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Browsing by study line "Klasslärare"

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  • Vainio, Ella (2022)
    Aim. Earlier studies have shown that textbooks are a crucial tool in teaching. Some theories mean that textbooks create and reproduce a specific outlook on reality. The aim of this study was to review how social studies textbooks in comprehensiveschool in Finland written in Swedish represent different occupations and how workers, employees, employers and entrepreneurs are constructed. The goal was to present who is represented in the textbooks and what kind of a notion could be constructed of workers, employees, employers and entrepreneurs in the textbooks. The study is constructed to make visible underlying discourses in the working life that are presented in social studies textbooks, so that teachers are able to adequately discuss the topic of different roles inworking life. Methods.The study includes six (6) social studies textbooks written in Swedish from Finland. For grades 4 –6 it consisted of two publishers and two publishers for grades 7 –9.In grades 4 –6 there was two textbooks per publisher. The method was a combination of a quantitative survey and a critical discourse analysis.The quantitative survey portrayed which occupations occur in the textbooks.The critical discourse analysis examined how employees, workers, employers and entrepreneurs areconstructed in social studies textbooks. Results. Altogether there are 131 occupations in the data. In the social studies textbooks for grades 4 –6 the prevalent occupations represented there, where occupations students this age could recognize form their everyday lives. In grades 7–9 the occupationswhere much broader, comparing to grades 4 –6, were there was an emphasis on occupations in the judiciary and executive fields. Otherwise,both in grades 4 –6 and 7 –9 the entrepreneur was present in the data. The employer-discourse represented the employer as actor in working life that had to be restrained and had many obligations. The employer was often represented as an impersonal and occasionally also as discriminating. The worker, employee and the employer are very intertwined. The worker-discourse described the workers vast range of action in working life, through instructions and facts for the reader. The worker-discourse was also very prevalent with rights and obligations. The employee-discourse many times portrayed employees only as measurement entity to describe another phenomenon, like businesses. The employees are also described through the working life norms, but also trough rights and obligations. The entrepreneur-discourse described the entrepreneur with many nuances, where positive and negative aspects are shown. A lot of space was given to instructions and facts regarding being an entrepreneur. The conclusion is that the employers are presented as impersonal and in a somewhat negative light, whereworkers and employees are prepared for theworking life trough norms and rights. The entrepreneurs are presented as value-charged and contain vastdescriptions of the life of an entrepreneur.
  • Sandås, Annika (2023)
    Aim. Previous research shows that social media use has increased among young people. There are many benefits to social media but also serious risks such as cyberbullying, which can have crucial consequences. The benefits of social media include contacting friends and family, gaining information and entertainment. It is important that children create good relationships with their classmates and that the students have a great class spirit, as it increases well-being at school and prevents bullying. Research shows that around 40 percent of students have witnessed bullying online and ten percent have been exposed. The teacher has an important role in creating a good class spirit, which has been proven to reduce bullying and that the teacher can be a safe support for victims. It is also important that the teacher teaches the student net etiquette. Since social media has increased in use over the past ten years there is a need for new research. The aim of the master´s thesis is to analyse how students in year 6 communicate with each other on social media and how social media affects students’ friendships and class spirit. Methods. The data for this qualitative research was collected through interviews with 21 students. The students were in year six in a Swedish-language school in southern Finland. The interviews were semi-structured and were done on site in school. The audio from the interviews was taped and transcribed. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis and the Atlas.ti program was used in the coding stage. Results and conclusions. The results show that all the students use social media in some form, but not all have permission from their parents to use more than one platform. Although no student confirmed that they are being excluded, some expressed that they sometimes feel outside of the community. The students said that no bullying had occurred in the past year. My conclusion is that the school has succeeded in building a strong class spirit and strong friendships. Even though cyberbullying cannot be completely monitored, the school has succeeded in preventing it. Based on the results, the school’s preventive work against bullying and how they create a good classroom spirit could be modeled in other schools, as it seems to work.
