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Browsing by study line "USP Peoples"

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  • Niemi, Eetu (2021)
    Uudenlaiset sopimusperustaiset suunnittelun tavat ovat nousseet 2000-luvun aikana osaksi suomalaista hallinto- ja suunnittelutoimintaa. Uudet suunnittelun tavat ovat nostaneet esiin kysymyksiä sopimusperustaisen suunnittelun demokraattisesta legitimiteetistä eli kansanvallan mukaisesta hyväksyttävyydestä. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastelen sopimusperustaisen suunnittelun legitimiteetin ongelmia ja mahdollisuuksia strategisen kaupunkiseutusuunnittelun kontekstissa. Mistä riippuu se, onko uusissa toimintatavoissa demokraattisen legitimiteetin ongelmaa? Tutkimukseni tuottaa tietoa niistä tavoista, joilla relationaalinen legitimiteetti muodostuu uusien hallinnon toimintatapojen tapauksessa. Analyysini mahdollistaa esimerkiksi niiden päätöksenteon ja suunnittelun legitimiteettiä koskevien periaatteiden kriittisen tarkastelun, joihin nykyisenkaltaista sopimusperustaista kaupunkiseutusuunnittelua tehtäessä sitoudutaan. Valtion, kaupunkien ja kuntien välinen MAL-suunnittelutoiminta ja sitä ympäröivä keskustelu tarjoaa lähestymispisteen sopimusperustaisen suunnittelun legitimiteetin analyysille. Käsittelen sopimusperustaisen MALsuunnittelun legitimiteettiä tukeutuen teorioihin demokraattisuudesta ja osallistumisesta. Analyysini mukaan MAL-suunnittelu edustaa institutionaalisen kontrollin ja episteemisen realismin arvoja. Johtopäätöksenä esitän tulkintani legitimiteetin relationaalisesta muodostumisesta MAL-suunnittelussa. Uusien hallinnon innovaatioiden hyväksyttävyys ja tehokkuus riippuvat toimintatavan suhteesta muihin hallinnon osiin ja oikeuttavan yleisön arvoista. Jaettujen näkemisen tapojen kiinnittyminen osaksi instituutioiden käytäntöjä ja poliittista kulttuuria ovat keskeisessä osassa paremman legitimiteetin rakentumiselle sopimusperustaiselle suunnittelulle. MALsuunnittelun kannalta keskeinen imaginaari on toiminnallinen kaupunkiseutu suunnittelun, hallinnon, elämisen ja talouden tilallisena yksikkönä.
  • Arce Justiniano, Alejandro (2023)
    This thesis is an exploration of food delivery couriers’ everyday experiences, practices and sensemaking processes through a posthumanist and sociomaterial approach that highlights the idea that technology and society are mutually shaping one another, and that considers the agency of non-human entities such as algorithms, transcendental. Moreover, by adopting a sociomaterial perspective, we can have a better understanding of how social and technological systems, as well as human and non-human beings, are interrelated, how they shape, and are shaped by one another. This work’s aims are threefold: First, it explores couriers’ experiences at work and describes their daily practices in order to understand the enactment of agency from a sociomaterial and post-humanist philosophical tradition. Second, it explores the material implications of algorithmic management in couriers’ lives, and finally, it explores the way couriers perform their work in context, both through the tethered geographical elements of the city, and amidst the platform’s multiple entanglements and spatiotemporal arrangements. The research design of this thesis has a strong qualitative research methodology, including methods such as walk-along interviews, semi-structured interviews, ethnographic reporting techniques, and the author’s 3-month work experience as a food delivery courier. The findings of this work suggest that we should acknowledge the platform as a constant becoming entity where couriers’ sensemaking processes are produced at the intersection of their experience of the city and their relationship with the managing algorithms of the platform. A performative sociomaterial practice that constantly produces knowledge that is used by couriers to negotiate their participation in the platform. This thesis expands previous understandings of digital workers’ experiences of algorithmic management by incorporating a sociomaterial and performative approach in the analysis of couriers’ sensemaking processes. Furthermore, by considering the relationships and interactions between human and nonhuman agencies in the food delivery platform industry, this work contributes not only to the understanding of agency within digital platforms but also to a broader understanding of agency in our increasingly digitally mediated societies.
