfield projects may benefit from smaller concentrator sizes and time related savings, which reduce CAPEX costs. The economic benefits are always case dependent.
  • Taxell, Fanny (2018)
    This thesis studies residents’ participation in urban park planning processes and planners’ interests in participation and involvement. The data used in the empirical part of the thesis is compiled by quantitative analysis of nine thematic planning authority interviews. The importance of green infrastructure has grown since urban areas are becoming increasingly built environments. The value of the green areas and the need for functional parks are growing in developing urban areas. People are increasingly interested in participating in the development of their own living environment. The current planning practice underlines residents’ opportunities to participate in the planning, but these opportunities to participate vary depending on the park planning case, and not even planners have an agreement in which case residents could and should be more involved. Participation process in park planning is influenced by legislation, previous course of actions and significance of the plan both in townscape and economically. The empirical part of this thesis offers views of other factors that have also affected the participation process in three urban park planning cases in Helsinki region. These factors are objectives set in previous phase of the planning and zoning process, affordances of the plan, resources and timetable, approaches and collaboration between the participants, and the attractiveness of the participatory method. Four different ways to see the purposes and benefits of the participation process by authorities and planners are presented. In the first view planners see participation as a method directed by legislation, where the most important actions are the conveyance of information to the residents and decision justification. In the second view the objectives in participation are in bringing residents’ experimental knowledge into the plan and improving the quality of the plan. In the third view, participation interests are in communicative learning, opening planning policy, and increasing residents’ own action-taking. In the fourth view direct participation is seen as a key part of the democratic system of society. According to interviewees challenges in participation are related to organizing participation, reconciliation of interests, fragmentation of the governance, and uncertainty of the meaning of participation itself. Participatory methods in urban park planning often aim solely to inform residents about the plan. Furthermore, participatory park planning can also achieve stronger sense of community among residents and increase the trust between residents and municipality governance. Participatory park planning requires mutual understanding of the purposes in the participation, an inspirational method, and adequate resources.
  • Santala, Marianne (2019)
    Tämä työ on tapaustutkimus, joka tarjoaa yhdenlaisen toimintamallin siihen, miten sosiaalista mediaa voi käyttää ilmastotieteen ja –viestinnän edistämiseen. Ilmastonmuutos on lähes päivittäin esillä populaarissa mediassa, mutta kansalaisten luottamus tieteeseen perustuvaan ilmastotietoon on silti puutteellista ja tutkijoiden ääni uupuu julkisesta keskustelusta. Tämä tutkielma tuottaa viestinnän, kansalaistieteen ja ilmastokasvatuksen aiempaan tutkimukseen perustuen tietoa siitä, miksi vuorovaikutteinen ilmastoviestintä ja kansalaistiede voivat olla hyviä keinoja edistää ilmastotiedettä ja kasvattaa suuren yleisön luottamusta sitä kohtaan. Työ havainnollistaa toimintamallin käyttöesimerkkien avulla luonnontieteelliseen aineistoon sekä viestinnän ja kasvatuksen teorioihin perustuen, miten toimintamalli voi lisätä ilmastotieteen ja sen tutkimusmenetelmien sekä ilmastojärjestelmän ja ilmastonmuutoksen ymmärrystä. Tutkimuksen kohteena on kansalaisia ja tutkijoita osallistava vuorovaikutteisen ilmastoviestinnän ja kansalaistieteen palvelukokonaisuus, joka mahdollistaa suoran ja vastavuoroisen kommunikaation tutkijoiden ja kansalaisten välillä. Toimintamallin ydin on verkossa toimiva sosiaalisen median sovellus, joka mahdollistaa kaksisuuntaisen viestinnän. Sen lisäksi kokonaisuuteen kuuluu työpajatoimintaa, jossa toteutetaan kansalaistiedettä osallistamalla kansalaisia tutkimusprojektien ideointiin ja suunnitteluun. Vuorovaikutus tukee kansalaisten ilmastokasvatusta ilmiöpohjaisesti tarjoten poikkitieteellistä, yleistajuista ja arkeen helposti sovellettavaa ilmastotietoa. Vuoropuhelu mahdollistaa kansalaisten tarpeiden ja motiivien huomioimisen, mikä kasvattaa viestinnän vaikuttavuutta. Erityisesti henkilökohtainen kasvokkain tapahtuva vuorovaikutus tehostaa osallistujien sitoutumista, yhteenkuuluvuuden tunnetta ja tulosten pysyvyyttä. Toimintamalli tarjoaa tutkijoille helpon ja vaivattoman kanavan esitellä tutkimusta ja tuoda äänensä julkiseen keskusteluun. Verkostoyhteiskunnassa läsnäolo sosiaalisessa mediassa ja julkisissa keskusteluissa on ensisijaisen tärkeää mielipidevaikuttamisen kannalta. Kuuntelemalla kansalaisia voivat tutkijat tuottaa tietoa, joka on helpommin sovellettavissa yhteiskunnan hyödyksi. Ilmastontutkimus, ilmastonmuutoksen hillintä ja muutokseen sopeutuminen vaativat moniammatillista ja sektoreiden välistä yhteistyötä, jota tämä toimintamalli tukee. Toimintamalli on skaalattavissa kansainväliselle tasolle, joten sillä on potentiaalia edistää myös kansainvälistä yhteistyötä.