  • Mäkelä, Viola (2021)
    COVID-19 has had a large impact on education since schools around the world had to quickly move to distance learning. Consequently, this has possibly affected the equality of education. The main focus of this study is to find out how equality is constructed in Finnish teachers’ survey replies about their experiences during the state of emergency and to find out how these teachers in basic education have taken pupils from lower social classes into account according to their experiences when they have been distance teaching. This study was executed as a qualitative study. The research approach of this study was phenomenological. The study was conducted as a part of the project DISKO, digitalisation and distance education in Swedish-speaking school. The data collection was conducted through the E-lomake e-form. 17 teachers from basic education participated in the study from both Swedish-speaking and Finnish-speaking schools in Finland. The analysis in this study was conducted as a thematic analysis. The majority of teachers in basic education have experienced that schools have not been equal during the Corona spring of 2020. However, this study shows that there are teachers that have experienced this period as equal. The way distance education has been organised has varied between schools. Support measures have also not been organised according to guidelines. Living circumstances and digital equipment in relation to equality were also highlighted during this period. Teachers in basic education have taken pupils from lower social classes into account by lending computers and calling the pupils. Distance education has also been planned out so that pupils who do not get any support from their homes are able to do the exercises by themselves. However, it emerged that there were teachers and schools that had not taken pupils’ socioeconomic status into account. Results in this study indicate that education has not been equal for all children during the state of emergency in the spring of 2020 according to teachers’ experiences. The future holds, how severe the effects of COVID-19 have been on children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds.
  • Miettunen, Robert (2023)
    The purpose of the study was to provide an overview of the latest research findings on motivation and engagement and their impact on student learning in schools. These results are then reflected against the theory base that already exists in motivation research to provide insight into how these theories can be used by teachers in their everyday life at school. The study was conducted as a qualitative systematic literature review. The data search was carried out through two electronic databases (ERIC and SCOPUS). 483 articles were identified in the initial screening and were eventually reduced to 13 articles that were used in the study. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are discussed further in the thesis. The material was analyzed using a narrative review. The results of the study showed that motivation and engagement have a direct and joint impact on students' learning and performance at school. Students who felt motivated and engaged towards learning used several strategies that supported their learning. The study showed that the relationship between motivation, engagement and learning is complex. Several different internal and external motivational constructs play an important role in students' everyday school life and engagement with tasks. Based on the findings, teachers should pay more attention to creating classrooms and using practices that support, motivate and engage students in learning.
  • Bertell, Anna-Lena (2022)
    Tiedekunta - Fakultet - Faculty Educational Sciences Tekijä - Författare - Author Anna-Lena Bertell Työn nimi - Arbetets titel En kvalitativ studie kring klasslärares beskrivningar av öppen lärmiljö Title A qualitative study of class teachers`descriptions of open learning environment Oppiaine - Ämne - Subject Class teacher Työn laji/ Ohjaaja - Arbetets art/Handledare - Level/Instructor Master’s Thesis / Supervisor’s Name Aika - Datum - Month and year March 2022 Sivumäärä - Sidantal - Number of pages 48 pp. + 2 appendices Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Previous research has described that open learning environments have become increasingly common in schools. It is an open space with access to a smaller group room. Open learning environment should be able to be shielded using different types of acoustic walls, curtains or bellows because several student groups are taught there at the same time. The aim of an open learning environment has been to provide more flexibility in teaching as flexibility is required for student-centered learning. The role of the teacher has also changed in an open learning environment, the teacher should be more like a tutor and the students will have more freedom to choose and decide how and where they work. The open learning environment should be adapted so that students have the opportunity to work individually, in pairs or in groups. The study's material consisted of semi-structured interviews with class teachers who had experience of working in an open learning environment. The interviews were conducted in spring 2021. The research participants were ten (10) from three different schools from two different municipalities in southern Finland. The interviews were then analyzed using qualitative content analysis as a method. The research participants described the open learning environment according to their own experiences as to how the spaces looked and worked, what flexible furniture was used, and what opportunities and challenges there were in an open learning environment. Finally, the research participants also described some suggestions on how the open learning environment can be developed.