  • Hernández Gomes, Eurídice (2023)
    In the last couple of decades, Helsinki Metropolitan Area has been attracting more migrants; however, there is a need for city policies in terms of retaining newcomers and fostering pluralism. Public libraries, as diverse social spaces, play an important role in creating inclusion for segregated and marginalized groups, as well as new residents who would like to experience a community feeling. This master thesis aims to analyze the ways in which Helsinki city libraries serve as ‘multicultural safe spaces’ for the migrant women in the city. Following the theoretical framework of Jochumsen et al. (2012) and Grossman et al. (2021), the paper utilizes the “four spaces” categorization and explores, a) how migrants benefit from the libraries as spaces of learning, inspiration, meeting, and performativity and b) how they navigate “multiple belongings” (Pfaff-Czarnecka, 2013) that emerge between these spaces. Participant observation was conducted at Oodi, Itäkeskus, and Pasila libraries, combined with semi-structured interviews with 23 migrant women from Portuguese-Spanish-speaking countries. The paper’s premise is that libraries wherein the four spaces are more visible, such as Oodi, multiple belongings can rise organically and migrants navigate between these spaces electively choosing the ones that match their life situation. In smaller libraries, however, the learning space is the most used space amongst the other three, which interferes with the migrants’ development of sense of belonging to the local/neighborhood community. The research suggests re-planning of smaller libraries in a way that allows more room for more social interaction and support migrants’ in their longing for ‘finding home(s)’ in Helsinki.
  • Tuominen, Xiao Ling (2022)
    The past decades have seen the emergence of the shrinkage phenomenon throughout cities leaving urban planners, communities and their administrations perplexed as to what to do next. The phenomenon encompasses complex, interconnected processes which are embedded in economic, demographic and structural changes. However, it is the population decline aspect that is often one of the telltale signs synonymous with shrinkage. Whilst shrinking cities are not something new, it has been gaining widespread attention as it becomes more prominent in urban areas and is no longer just an issue associated with rural areas. With Finland’s population forecast expected to decline in the coming decades, the relevance of the phenomenon and its urban planning implications will only become more prominent. Historically and still widely today, a city’s success has been connected to its ability to grow, resulting in the ideal that only growing cities are deemed to be successful. Urban planning transpired from the need to spatially manage growth and therefore, has its origins in facilitating for growth. Given the negative implications associated with the phenomenon and its impact on demographics, economy and the built environment of cities, it is often stigmatised and portrayed in a negative light. This research contributes to the knowledge on the shrinkage phenomenon in the context of Finnish urban planning. The study aims to explore the negative portrayal of the phenomenon through understanding the social and structural implications for cities and examining the implications this has on the actions that are being taken by cities to adapt to shrinkage. Specifically, the study involved interviews with urban planners, researchers and other relevant experts across Finland with knowledge on the shrinkage phenomenon and/or urban planning. The results of the study demonstrated that the negative connotation has led to many cities unwilling to openly accept the phenomenon. In turn, this has resulted in denial and the constant desire to strive for growth which has compromised the opportunities available to appropriately plan for the future. The influence of the political realm has shown to be a contributing factor to the stigma surrounding the phenomenon and further reinforced growth aspirations that are not reasonable for many shrinking cities. The prominence of the phenomenon has further fuelled the debate of whether old and current urban planning practices supporting and emphasising growth is the way forward and if existing planning systems are able to (un)plan for shrinkage. Ensuring the importance of quality of life indicators for residents within shrinking cities and the obligation for urban planners to accept shrinkage and plan the future of cities accordingly are key takeaways from the research.
  • Huynh, Yu-Yi (2019)
    This master’s thesis studies the residential mobility patterns of the “second generation”, i.e., the native-born descendants of immigrants, in Finnish cities. The focus of the study is on the first-time departures from the parental home, and especially on their timing and destination neighbourhood types, which will be reflected through the theoretical framework of spatial integration. The study aims to provide new empirical knowledge on the home-leaving second generation which will be used to reflect whether the classic theory of spatial assimilation manages to depict their residential mobility patterns in relation to the native-born Finns and first-generation immigrants. The study analyses the differences in the timing and destination neighbourhood types of the home-leaving event using register-based longitudinal data on individuals between ages 16 and 32 in Helsinki, Tampere and Turku regions over the period 1999–2015. The neighbourhoods are classified either as concentrations or non-concentrations based on their share of inhabitants with an immigrant background. The study employs mainly discrete-time event-history methods in analysis. The impacts of the demographic and socioeconomic attributes on the home-leaving patterns are evaluated with logistic regression analysis. The results suggest a general similarity of residential mobility patterns for the home-leaving second generation and their native-born Finnish peers while the first-generation immigrants remain a distinct group, especially by moving more often to concentrations compared to the two other groups. Among the second generation, the classic straight-line assimilation theory manages to depict the best the home-leaving patterns for the individuals with Western and West Asian and North African background. There is a small delay in the timing of the home-leaving for all individuals with an immigrant background compared to the native-born Finns which cannot be completely explained by the differences in their demographic and socioeconomic background. The parental neighbourhood type appears as a significant predictor for the destination neighbourhood type; having lived in a concentration as a child suggested increased odds of home-leaving to a concentration as well. One possible explanation for this is discrimination in the housing markets which is both impacting the possibilities for the young adults to pursue their independent housing careers and the neighbourhoods where they are growing up in. The remaining differences in the timing, after taking the differences in the demographic and socioeconomic background into account, is small but significant enough to be taken into account in further studies.