  • Toikkanen, Tommi (2022)
    My master’s thesis addresses the status of participants in urban infill aiming projects of local detailed planning and framework planning. Urban infill (complementary building) is emphasized in Finnish urban planning while the practices of participatory planning have been developed. However, ambiguous Land Use and Building Act causes ambiguity also for the definition of participants and for public participation. Therefore, it is reasonable to study which issues affect to the definition of participants’ status based on the practical planning cases. My research questions are how the status of participants is defined in the planning projects and by which ways practices to define the status of participants differ between the processes of local detailed planning and framework planning. I examine the phenomenon based on expert interviews and the documents related to public participation phase. The aim of my thesis is to perceive factors and practices affecting to defining the status of participants. In addition to increased meaning of participatory planning, urban planning related decision making is decentralized to more parties meanwhile growth is being pursued in urban regions as part of the world of global competition. Thus, many stakeholders with their own interests are involved to plans, which can be seen by the practices to do urban planning. I examine my research questions through the four planning theories: rationalistic, incremental, communicative-collaborative and agonistic. Planning theories form frameworks whose realization I reflect based on the data gathered of the local detailed plan of Länsi-Herttoniemi and the framework plan of Tikkurila. My qualitative thesis is a case study based cross-sectional study in which I have gathered the data by semi-structured expert interviews and document analyses. The analyses of the data consist of the three themes: the defining the participants, the choosing and using of participatory methods, and the defining the status of participants. Regarding the analysis of expert interview data, I also examine the meaning of the contextual nature of projects related to the defining the status of participants. Document analyses reflect the public perspective on the status of participants transmitted by urban planners which I compare to the findings of expert interview analysis. My thesis reveals that in practice, the concept of participant can be used to refer to separately defined project related parties defined in the public participation plans (PPP) or to all participating parties in the planning process. As conclusions, I propose that in the context of the chosen planning projects, the status of participants has been defined in practice based on 1) the definitions of the public participation plan by affecting to knowledge brokering, 2) differences between the participants, 3) participation at the early phase of the planning process, and 4) in accordance with comment valuation practices of participants’ comments. To fulfill democratic values of urban planning, there is a need for more unambiguous definitions for both, the principles of participative actions, and the status of the participants.
  • Suihkonen, Tuija (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2009)
    In this Master's thesis I go through the principals of the good governance. I apply these principals to the Nicaraguan context and especially in two rural municipalities in Chontales department. I clarify the development of the space of participation in Nicaraguan municipal level. I start my examination from the period when Somoza dictatorship ended and first open elections were held, and I end it to the municipal eleccions held in November 2008. These elections were robbed in 33 municipalities and because of this there started a crisis in Nicaragua and among the actors of development cooperation. As a methods of research I use two types of interview in the thesis, the interviews for the citizens and interviews for the experts. These interviews answer to my questions of the methods of participation. I also review the level of the trust of a citizen to an authority by asking if s/he voted in the municipal eleccions in November 2008. Furthermore, I define the work of municipal government in the point of view of the citizen. I also find out if a citizen wants to take more part in the decision making in her/his municipal. I have classified the types of citizens by the interviews I made. Due to this classification I explain how many people actually have opportunity to participate the dialogue of the municipal decision making and how many can follow the activity of the municipal governance. The result is that after the elections in November 2008 only one typed group can freely take part in the dialogue. This does not apply the principals of good governance, especially in subterms of participation and transparency. The incidents after the municipal elections have affected strongly on the co-operation of Finland and Nicaragua. Because of the fault of the elections Finland like the other co-operative countries brought down the directly paid budget support. This has caused a great economical crisis in Nicaragua which the covering will take a long time. The Master's thesis is a case study of two rural municipalities called Santo Tómas and Villa Sandino. Santo Tómas has a sandinista municipal government which is not legitimate. In Villa Sandino the government is liberal and legitimate.