  • Lehto, Sonja (2022)
    Aim. The main purpose of this qualitative study is to learn about classroom teachers’ preventive work with mental health problems in students and what challenges come with it. Furthermore, the study aims to highlight the importance of preventing mental health problems in children at an early stage. About half of all cases of mental health problems begin before the age of 14, which justifies the importance of preventing mental health problems at an early stage. The purpose of the study is further motivated by the enormous shortage of school psychologists and curators both in Swedish-speaking schools and nationally. The study examines classroom teachers’ experiences of preventive work on mental health problems in students, because they spend a lot of time with their students and thus have the opportunity to make a difference. Previous research highlights that, among other things, creating various protecting factors can effectively prevent mental health problems. Methods. Materials for the study were collected through individual interviews and the entire study was based on a phenomenographic methodological approach. A total of six classroom teachers working in grades 1-6 were interviewed. To delimit the sample, classroom teachers working in Swedish-speaking schools were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed according to a phenomenographic methodological approach and based on the research questions. Results and conclusions. All classroom teachers experienced an increase in mental health problems among students during the years they worked as teachers. This is in line with research and confirms the importance of preventive work on mental health problems. The teachers who participated in the study worked mainly preventively by identifying risk factors and creating protective factors against mental health problems. The most common protective factors turned out to be to create safety in the school through routines and rules and to strengthen self-esteem and self-efficacy, for example through positive pedagogy. Two of the most important qualities of teachers were experiences as being responsive and consistent. The teachers felt that they had a responsibility to prevent mental health problems in students together with other adults in the students’ environment, but they did not feel that they have the primary responsibility. The teachers also experienced that the role of teachers has changed and contains more responsibility than before. The main challenges in preventing mental health problems were perceived to be lack of time and resources.
  • Sundvall, Emilia (2022)
    The digital communication between home and school has developed for a longer period besides the digitalization in our society. Studies have shown that the perception of digital communication related to school context varies and there is also an ongoing discussion about it in the media. The purpose of this study is to discover how caregivers experience the digital communication with the class teacher, and which tools are working well and not so well depending on different parts of the everyday school day. This study was executed as a qualitative study and the data was collected through an electronic form. The form was answered by 19 caregivers with children in grades 1-6 in basic education. The analysis in this study was conducted as a thematic analysis. Wilma and social media were used for digital communication between caregivers and class teachers. The digital communication tools were experienced as well functioning in informative occasions but not as well in situations that required a dialog. Lack of guidelines in the usage of digital communication tools were experienced to cause misunderstandings. Results in this study shows that awareness among caregivers and class teachers of how digital communication tools are used can conduct to a development of the digital communication to at best become an effective and smooth way to communicate. This benefits all partners. A well-reasoned usage of digital communication tools increases a feeling of participation and conducts to a feeling of welcomed in the school as a caregiver.
  • Bardy, Helena (2021)
    Aim: The purpose of the study was to create an image of the teachers' future vision for the school's activities and to outline an organizational culture that supports this activity. The research questions of the study were: 1. "How do teachers shape a future vision for the school?" and 2. "What kind of organizational culture do teachers experience as supporting for the school's future activities?" The research problem is formed by a time characterized by constant change, which places high demands on schools. The research provides a tool for and is part of a larger development process the school undergoes. Methods: The research was conducted as a case study of a specific school. The school had 15 teachers, nine of which participated in the research. The used data were essays written by teachers using a one-question method and the analysis-method was analysis of narrative. The research approach was of abductive form and the focus of the study was hermeneutical. Results and conclusions: Based on the analyzed data, a future vision for the school's activities has been created and an organizational culture that supports the future activities has been described. The most significant elements in the results are the teachers' common vision of a school as a safe environment where both students and staff feel good, appreciated and taken into account. Concrete actionplans for implementation are also formed. The study presents a collaboratively created vision and action plan for the development of the organizational culture in the school and is used as a tool in the ongoing development process of the school.