  • Harju, Tuomas (2021)
    Julkinen tila on kaupungissa keskeinen tekijä ja tori on julkisista tiloista leimallisin. Historiallisesti torien merkitys kaupungissa on suuri ja vaihdellut historian aikana. Tori on mielenkiintoinen keskus kaupungissa: dynaaminen ja eläväinen torikaupan aikoina, hiljainen ja autio niiden ulkopuolella. Julkisten tilojen monipuolistuminen on asettanut torit asemaan, jossa ne eivät enää ole ensisijainen kokoontumispaikka. Tori elää kaupungin mukana ja saa kehityksen tuloksena uusia funktioita. Tutkimus selvittää näitä käyttötarkoitusten muutoksia käyttäen tapausesimerkkinä Porvoon toria 1832–2021. Tutkimus on saanut alkunsa Porvoon kaupungin keskustakehittämishankkeesta, johon liittyen tutkimuksen tekijä laati toriympäristön historiaselvityksen vuonna 2020. Tutkimuksen metodina on temaattinen tarkastelu, joka torin historiallisia vaiheita vertaamalla ja yhteiskunnalliseen kontekstiin asettamalla vastaa kysymykseen, kuinka torin muuttuvat funktiot ovat vaikuttaneet sen rooliin kaupungissa. Lähdeaineisto koostuu arkistolähteistä, valokuvista, sanomalehtijulkaisuista täydennettynä toriyrittäjien haastatteluilla. Kirjallisuus hyödyntää erityisesti julkisen tilan piirteitä sekä Porvoon historiaa selvittäneitä teoksia. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys soveltaa Lefebvren tilan tuotannon teoriaa korostamalla ihmisen oikeutta kaupunkiin ja toria kaupunkilaisten arjen tilana. Teoria tarjoaa perustan kaupunkisuunnittelun historiassa tehtyjen arvovalintojen tutkimiseen. Tutkimus teoretisoi myös tilaa suhteellisena käsitteenä ja tarkastelee paikan merkitystä kaupungissa siihen liitettyjen mielikuvien avulla. Tutkimus jakaa torin neljään toiminnalliseen funktioon, jotka ovat tulleet torille eri aikoina, mutta ovat kaikki läsnä nykyisin. Ensimmäinen funktio, torikauppa, on pitkään hiipuneenakin yhä elävä torin käyttötarkoitus. Toinen funktio on torin symbolisesti merkittävä edustusrooli. Se näkyy paitsi torin varrelle sijoittuneissa instituutioissa myös torin ajoittain korostuvassa roolissa kansalaisaktivismin näyttämönä. Kolmas funktio on kaupungin keskeisenä liikennealueena toimiminen. Keskeinen sijainti on tuonut torille linja-auto- ja taksiasemat, jotka ovat merkittävästi muokanneet torikuvaa 1930-luvulta tähän päivään. Neljäs funktio on tapahtumapaikka, joka liittyy kaupunkikeskustojen kehittämisen trendiin. Tori tarjoaa puitteet niin perinteisten kuin uusien kaupunkitapahtumien paikkana. Lisäksi tutkimus vertaa Porvoon toria kolmeen muuhun suomalaiskaupungin samanikäiseen toriin ja niiden historiaan. Torien taustojen analysointi selvittää, miksi ne ovat kehittyneet eri tavoin ja asettaa Porvoon torin historian laajempaan yhteiskunnalliseen kontekstiin.