  • Kytö, Inka (2014)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa perehdyin osallistumista tukevien internetpohjaisten karttakyselyiden ja erityisesti uuden Harava-kyselypalvelun hyödyntämiseen ympäristövaikutusten arvioinnin (YVA)yhteydessä. Karttapohjainen Harava-järjestelmä on osa Sähköisen asioinnin ja demokratian vauhdittamisohjelmaa (SADe-ohjelma) ja se on otettu käyttöön vuonna 2013. Viime aikoina Haravan käyttöä on kokeiltu useissa pilottihankkeissa. Tämä tutkimus on tehty osana Suomen ympäristökeskuksen IMPERIA-hanketta, joka on yksi Haravan piloteista. Tässä työssä Haravaa testattiin käytännössä Piiparinmäki-Lammaslamminkankaan tuulipuistohankkeen YVA-menettelyssä. Kaikille avoin Harava-kysely oli avoinna vastaajille vajaan kolmen viikon ajan lokakuussa 2013. Lisäksi tarkastelin aihepiiriä esimerkiksi kirjallisuuskatsauksen, joidenkin aikaisempien YVA-selostusten ja asiantuntijahaastatteluiden perusteella. Työn yhteydessä kehittelin Haravalle soveltuvat kysymyssarjat tuulipuisto-, kaivos-, jätteenpolttolaitos- ja väylähankkeiden YVA-menettelyjä varten. Piiparinmäki-Lammaslamminkankaan Harava-kyselyllä onnistuttiin keräämään vain vähäinen määrä asukasvastauksia. Sen sijaan tuulipuiston hankealueen ympäristöön asukkaille lähetetyllä perinteisellä postikyselyllä tavoitettiin huomattavasti suurempi määrä osallisia. Syitä sähköisten vastausten vähäisyyteen saattaa olla useita. Ne saattavat liittyä esimerkiksi kyseiseen tuulivoimahankkeseen, hankealueen ympäristön luonteeseen tai itse Harava-kyselyjärjestelmään. Vaikka tämän työn yhteydessä sähköisiä vastauksia onnistuttiin keräämään vain vähän, voi karttapohjainen kysely olla erittäin toimiva työväline asukastiedon keräämiseen monissa YVA-menettelyissä. Tuulivoimahankkeiden lisäksi internetpohjainen karttakysely voi olla erityisen toimiva menetelmä esimerkiksi alueellisesti laajoille tai maastossa pitkiä matkoja kulkeville YVA-hankkeille kuten voimajohto- tai ratahankkeille. Internetpohjainen järjestelmä on etuna esimerkiksi tiheään asutuilla seuduilla, jolloin on tarpeen tavoittaa suuri määrä asukkaita. Tutkimuksen perusteella Harava ja muut osallistumista tukevat paikkatietojärjestelmät edistävät YVA-lain tavoitetta kansalaisten osallistumismahdollisuuksien lisäämisestä. Järjestelmät edistävät YVAn demokraattista puolta eli pyrkimystä avoimeen suunnittelu- ja päätöksentekojärjestelmään. Erityisesti järjestelmät edistävät kansalaisten suoraa osallistumista ja verkkodemokratiaa. Osallistuvien paikkatietojärjestelmien avulla on mahdollista tukea myös YVAn integroivaa funktiota tuomalla yhteen eri osapuolten näkökulmia. Kun osallistuminen on tarpeeksi helppoa, voi se houkuttaa mukaan myös osallisia, jotka eivät ole perinteisesti osallistuneet YVA-menettelyihin. Osallistuvien paikkatietojärjestelmien avulla ei kuitenkaan todennäköisesti tavoiteta kaikkia osallisryhmiä, kuten esimerkiksi vanhuksia. Lisäksi Harava tai muut osallistuvat karttasovellukset eivät takaa sitä, että osallistumisella päästäisiin varsinaisesti vaikuttamaan YVA-menettelyyn tai päätöksentekoon. Haravan päätarkoitus ja suurin etu on yhden palautejärjestelmän yhtenäinen hyödyntäminen. Jos käytössä olisi laajemmin yksi kyselyjärjstelmä, tottuisivat osalliset käyttämään sitä. Tämä voisi osaltaan madaltaa kyselyiden vastaamiskynnystä ja näin jopa kasvattaa YVAn osallistujamääriä. Myös YVA-menettelyiden kyselyn laatijat saisivat käyttöönsä yhdenmukaisempaa ja vertailukelpoisempaa aineistoa, kun järjestelmän toimintaperiaate olisi kaikissa kyselyissä sama ja kyselyissä voitaisiin osin hyödyntää Haravan valmiita YVAlle räätälöityjä kyselypohjia. Haravan tarjoamat tekniset toiminnot on kuitenkin edelleen mahdollista toteuttaa myös monilla muilla vastaavilla osallistumista tukevilla paikkatietojärjestelmillä.