  • Anderson, Polly (2021)
    Previous studies have shown that teachers' job satisfaction has decreased in recent years and that teachers at the beginning of their careers are at great risk of leaving the profession at an early stage. Satisfaction with work and career has shown several positive consequences, including well-being, willingness to stay in the profession and work engagement. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine how satisfied Finnish newly qualified class teachers are with their careers, and to identify their career success criteria. The purpose is also to investigate whether the class teachers feel that their degree has been adequate and if it has prepared them for working life, and to investigate what a class teacher earns. The relationships between career satisfaction, teacher education adequacy and salary are examined. The research problems are examined regarding gender, additional education, and employment relation. The study involved 137 alumni from the University of Helsinki's class teacher education who gradu-ated between 2012 and 2015. The informants responded electronically to Aarresaari's national career follow-up questionnaire. The research design for the study was triangulation with the aim of analyzing quantitative and qualitative data parallelly. The material was analyzed quantitatively with the statisti-cal program SPSS, while open answers were analyzed with thematic content analysis. The class teachers were fairly satisfied with their careers, they deemed that the teacher education was adequate and that it provided them with the necessary skills. Important career success criteria were type of employment relation, career advancement, professional agent, nature of work, school, and social relations. Although the quantitative results showed that the class teachers considered the education to be adequate, the thematic content analysis revealed that there were several shortcom-ings including student relations, cooperation, and teacher role. The correlation test showed that ca-reer satisfaction had weak but positive correlations with salary and adequacy of the education. Class teachers earn on average 3002 euros a month, and men earn more than women. Newly qualified class teachers' career success criteria should be important assets for promoting career satisfaction and retaining class teachers in the profession. Class teacher education needs to be sensitive to changes in society, while newly qualified class teachers should be offered appropriate support in adapting to the practical work.
  • Yliaho-Lehtonen, Lotta (2020)
    The Finnish language might even feel foreign to many Swedish-speaking people in Ostrobothnia as they seldom get to use their Finnish language skills in daily life. Due to this, it might turn out to be challenging to motivate pupils to learn Finnish in school. In this study I have analysed the problem to see whether there is a recalcitrance against learning Finnish among the Swedish-speaking pupils in Ostrobothnia. Do these pupils find the Finnish language unnecessary in their lives? If so – what are the underlying causes? In what way is this problem handled by the teachers? The main purpose for this study is two-pieced: I want to learn how pupils think about the language teaching they get – are they motivated to learn Finnish in school, and do they have negative attitudes against learning the language? I also want to know what kind of teaching solutions the teachers have for motivating their pupils. Do the teachers recall motivation-loss among the pupils? I have used The Self Determination Theory by Deci and Ryan (2002) and The Expectancy Value Theory by Eccles and Wigfield (2000) as my theoretical background. I have also used some of the extensive research among bilingualism of Slotte-Lüttge and Forsman (2013) in this study.This is a qualitative research and the data is collected through interviews with four Finnish-teachers in both 2005 and 2018 and eight eight-graders in 2019. I have found out what the motivation for learning Finnish looks like amongst pupils in Swedish-speaking schools in Ostrobothnia. And I have also got to learn how the teachers take notice to these aspects in their planning of the language-teaching in the classroom. The Finnish-teachers witness great difficulties with the Finnish language among the pupils as the teachers often are the only representatives of the language. The pupils almost never get to use their Finnish language skills outside of school. There has been a progress in language teaching and the digitalization has resulted in a more versatile language education during the years 2005 and 2019. The pupils expect more opportunities for communicative language skills and there is a great need of authentic Finnish language environments in the Swedish-speaking parts of Ostrobothnia.
