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Browsing by department "Kotitalous- ja käsityötieteiden laitos"

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  • Pussinen, Kirsi (2007)
    The aim of this work was to study, whether international fashion trends show in knit designs in Finnish craft magazines and how trends are modified. Women's knitted clothes and accessories in autumn winter season 2005 2006 were analyzed. Future research, trends, fashion, designing and knitting provides theoretical basis for this study. The trend material of this study came from Carlin Women's knitwear winter 2005 2006, which is fashion forecast for Women's knitwear. In addition to the trend book, I selected two international fashion magazines to reinforce this study. Fashion magazines were L'Officiel, 1000 models, Milan - New York - winter 05/06, No 52, April 2005 and Collezioni Donna, Prêt-à-porter autumn-winter 2005 2006, No 107. Finnish craft magazines in this study were MODA's issues 4/2005, 5/2005, 6/2005 and Novita's issues autumn 2005, winter 2005 and Suuri Käsityölehti's issues 8/2005, 9/2005, 10/2005. For the base of the analyze I took themes from the trend book. From fashion magazines I searched knitwear designs and these designs were sorted out by themes of trend book. To this trend and fashion material I compared knit designs from craft magazines. I analyzed how fashion trends show in knit designs and how they are modified. I also studied what features of trends were shown and which did not appear in knit designs of the craft magazines. For analyzing trend pictures and knit designs in craft magazines I applied qualitative content analysis and image analysis. According to the results of this research, effects of trend can be recognized in knit designs of craft magazines, although the fashion trends have been applied very discreetly. Knit designs were very similar regardless of magazine. The craft magazine data included approximately as many designs from Novita and MODA. In Suuri Käsityölehti provided only fifth of the designs data. There were also designs in MODA and Suuri Käsityölehti, which were made of Novita's yarns. This research material includes yarns of 15 different yarn manufacturers. Although half of all knit designs were knitted from Novita's yarn. There were 10 different yarns from Novita. Nevertheless Novita's yarn called Aino was the most popular. Finnish craft magazines have not respond to popularity of knitting. Magazines do not provide any novelty designs for knitters. Knit designs in Finnish craft magazines are usually practical basic designs without any innovativeness.
  • Virtanen, Hennariikka (2006)
    The aim of this work was to study what kind of working grips people use to knit in Finland and decide if one grip is superior to others. I investigated how knitters have adopted their grips and how they experience their knitting. I also explored whether it is possible to change one's grip. To provide a theoretical basis for the research I observed knitting in terms of culture, skill and ergonomics. The first part of the study material comprised video recordings of the grips of 95 knitters together with background information collected via a questionnaire during the education of craft teachers at the University of Helsinki in spring 2004, 2005 and 2006. Using the data obtained I focused on three knitters, whose grip of the knitting needles clearly differed from the ergonomically good grip. In addition to them I interviewed one student, who had changed over to more ergonomic way of knitting after participating in the first part of this study. In this respect my study is a several events' case study. In order to analyse my data I used both qualitative and quantitative content analysis methods to complement each other. Most of my research participants had learned to knit in first years of elementary school or comprehensive school. Almost everyone had adopted the basics of knitting by imitating, and many of them had corrected "incorrect" positions from verbal instructions. Through practice the imitated position had gradually become the style unique to each knitter. The findings showed that students' background in knitting is quite varied due to the diverse level of craft teaching. This is reflected in their knitting grips and their interest in knitting. Students do not think that there is one right working grip. The most important thing is that working seems as fluent and relaxed as possible, at which point knitting is easy and flows freely. They often consider their own style so pleasing and well-functioning that they do not think there could be any room for improvement. This study pointed out that, while it is possible to change a knitter's working grip, there is a bigger challenge in acknowledging weaknesses in one's know how. According to the results of my research, the most common working grip among Finnish knitters' corresponds with the grip that has been described as ergonomically good. Over one third of all participants knitted this way. Hands keep the knitting firmly but without tension. The forefinger that guides the yarn from the ball rests gently against the knitting needle, and the yarn goes in front of the first joint of the forefinger. The position of the hands and loops is the same as in the ergonomically good grip, i.e. the fingertips of both hands and the loops are near the tips of the knitting needles, so that the fingers only have to move small distances. When knitters purl and plain, they commonly pick up the yarn from the back of the knitting needle in the same way as when knitting. While researching the common features of working grips I have learned what abnormal grips are like. Although I recognized many different ways to knit, all the peculiar grips were modifications of the continental way of knitting. The results of this study give a clear picture of those points knitters should focus their attention on in order to gain a good hold of the needles.