  • Kuusimäki, Aino (2015)
    The study examines two public-private-partnership projects, one located in Helsinki and the other in Berlin. Both projects have the private company of the project working as the executive party and as a moderator, a transmitting link between the citizens and the city offices. Both projects include the citizens at the 'round table', to take part in conversations and negotiatins as at least seemingly equal members with other citizens and leaders of the project. The cases are projected against two theoretical frameworks. The first one concerns the neoliberal ethos and the way of organizing power systems that grew with the ideology. The so called new public management has caused devolution, privatization of public services, borders between sectors becoming blurred, working in projects and a customer-oriented relation to the citizen. The second framework considers the changing role of the planner towards allowing more participation. The meaning of social spaces and experiental knowledge in planning has grown in regional and urban planning, which considerably molds both the planning profession and the planning process. In this thesis I examine how new public management and the growing demand for participation can be seen in two planning related projects. The thesis focuses on how the city offices benefit from the moderators, how face to face contacts and the presence of moderators affect particiation and finally, what kind of motives the city offices have in promoting citizen participation. As my primary sources I use semi-structured expert interviews with the project workers and one citizen representant, as well as questionnaires on participant experiences. I analyze the experiences and perceptions of the people involved in the projects by comparing them both within and between the two projects. The material is complemented by observation. My study shows, that moderators are useful to city offices by adding time and knowledge resources to the projects. Moderators add expertise and work force to short-term tasks and can work thematically or spatially in a more specified manner than officials. Moderators also create relatively neutral spaces for conversations among citizens as well as between citizens and officials. The study suggests that there is tension between offices and citizens. Citizens would like to witness to have an impact in the matters they take part in, whereas the official cannot promise that to happen. A moderator assists in creating communication, softens tension and adds knwoledge and time resources to tasks in which participation plays a central part.
  • Heittola, Suvi (2021)
    High-quality address data is an essential part of a functioning society and its services. However, shortcomings have been identified in the quality of national address data that can, at worst, slow access to vital help in an emergency. Partly for this reason, National Land Survey of Finland (NLS) is developing a new national address information system (OTJ), which in the coming years will serve as the main database for Finland’s national address data. The OTJ's quality management methods are still under development. Currently, the incoming address data of the OTJ is planned to pass through a quality control service called Laatuvahti, which takes care of logical consistency of the incoming data by using quality rules. Preliminary quality rules of address data have been designed for the Laatuvahti service. However, the adequacy of the quality rules and the functionalities of Laatuvahti service to the quality management of address data has not yet been studied extensively. It has also not been clarified how well the quality management methods fit the needs of the users of the address data. In this master’s thesis the quality needs of significant address data users are discovered, the suitability of the OTJ's current quality management methods to the quality needs are examined, and it is determined how the quality management methods should be developed in the future. In addition, the quality needs are used in determining what does quality in address data mean. The address data users’ experiences on the quality of the address data were investigated through expert interviews. A total of seven interviews were conducted. The interviewees were selected to represent socially significant users of address data that use the data for different purposes. Interviewees were the Emergency Response Center Agency, the safety and rescue authorities, a navigation company, a telecommunications company, an energy company, a transport company and the Statistics Finland. The suitability of the OTJ's quality management methods was assessed by comparing the users’ quality needs with the existing address data quality rules and the functionalities and possibilities of Laatuvahti service. The suitability of Laatuvahti for quality needs was further verified by a service expert (from NLS). Most of the quality needs that the address data users raised in the interviews were related to thematic correctness of the address data (i.e. the correctness of the address name and number), positional accuracy and ensuring completeness and currency of the data. In addition, some of the needs were related to the address data structure, uniqueness and methods of reporting the quality level of address data. Based on the quality needs, the quality of address data can be defined simply to mean that the address data points and directs accurately to the intended location based on both its location information and the address name and number spelling. The results suggest that the OTJ's quality rules and the functionalities of Laatuvahti service only partially meets the needs of the users. The quality management methods are not suitable enough for managing the completeness and currency of the data. Some good efforts had been made to ensure thematic correctness through the quality rules, but the methods could be developed further. Positional accuracy was poorly ensured by the quality rules, but the methods could be developed to ensure the accuracy of location information better in relation to the user needs. In addition, the uniqueness of the address could also be ensured in a more versatile way. According to the results, new quality checks should be developed for the OTJ's quality management to ensure, among other things, the positional accuracy and the uniqueness of the address. In addition, recommendations for the structure and content of address names and numbers should be clarified and the quality of reference datasets used in the quality control should be ensured. In the future, it should also be clarified how the completeness and currency of address data can be monitored and should the quality results be reported in a feature level with some sort of a quality indicator value.