  • Larma, Sonja (2020)
    Aim. According to the law, every finish child has the right to a safe school environment. Research indicates that schools play a vital role in preventing cyberbullying. For efficient prevention of cyberbullying in schools, schools need for example a carefully planned anti-bullying policies with correct definitions of both bullying and cyberbullying. The plans should also contain methods for prevention and intervention. The supply of research on cyberbullying in elementary schools is limited, and thus this study will examine the guidelines elementary schools have against cyberbullying, how schools actively are preventing cyberbullying and how school personnel perceive the current work done against cyberbullying. Methods. The data for this study was collected qualitatively, through semi-structured interviews with a phenomenographic research approach. The seven interviewees who participated consisted of principals, school counsellors and class teachers in two Swedish speaking schools. The data was analysed using a thematic analysis in the program Atlas.ti 8. Results and conclusions. The results of this study shows that the schools do not have an extensive definition of cyberbullying nor have they included preventive measures against cyberbullying in their anti-bullying policies. The schools do however prevent cyberbullying for example through scheduled discussions with the pupils. According to the participants the schools work against cyberbullying works relatively well. The majority of the participants thought that the schools could have clearer and more comprehensive guidelines against cyberbullying in their policies. The schools anti-bullying policies do not include how the schools will act in case cyberbullying occurs outside school but among the schools pupils. Based on the results the schools could review their policies and clarify the responsibility among school personnel. This would lead to a more consistent approach and have long-lasting effects.
  • Lindgren, Emilia (2023)
    According to the national core curriculum for basic education, formative assessment is central to every pupil’s individual learning process. Formative assessment can be defined as response that aims to support the pupil in understanding the goals for learning, perceive their own progress in relation to the set goals, and give the pupil tools to reach the specific learning goals for each subject. Interactive methods, such as discussion, self-assessment, and peer assessment are part of formative assessment. Previous studies have shown that pupils often become passive receivers in the assessment process and don’t feel that they benefit from the type of formative assessment they have received and that teachers have difficulties supporting pupils’ abilities to assess their own work. This study examines what kind of formative assessment pupils perceive as beneficial for their learning, and how self-assessment, according to teachers and pupils, can be used in order to support learning and the pupils’ abilities to self-assess. The study takes a qualitative, phenomenographic approach. The material was gathered by conducting focus group interviews with pupils in grades 5–6 and teachers for grades 1–6. The informants formed nine groups of three to four pupils and two groups of three to four teachers per group. The interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. The results show that considering the pupils’ prior knowledge, setting clear goals, and using versatile materials and methods, along with continuous, personal, motivating, and fair feedback are types of formative assessment that pupils perceive as supportive of their learning. The results also point out that efficient self-assessment requires clearly stated goals and instructions, and should be conducted alongside wider work processes, with support from discussion between pupils and teachers.
  • Cecilia, Eklundh (2022)
    Aim: The aim of the study is to find out how primary school teachers understand the concept of formative assessment, how they apply assessments in teaching and what kind of support and resources that are needed to implement assessments in practice. This is to make any misconceptions visible and to gain insights into how much support teachers need to practice formative assessment in teaching. Studies show that formative assessment is a complex phenomenon, difficult to implement in practice. Misconceptions occur among primary school teachers and there seems to be a great need for support measures in the form of time, education and resources from the school. Method: The survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews. The participants in the survey consisted of seven Finnish-Swedish primary school teachers in grades 1-6, from three different schools. The results of the study were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results and conclusions: The result of the study shows that primary school teachers have a wide perception and understanding of the concept of formative assessment. Despite this, class teachers tend to use formative assessment for summative purposes, which indicates that there is a limited understanding of formative assessment. The class teachers need to increase their understanding of formative assessment specifically in relation to the summative assessment. The results also shows that the primary school teachers are familiar with several different strategies for the formative assessment, but at the same time they need more practical knowledge about some formative strategies. The descriptions of the strategies did not always correspond to the basic ideas behind the formative assessment, which in turn shows that it isn’t that easy to implement formative assessments in practice. The study also shows that primary school teachers have a need for support and resources for formative assessment, especially primary school teachers with less experience. The primary school teachers especially experienced a lack of time and space to discuss the assessment with other colleagues in the school. The class teachers also wanted more courses and further training in the subject to get more practical tips on how to work with formative assessment. This in turn shows that the school is an important platform for the professional development of primary school teachers, especially in matters concerning assessment.