  • Kainulainen, Kristiina (2009)
    Aims. The main meals that youngsters have during the day are eaten at home and at school. In the Nordic countries breakfast and supper are often eaten with other members of the family. The way that Nordic countries arrange the school lunch and the frequency of family meals differ between countries. However, the challenges related to eating habits of the young are surprisingly similar. The aim of this study is to discuss how the Nordic countries could support youngsters' healthy eating habits. This study was carried out as a part of a Nordic research project and it completed the work done by Kauppinen (2009) and Niemi (2009) in their Master's Theses. The research questions are: 1. How do the youngsters evaluate their own eating habits and those of their family? 2. How do the youngsters evaluate the influence of home, family and school on their own eating habits? 3. What kind of relationship exists between eating at home and at school according to the data? Data and methods. A quantitative internet-based survey was used to collect data (N=1539) on the 9th graders conceptions and understandings. The survey consisted of respondents from Finland (N=586), Sweden (N=427), Denmark (N=295) and Norway (N=246). In this study the whole data to the appropriate extent was analyzed. The analysis was done with the SPSS-software and included examination of means, standard deviations, cross-tabulations, Pearson's correlations, Chi-squared -tests, t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results were compaired between the countries and between sexes. Results and discussion. The studied youngsters evaluated their own eating habits positively. There were statistically significant differences (p< .05) between countries concerning the people who influence the youngsters' healthy eating habits. Youngsters from Finland and Sweden considered making healthy choices at school easier than those from Denmark and Norway. Also eating a so called healthy lunch at school was more common in Finland and in Sweden. Eating breakfast and eating a healthy meal at school had a statistically significant interconnection (p< .001). The differences between sexes were not equal between the countries. The results supported those from previous studies, but also raised ideas for further study. Youngsters' near environments should support their possibilities to make healthy choices and to participate to the decision making process. Co-operation between the Nordic countries and between the home and the school is important. Listening to the youngsters' own voice is a challenge and a possibility for developing both home economics education and research in this area.
  • Kallioinen, Heidi (2006)
    Purpose: The study focuses on the question, how to advance textile cultural interpretation skills in museum. The theme was actual, because there have been many workshops in different kind of museums, which have raised textile into important role of their museum pedagogy. The knowing of nature of textile materials was highlighted in former studies as the most crucial thing in craft. That is reason for choosing textile to study. The theoretical approach of study was particularized to the meanings which have been given to craft during recent ten years. Furthermore the composition of textile culture and transmitting textile cultural heritage were examined throug the theory. The finnish museum as a place for learning, as well as the contents of museum pedagogy, were analyzed. The fundamental approach to study was cultural research and art education. Methods: The methodological approach was theory-based theme interview. Before interviewing informants the charting was made by using literature, interviews and observation, to find out the most important themes within subject. Specialists were interviewed personally and results were sent to them by e-mail for further comments. There were 8 informants and they were chosen with intentional sampling from different kind of museums, from teacher education and among craft teachers. Research material was analyzed with content analysis by using deductive reasoning. Conclusions: The study revealed that there are three strategies in advancing textile cultural interpretation. The most remarkable strategies are 1) making acquaintance of materials and working with them, 2) getting exiting events with possibilities to use one's whole body and 3) getting textile cultural knowledge by using for example discovery - style learning. In practice those strategies were mixed, which also was considered advisable. Another conclusion the study revealed, is the desirable, acceptable attitude not only to the craft with creative, free beginning but also to the craft made like its model in museum. Learning from model can be felt as a very moving experience, like a journey in time. The side result of the study was the importance of collaboration of museums and schools in advancing textile cultural interpretation skills as well as significance of using internet in collaboration and relations.