  • Hatakka, Ilari (2023)
    In quantum field theory the objects of interest are the n-point vacuum expectations which can be calculated from the path integral. The path integral usually used in physics is not well-defined and the main motivation for this thesis is to give axioms that a well-defined path integral candidate has to at least satisfy for it to be physically relevant - we want the path integral to have properties which allow us to reconstruct the physically interesting objects from it. The axioms given in this thesis are called the Osterwalder-Schrader axioms and the reconstruction of the physical objects from the path integral satisfying the axioms is called the Osterwalder-Schrader reconstruction. The Osterwalder-Schrader axioms are special in the sense that they are stated in terms of the Euclidean spacetime instead of the physically relevant Minkowski spacetime. As the physical objects live in Minkowski spacetime this means that when reconstructing the physically relevant objects we have to go back to Minkowski spacetime at some point. This thesis has three parts (and an introduction). In the first part we give a brief introduction to parts of functional analysis which we will need later - theory about distributions and about generators of families of operators. The second part is about the Osterwalder-Schrader axioms and about the reconstruction of the physically relevant objects from the path integral. In the last part we check that the path integral for the free field of mass m satisfies the Osterwalder-Schrader axioms.
  • Pellinen, Sini (2013)
    This research examines Sri Lanka's recent settlement policies and the outcomes of housing reconstruction that has taken place as a part of tsunami response. Post-tsunami housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka imposed a change towards more compact settlements, where a high number of people live closer to each other when compared to traditional villages. The objectives of the research are two-fold: firstly, to map out and scrutinize the factors and processes that have resulted in the post-tsunami settlement patterns characterized by high-density housing and apartment housing, and secondly, to find out how apartment housing that is an outcome of donor-driven development caters for the ways of life of the inhabitants. The research also evaluates the success of donor-driven housing development in meeting its development objectives. The analysis of the structural forces and mechanisms behind the post-tsunami settlement patterns is based on literary review that includes critical observation of relevant policy papers, national regulations and international agreements and guidelines. The examination of the implications of the change in housing form on the residents is carried out through a case study of a selected apartment housing scheme in Kalmunai, Eastern Sri Lanka. The primary data was collected during a field trip in November 2010. As the study is about understanding and interpreting social realities, qualitative methods that comprise of individual semi-structured interviews and various participatory methods were found most conducive. The total sample size is 51 individuals, mostly comprising of community members, including women and men in all age groups, as well as relevant local government authorities and civil society representatives. The research findings show that there are major gaps between the socio-cultural values and behavior and economic needs of the inhabitants on one hand, and the type of habitat apartment housing provides on the other hand. The housing programme has been successful in fulfilling the passive function of a house - provision of shelter. Improved living conditions and modern facilities bring stability to life and ease women's workload, especially. However, the flight of residents out of the scheme manifests that provision of physical shelter is not enough to meet the housing needs. From the economic point of view, it is evident that space limitations imposed by the apartment housing, such as lack of land for gardening, farming and animal husbandry and unavailability of space for home based businesses or cottage industries, have had a detrimental effect on the income levels and food security of the residents. Such restrictions have resulted in increasing the vulnerabilities of the residents already living on the verge of survival. From the social perspective, apartment housing schemes can provide a conducive environment for social interactions and formation of social capital, given that there is sufficient allocation for social spaces within the scheme. However, the section of population that forms a 'minority' within the scheme do face difficulties in fitting in to the local community. The research findings bring into light some of the main weaknesses of the donor driven housing/development. Donor driven development provides limited space for community consultation and participation in the implementation of the project. Subsequently the development processes do not support local ownership or building of social capital. This can have devastating effects on the sustainability of the project outputs, as shown in the case study. It also undermines the role of the community and social networks in supporting (or disabling) people's bonding with places and the formation of sense of place.