  • Ansa, Patrik (2020)
    Purpose: Studies show that Finnish children and youth are insufficiently physically active. The program Liikkuva koulu (author’s free translation from Finnish: ”A school in motion”) began as a pilot project in 2010, but has since grown to be a nationwide program. The aim of the program is to provide students with physically more active and pleasant schooldays, to support their learning and increase their well-being. The activity itself for Liikkuva koulu can in many ways be seen to require a student-focused approach to teaching. Thus the theoretical background for this study came to comprise of ”Approaches to Teaching” by Prosser & Trigwell (1999). The aim of this study is to examine teachers’ experiences of physical activity as a part of their teaching. Furthermore an objective for this study is to explore in what way a teacher’s approach to teaching may relate to those experiences and execution of physically active lessons. Methods: The research was conducted as a quantitative study. A survey was sent to five Swedish-speaking elementary schools within the Helsinki region. The survey included 30 multiple-choice questions/statements along with 4 open-ended questions. A total of N = 27 teachers participated in the study by responding to the survey. The data was mainly analyzed quantitatively (qualitative data analysis was applied to the open-ended questions). Results and conclusions: The teachers mainly implemented physically active lessons and their experiences of Liikkuva koulu were as well mainly positive. For many of these positive experiences, they correlated with each other. The teachers reported mainly a student-focused approach to teaching. The study found a correlation between higher teacher-focused approach to teaching and a stronger experience of Liikkuva koulu being experienced as an additional burden within teaching. There was also a dim correlation between the teacher’s (increased) age and less experience of Liikkuva koulu providing for increased students’ participation.
  • Lindblad, Christel (2021)
    Purpose. Effect of the method “Grej of the Day” (GOTD) and sustainability pedagogics about Agenda 2030 is analyzed. The purpose is to support teaching of facts about Agenda 2030, raise the pupils’ motivation for environmental education and improve their attitudes. This study aims to see if pupils get more knowledge and better environmental attitudes after GOTD- microlessons about goals in Agenda 2030. The pupils’ feelings after the GOTD were analyzed. A swedish study shows that teachers think that their pupils get more knowledge and better motivation when teaching SO-subjects (society subjects) with GOTD. Methods. 22 pupils in grades 5–6 participated in this study. This was an action research and the pupils had 4 microlessons about 4 goals (12–15) from Agenda 2030. After the two first lessons a school project was analyzed using content analysis to see if something should be improved. Knowledge and attitudes related to Agenda 2030 were studied with a survey before and after the intervention. The survey also had two open questions about feelings before and after a GOTD-microlesson. Questions about the knowledge were based on Grön Flagg- surveys and results are presented by percentages of right and wrong. The survey about attitudes included statements to take a stand on on a Likert-scale. Results were analyzed using SPSS and presented statistically. The open questions were analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. Knowledge before the intervention was very good and all the pupils gave the right answer to 7 of the 24 questions both before and after the intervention. In some questions about Goal 12 Sustainable consumtion and production the pupils lacked some knowledge and the intervention improved their knowledge a little. Attitudes about the environmental goals in Agenda 2030 were good and only a little improvement could be detected after the intervention. The improvement was not statistically significant. Content analysis of the answers to the open questions show that GOTD creates inner motivation for learning. The method “Grej of the Day” appears to be useful as a complement while teaching environmental issues in elementary schools.