  • Vähävihu, Elina (2008)
    In this study the researcher wanted to show the observed connection of mathematics and textile work. To carry this out the researcher designed a textbook by herself for the upper secondary school in Tietoteollisuuden Naiset - TiNA project at Helsinki University of Technology (URL: The assignments were designed as additional teaching material to enhance and reinforce female students confidence in mathematics and in the management of their textile work. The research strategy applied action research, out of which two cycles two have been carried out. The first cycle consists of establishing the textbook and in the second cycle its usability is investigated. The third cycle is not included in this report. In the second cycle of the action research the data was collected from 15 teachers, five textile teachers, four mathematics teachers and six teachers of both subjects. They all got familiar with the textbook assignments and answered a questionnaire on the basis of their own teaching experience. The questionnaire was established by applying the theories of usability and teaching material assessment study. The data consisted of qualitative and quantitative information, which was analysed by content analysis with computer assisted table program to either qualitative or statistical description. According to the research results, the textbook assignments seamed to be applied better to mathematics lessons than textile work. The assignments pointed out, however, the clear interconnectedness of textile work and mathematics. Most of the assignments could be applied as such or as applications in the upper secondary school textile work and mathematics lessons. The textbook assignments were also applicable in different stages of the teaching process, e.g. as introduction, repetition or to support individual work or as group projects. In principle the textbook assignments were in well placed and designed in the correct level of difficulty. Negative findings concerned some too difficult assignments, lack of pupil motivation and unfamiliar form of task for the teacher. More clarity for some assignments was wished for and there was especially expressed a need for easy tasks and assignments in geometry. Assignments leading to the independent thinking of the pupil were additionally asked for. Two important improvements concerning the textbook attainability would be to get the assignments in html format over the Internet and to add a handicraft reference book.
  • Pietarila, Päivikki (2004)
    The aim of the study was to find out what kind of view on product quality dressmaker and customer have, how the views differ from each other and how the difference affects dressmaker's work as an entrepreneur. The research data consists of eight thematic interviews: four dressmakers and four customers were interviewed for the study. In the core of customised dressmaking is a relationship between a maker and a client. The product of a dressmaker, a unique dress, is created in an immediate interaction between a dressmaker and a client. Also the quality of a unique dress derives from this interaction. In the results of this study, the views on quality are linked with six themes: dress, process, dressmaker, customer, interaction and enterprise. The dressmakers and the customers agree that the quality of a custom-made dress is based on unique fit. Describing the process the dressmakers insist on the quality of manufacturing. The clients' view on process insists on those phases where they themselves take part: designing and fitting. The personality of the dressmaker is part of quality in both the dressmakers' and the customers' points of view. The dressmakers and the customers are also aware of the customers impact on fulfilling the expectations. The immediate interaction between dressmaker and customer is a key to the unique dressmaking. At its best the interaction is followed by a trusting relationship. Entrustment derives also from a good reputation, which is essential in dressmaker-entrepreneurs marketing strategy. The dressmakers' views on quality are product- and manufacturing-based. According to the results of the study there can be seen different types of dressmakers, that emphasise different aspects of quality. At the other end is a manufacturing-based, even transcendent view on quality, which rests on the values of the dressmaker. At the other end lies a customer- and value-based approach, which is founded on fulfilling the expectations and needs of the customer. In their views on quality the customers emphasise the immediate interaction between dressmaker and client.