  • Riihimäki, Ari (2019)
    This Master's thesis has been produced at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in the Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group during an interesting time period for accelerator physics. With the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) upgrade in progress and future accelerators under study, we will soon have particle beams with unprecedented luminosity and energy. This provides new challenges to maintain the vacuum conditions at acceptable levels. One of the most critical factors to consider when choosing materials to accelerators and other vacuum systems are their outgassing rates. In this work, outgassing was studied with two systems. One was used to test the outgassing of baked samples with accumulation method at different temperatures. Another system was used to test unbaked samples with throughput method as a function of time and temperature. In addition, a smaller experiment was assembled for testing the effect of different venting gases and venting times to the pumpdown curve of a vacuum fired 316L stainless steel chamber and it is included in the appendix. These measurements are of importance as many of the tested materials or coatings are used or going to be used in the accelerators at CERN. The results can be used for vacuum simulations or in the design of a new component to predict its outgassing, that needs to comply with the strict vacuum acceptance criteria for the accelerator vacuum systems. As a conclusion, the unbaked samples presented high outgassing rates as expected. Water outgassing was prevalent with polymers, but was also significant with Macor and the two graphite samples. A high temperature heat treatment for graphite decreased the outgassing rate considerably and improved the residual gas spectrum. The baked samples were found to have low outgassing rates particularly at room temperature, where the background outgassing of the sample chamber was significant. Upper limits for the outgassing rates were evaluated for Macor and tungsten samples. However, alumina coated SS304L samples were distinct from the background and the outgassing rates were determined at five temperatures to assess the applicability of the coating for the vacuum tanks of the kicker magnets.
  • Westerlund, Sandra (2020)
    Temat för den här pro gradu-avhandlingen är skapandet av ett e-läromedel för särbegåvade niondeklassister i matematik. Mycket forskning visar på att särbegåvade elever finner skolgången tråkig och att den ger för få utmaningar. Detta i sin tur leder till att en del särbegåvade elever till och med underpresterar trots deras särbegåvning. För att motverka denna trend skapades ett e-läromaterial som är riktat till särbegåvade elever. E-läromaterialet är utformat för att vara utmanande och annorlunda för att motivera de särbegåvade eleverna. Temat för e-läromaterialet är kryptografi i samband med detta tema tangeras bland annat primtal, modulär aritmetik och RSA-kryptering. Förutom själva e-läromaterialet så behandlar avhandlingen också definitionen av särbegåvade elever och på vilka olika sätt elever kan vara särbegåvade. I samband med detta undersöks också hur lärare beaktar elevernas särbegåvning, samt lärarnas förmåga att stöda och identifiera särbegåvade elever. Denna aspekt undersöks både sett från deras möjligheter att göra så tidsmässigt, samt deras skyldighet att göra så utgående från läroplanen. I avhandlingen undersöks också definitionen e-läromaterial, samt jämförs e-läromaterialet om kryptografi med riktlinjer för goda e-läromaterial, vilka getts av Utbildningsstyrelsen. Som sammanfattning på avhandlingen förklaras de matematiska termerna och koncepten som finns i e-läromaterialet.
  • Sun, Linhong (2014)
    Nowadays, the connected devices and services need differentiate tailored connectivity to satisfy diverse requirements. To simply provision of a large number of connected devices in a time-efficient way, Ericsson provides a SaaS solution Ericsson Device Connection Platform (DCP). Hence, a notification service is required to achieve real-time interaction, and a subscribe-notify web-services API is required to define the selected notification service based on DCP. However, it is difficult to choose a notification system due to lacking systematic approaches. In the view, I present six comparison points to compare current push notification products. My aim is to propose proposals to design a subscribe-notify web-services API. In an effort to further understand how push notification mechanisms work, I (1) explain Event Notification Service (ENS) technologies; (2) recommend to use the publish/subscribe (pub/sub) paradigm to define the API for DCP; (3) compare current push notification products by using six comparison points as the systematic approach. Six comparison points are basic information, functionalities, licenses with usage fees covering usage limits, security, supporting details and supported platforms/OS in terms of performance. In the case, Pushwoosh and AeroGear UnifiedPush Server provide appropriate notification systems to satisfy diversified demands for different scale enterprises.