  • Bergström, Isa (2022)
    The aim of this study is to describe, analyze and interpret how newly graduated teachers in Sweden experience the availability, the various forms and adequacy of social support in the work community. This study is made in collaboration with the research projects SAMS (Samverkan och social stöd i den finlandssvenska skolan) and ECTPA (Early Career Teacher’s Professional Agency across four European countries). The theoretical framework consists of the model for social support at different system levels (Cornér, 2020; Pyhältö, 2018). The model includes of four components and three of them are relevant to this study: support sources, support forms and support fit. Support sources are the sources of social support, i.e., from whom do the newly graduated teachers feel that they receive support from in the work community. Support forms includes the different types of social support, i.e., emotional support, informational support, and instrumental support The experience for what type of social support is needed versus how much the newly graduated teacher receive in practice, is called support fit. This study is based on qualitative, semi-structured interviews conducted in October of 2021 and on the network plots drawn by each informant. The purpose of the network plots was to map the newly graduated teacher’s professional networks. The study involved 9 newly graduated teachers who worked across Sweden in primary, secondary, and upper secondary schools. The interview data were analyzed by using thematic analysis and with a deductive research approach. The most important assets for social support were mentors, the collegial team and the teachers who share the same grade or subject. The principals were one of the smallest assets. Emotional and informative support is provided by agents with teaching and supervisory roles, while school management only provides informative support. Relatives and friends provide both emotional and informative support, while social media only provides informative support. The instrumental support was deficient in terms of insufficient time for planning. The adequacy of social support has decreased due to the Covid-19 pandemic and the newly graduated teachers want more social support from the school management as well as more time for reflection and feedback. Suggestions for further research could be to research the nature of the distance that exists between the newly graduated teachers and the school management.
  • Brunberg, Alex (2023)
    The purpose of this thesis is to find out the experiences of lower secondary school teachers on how interdisciplinary teaching at the elementary school level affects students' work skills at the lower secondary school level. The background for the thesis is an elementary school in eastern Uusimaa, which has transformed its entire school day into interdisciplinary teaching and thus almost completely abolished subject divisions. With a few exceptions, all pupils from the elementary school in question go on to the same secondary school. Previous studies on interdisciplinary teaching have shown that interdisciplinary teaching promotes, among other things, students' problem-solving skills, collaboration skills and the ability to see the big picture and combine information and knowledge from different school subjects and scientific areas. This thesis analyzes whether secondary school teachers feel that these work skills are distinguished in secondary school students. In this thesis, qualitative interviews with a phenomenological approach have been used. Four informants were chosen for the interviews, all subject teachers from the same lower secondary school. The interviews were conducted via Microsoft Teams. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, after which the transcripts have been analyzed thematically. The central themes that emerged from the interviews were the informants' perceptions of how interdisciplinary teaching relates to students' work skills, the informants' views on interdisciplinary teaching and what interdisciplinary teaching looks like in lower secondary schools today. These themes were analyzed and presented separately in the results chapter. Three out of four informants felt that they did not notice differences in the working skills of pupils who worked interdisciplinary in elementary school and pupils who worked traditionally with separeted subjects in elementary school. All informants felt that there are mostly positive aspects of interdisciplinary teaching at the theory level, but that this approach is not used at the lower secondary level. Therefore, the informants felt that the work skills that pupils may have learned with the help of interdisciplinary teaching in elemantary school do not emerge in lower secondary school. Thus, the conclusions of the research are that lower secondary school teachers mostly feel that there are no differences in pupils' working skills regardless of the working methods they used in elementary school.