  • Laamanen, Tarja-Kaarina (2005)
  • Gummerus, Annika (2006)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli tarkastella ja kuvailla ateljeeompelimon suunnittelijan mielikuvia yksilöllisen vaatteen suunnitteluprosessissa. Suunnitteluprosessissa ilmeneviä mielikuvia tutkittiin sekä asiakaslähtöisestä suunnittelusta että pienimuotoisesta mallistosuunnittelusta käsin. Tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin kolmen suunnittelijan teemahaastatteluilla, minkä jälkeen aineisto analysoitiin teema-alueista luodun analyysirungon mukaisesti. Tutkimustuloksissa mielikuvia on havainnollistettu valokuvin sekä materiaalinäyttein vaatteista, joista haastattelutilanteissa keskusteltiin. Tutkimuksessa suunnitteluprosessi käsitetään osaksi käsityön luovaa ilmaisua, johon kuuluu osittain myös vaatteen valmistusprosessi. Yksilöllisen vaatteen suunnittelu alkaa suunnittelijan abstrakteista mielikuvista, jotka tarkentuvat prosessin edetessä konkretisoituen lopulta valmiiseen vaatteeseen. Tutkimuksessa mielikuvat käsitetään kokemuksiksi, jotka kietoutuvat prosessimaisesti suunnittelun yhteyteen. Mielikuvia muodostuu suunnittelun kaikilla osa-alueilla, ja niiden syntyyn vaikuttavat lähinnä asiakas, materiaali sekä suunnittelijan esteettinen ja taidollinen näkemys. Mielikuvia kehitetään ja ilmaistaan luonnostelemalla, sovituksissa, asiakaskeskusteluissa sekä materiaalin muodonannon avulla. Mielikuvilla on merkitystä suunnittelun ongelmanratkaisuvaiheissa. Mielikuvat näyttivät ohjaavan suunnittelijoita valitsemaan erilaisten mahdollisuuksien joukosta sen, joka tuntui parhaimmalta. Tutkimustulokset osoittivat suunnittelijoiden peilaavan jokaista suunnitteluprosessia mielikuvaan esteettisestä, toiminnallisesta ja ilmaisullisesta vaatteesta. Mielikuvissa vaate vastaa asiakkaan tarpeisiin, siinä on jokin kiinnostava yksityiskohta ja se edustaa tinkimätöntä käsityön taitoa. Tutkimustuloksissa korostui erityisesti materiaalin ja mielikuvien suhde. Materiaali innoittaa mielikuvien syntymiseen ja sen avulla luodaan vaikutelmia vastaamaan haluttua mielikuvaa. Materiaalin ja mielikuvien sidoksellisuus tarjoaa aiheita jatkotutkimukseen.
  • Iivonen, Marjut (2002)
    The study examines one case of students' experiences from the activity in a collaborative learning process in a networked learning environment, and explores whether or not the experiences explain the participation or lack of participation in the activities. As a research task the students' experiences in the database of the networked learning environment, participating in its construction, and the ways of working needed to build the database, were examined. To contrast the students' experiences, their actual participation in the building of the database was clarified. Based on actual participation, groups more active and more passive than average were separated, and their experiences were compared to each other. The research material was collected from the course Cognitive and Creative Processes, which was offered to studentsof the Department of Textile Teacher Education in University of Helsinki, and students of the Departments of Teacher Education Units giving textile education in Turku, Rauma and Savonlinna in the beginning of 2001. In this course, creativity was examined from a psychological and sosiocultural context with the aim of realizing a collaborative progressive inquiry process. The course was held in a network-based Future Learning Environment (Fle 2) except for the starting lecture and training the use of the learning environment. This study analyzed the learning diaries that the students had sent to the tutor once a week for four weeks, and the final thoughts written into the database of the learning environment. Content analysis was applied as the research method. The case was enriched from another point of view by examining the messages the students had written into the learning environment with the social network analysis. The theoretical base of the study looks at the research of computer-supported collaborative learning, the conceptions of learning as a process of participation and knowledge building, and the possibilities and limitations of network-based learning environments. The research results show, that both using the network-based learning environment and collaborative ways of studying were new to the students. The students were positively surprised by the feedback and support provided by the community. On the other hand, they also experienced problems with facelessness and managing the information in the learning environment. The active students seemed to be more ready for a progressive inquiry process. It can be seen from their attitudes and actions that they have strived to participate actively and invested into the process both from their own and the community's point of view. The more passive students reported their actions to get credits and they had a harder time of perceiving the thoughts presented in the net as common progression. When arranging similar courses in the future, attention should be paid to how to get the students to act in ways necessary for knowledge building, and different from more traditional ways of studying. The difficulties of students used to traditional studying methods to adapt to collaborative knowledge building were evident on the course Cognitive and Creative Processes.