  • Mansner-Lönnqvist, Anna (2020)
    Purpose. The law on equality between women and men forms the basis of the schools' gender equality work. The law also aims to prevent discrimination on the grounds of gender identity or expression. Previous research has shown that to conduct successful gender equality work it is not sufficient that teachers have a personal interest in gender equality since this often leads to temporary and random efforts and great confusion about how gen-der equality work should be done. The purpose of the study is to describe, analyze and interpret how gender is expressed in schools' gender equality plans, as both the Act on Gender Equality and the curriculum foundations can be considered to require a diverse gender perspective in all school activities. Methods. The survey was conducted as a critical discourse analysis by analyzing the gender equality plans of seven Finnish Swedish primary schools. As an analysis model, Fairclough's three-dimensional analysis model was used. Results and conclusions. The survey culminated in three gender discourses: the gender inequality discourse, the two-gender discourse and the discourse of fear. The texts showed a clear division between girls and boys and a lack of gender diversity. A fear of making mistakes in the work on gender equality also emerged. The survey shows that gender equality work focuses on girls and boys and that those who do not identify themselves as girls or boys remain invisible.
  • Pohjola, Ann-Mari (2022)
    Goal. The aim of this thesis is to study multilingualism and the role of linguistic diversity in teaching in a Finnish-Swedish school context. Previous research has emphasized that multilingualism should be considered as the normal starting point in teaching and seen as a resource. In order to achieve the purpose of the thesis, I have formulated the following research questions. What influences classroom teachers' perception of multilingualism in school? What is the perception of multilingualism as part of teaching by teachers? Methods. The thesis used a qualitative research method with a phenomenographic approach. As a material collection method, semi-structured interviews were used. Five class teachers from three different Swedish-language schools, in two different medium-sized municipalities in southern Finland, participated in the research. During the interviews, the informants worked with grades one to two and five to six. The material was analyzed using qualitative analysis. With the help of the qualitative analysis, the class teachers' voice was highlighted on how multilingualism is perceived in today's school and as part of the teaching. Results and conclusions. The teachers who participated in the thesis perceived multilingualism in school, as something that is influenced by society and the operating culture. Multilingualism was perceived as a positive resource, which increases openness between different actors in the school, and which increases tolerance for differences and diversity. That multilingualism was perceived as a positive resource reduced prejudice in school. Multilingualism as part of teaching was perceived to be related to teacher identity, learning and language awareness. The teachers described that multilingualism can be a source of knowledge and function as a support for learning. The results showed that it is important to support students' multilingual background in order to strengthen students' self-esteem and cultural identity. The teachers' language awareness was described as a relevant factor, which influenced how multilingualism is perceived in connection with teaching. This shows a broad phenomenon that needs to be examined and made more aware of in the future.
  • Enberg, Maria (2021)
    Purpose. There has been a rapid technological development in our society. New inventions have made many jobs easier, but in return there is a demand for educated personnel. This in turn puts higher demands on peoples literacy. In the Pisa surveys the Finnish pupils have shown a high level of reading literacy, but unfortunately the trend has been negative and the number of pupils with low levels of literacy have increased. This development can be observed especially among boys. In Pisa 2018 20% of the boys were weak readers with a literacy not sufficient for further studies. The same survey found a decline in attitudes towards reading and 63% of the boys replied that they read only if they have to. The goal of this thesis is to investigate if the same patterns can be found among pupils in a primary school. The study examines how often the pupils read for enjoyment on their spare time and what motivates their reading behaviour. Furthermore, the study will examine whether there are differences between boys and girls or between pupils at different grades. Methods. The study was conducted in the autumn of 2020 in a Finnish primary school. The data was collected with a survey. The pupils took part in the study during schooltime. The sample consisted of all the pupils from grades 3 to 6 in the investigated school (N=236). The study received 157 responses of which 156 were accepted and analysed. The material was analysed with the statistical program SPSS. Results and conclusions. The results of the study showed big differences in pupils reading behaviour already in the primary school. 79% of the pupils read regularly on their spare time, but 21% read more sporadically or not at all. The result also showed that the girls read more often on their spear time than the boys do. The pupils showed a strong self-efficacy and a positive attitude toward reading There was a tendency for a decline in intrinsic motivation and attitude among older pupils. In this study the reading behaviour could be explained by gender, intrinsic motivation, attitude, and the perception that you read only if you have to.