  • Kinnunen, Liisa (1999)
    The purpose of the present work was to study knitting as a hobby: to find connections with the traditions, to sort out the present situation and anticipate possible future developments. The study attempted to shed light on the factors related to the commencement of the hobby, on the different forms of the hobby and on the significance of knitting for those who go in for it. According to the theoretical framework, knitting was studied as a hobby, as a part of the handicraft trade and as a learned skill. In addition, the significance of knitting was approached on by analysing the related values and attitudes. The collection of the data was done with a questionnaire which means that the basic methodology was quantitative. This was supplemented by the use of a qualitative approach in the interpretation of the results. The questionnaire had, in addition to multiple choice questions and statements, an open question meant for a wider inquiry on the significance of the hobby. The objective was to get as wide a picture as possible on knitting as a hobby in Finland. Helsingin Villakehräämö (Helsinki Wool-Spinning Mill) and Novita Neuleet-magazine agreed to co-operate in the study. With their assistance it was possible to reach knitters all around Finland. The questionnaire was mailed to the subscribers of the Novita Neuleet-magazine and to an equal number of assumed knitters. The size of the sample was 603 persons of whom 325 returned the questionnaire by the deadline. The return percentage was thus 54%. The analysis of the data made use of the SPSS-statistics programme with which it was possible to present frequencies and percentages on the sample as well as the necessary parameters. The differences between the groups were tested with cross-tabulations and statistical tests. The statements related to the significance and appreciation of knitting were subjected to a factor analysis so as to facilitate a possible classification of knitters into different types. The significance of knitting was also studied with content analysis and by applying essence type analysis. On the basis of the results the commencement of knitting as a hobby seemed to be closely related to the significance of the family and traditions, to needs and school experiences. 99 per cent of the respondents reported making at least one piece of knitwear a year, which means that people do a lot of knitting. The most common piece of knitwear was a sweater (82%). Statistically the subscribers of the Novita Neuleet-magazine knitted more than the control group. Useful pastime, recreation, creativity and self-expression were emphasised as factors related to the significance of knitting. Finishing a piece of knitwear was reported to give pleasure which was manifested in the joy of giving, overcoming challenges and the experiences of success. To describe knitting two groups of knitter types were formed: those for whom knitting is a way of life and those who do knitting because of a need. The members of the ‘way of life’-group always had a work in progress whereas the ‘need’-group started working when they needed a piece of knitwear or something to do with their hands. Woolen sweaters can be a thread of life because knitting was felt to bring meaningful content into the lives of the knitters. Knitting was also seen as a useful handicraft skill which the knitters wanted to retain for future generations.
  • Riipinen, Annika (2007)
    Finnish education politics presume that basic education should be equal to all students. While organising craft education equality can be understood as similarity or as possibility to choose. The possibility to be able to choose whether textile or technical craft despite of one's gender has been the aim of laws and curriculums already over 30 years. In practice it's almost impossible to students to ignore feminine and masculine roles that go deep into our culture. Choosing craft has been divided by gender, which is the reason why possibility to choose has not been good enough to educationalists of equality. The latest guidelines for the National core curriculum for basic education were issued in 2004. According to curriculum craft education consists parts of both technical and textile craft. All students should take part in both sectors of crafts. Furthermore, one can be given a possibility to concentrate his studies in whether textile or technical craft. The curriculum does not set the rules how the education should be organised, which means that it can be organised in many ways depending on city, school or teacher. Teachers and other specialists have contradictory feelings towards shared craft education, because traditional way to see craft in Finland is to separate textile craft from technical craft. Both crafts have some common features that are introduced in curriculum. Besides there is many equal things in craft theories that bind textile and technical craft to each other. The main purpose of this research was to find out, how shared craft education has been organised at the grade in Finnish comprehensive school, and which things affect in the settlements. Second goal was to describe and compare teachers' experiences in teaching shared craft education. Third aim of this study was how shared craft has changed craft education. I collected the research material in May 2006 by interviewing both textile and technical craft teachers who teach shared craft. The material consists of fourteen theme interviews. In the analysis of the material I used theoretic bounded document analysis. According to the research there are three different ways to organise shared craft education: 50-50-arrangement, exchanging period and project week. In the schools that carried out 50-50-arrangement teaching was realised mainly in heterogenous groups. Principals had usual a lot of authorization on how to arrange craft education, which means that their views on equality, laws and curriculum affected in the settlements more than teachers' opinions. Teachers' attitudes to shared craft were mainly positive. The changing of craft education can be divided in two parts: the aims and the containings of the curriculum have changed, as well as the meaning of the craft as core subject. Teachers have been forced to decrease the containings of both textile and technical crafts. Despite of eliminations both crafts still have comprehensive containings. Teachers decided what to teach by these arguments: Students should learn some basic things or produce a certain product. Usually teachers had also a lot of experience and special interests in crafts. According to this research there is four significant meanings for shared craft education: 1) developing readiness for doing things, 2) developing skills of thinking, 3) delight of doing things and 4) teaching attitude.