  • Hänninen, Juho (2020)
    The themes of this thesis are alternative, informal, and uncommercial cultural spaces, the scenes using the spaces, and the individual scene participants. The study’s frame is Helsinki between 2000–2019. The study combines relevant theoretical discussion from subculture research tradition and urbanism. The key concepts of the thesis are ‘scenes,’ a cultural definition of ‘subculture,’ ‘alternative cultural spaces,’ ‘DIY culture’ (‘do it yourself’), and ‘enclaves.’ The thesis presents Helsinki’s ‘DIY landscape’ to consist of interconnected actors—scene participants—who are part of a network that revolves around making, performing and facilitating music in a specific urban infrastructure—the city, Helsinki—and in which the alternative cultural spaces create physical ‘hubs’ for the scene. The data has been collected online via a combination of oral history recollections and qualitative surveying. The data was collected in collaboration between Helsinki City Museum and Music Archive Finland in fall 2019. The data consist of 70 individual responses. The data is treated through the epistemology of qualitative research and oral history, and therefore is seen to include both ‘factual’ information and the informant’s subjective interpretations, their experience. On a practical level, the analysis has been conducted mainly via qualitative content analysis (QCA), but also geographic information system (GIS) has been used. The study aims to explicate a widely recognized but poorly known cultural phenomenon. The study’s key results are as follows. Four types of alternative cultural spaces have existed: dedicated buildings, rooms, outdoor venues, and even a ship. All of the study’s 34 spaces have hosted live music events and a variety of other cultural, political, and social activities. The spaces have been acquired for use by renting, squatting, and asking permission, and in two cases are owned by the facilitator. With some exceptions, they are located in the fringe areas of Helsinki’s city center, have a relatively short lifespan (maximum of five years in a set location) and share ‘aesthetics of necessity’ that roots meager or non-existent funding and the use of subcultural symbols and art. The spaces follow certain ‘DIY operating principles’ that aim to create an encouraging and inclusive atmosphere for DIY participation. The spaces, and their users, have faced a variety of challenges, setbacks, and problems. These are rooted in funding, the deficits of the buildings and their facilities, and to other citizens, the police, and the City of Helsinki. The City’s role emerges from the data as ambivalent—a constrainer and enabler. According to the responder’s experience, the City does not have a uniform policy towards the use of vacant urban space, and DIY culture overall is not recognized. For the scenes, the alternative cultural spaces function as platforms where cherish—often ‘marginal’—music and subcultures. Some of the participants connect political and societal ideals to the spaces and DIY activities. DIY activities emerged as—sometimes self-purposefully—social and communal by their nature. In the spaces between scene participants take place socio-cultural ‘cross-fertilization,’ which sometimes leads to new organizational groups and even scenes forming. These might relocate their practices elsewhere, and thus DIY culture spreads to new locations in the urban infrastructure. For the individual scene participants, crossing with the scene represents an important part of finding a social reference group. Some of the responders described going through a ‘DIY phase,’ which is a several yearlong period in their youth when life orientations and identity are intensively connected to DIY culture. The meaningfulness of scene participation lasts to later life, even if the participant’s active years are foregone. For some, the skills and knowledge acquired in the scene creates a basis for a more professional career in cultural production. As the reasons for the diminish or end of the DIY participation are given the closure of an alternative cultural space focal for the participant, challenges in activities, and major life events. In the discussion, the thesis suggests the concept of ‘urban DIY enclaves’ in the toolboxes of urban planners and designers. The DIY enclaves differentiate from the broader urban landscape by their condition, aesthetics, political messages, and subcultural symbols. Socially they have been constructed to advance DIY culture and cherish the creative lifestyle associated with it. The concept is suggested as a device for acknowledging the existence of DIY culture; in other words, its need for space, and its participants’ eagerness to participate in the construction of the urban and cultural landscape.
  • Hakala, Anna (2021)
    The Master´s thesis examines the conceived value patterns the city officials use in the context of land-use regulation of small forest fragments. As a theoretical framework, the study utilises Boltanski and Thévenot´s theory on the common worlds with complementary literature, such as Thévenot’s cognitive formats and engagements. In light of extensive scientific research, urban greenspaces have multiple positive impacts to both urban structure and wellbeing of the residents. Small greenspaces, so-called forest fragments with no appointed recreational activities are, nevertheless, often presented as potential sites for infill construction. This appears especially in cities where strong population growth causes pressure for urban development. This Master´s thesis complements existing research in this regard by revealing the diversity of valuation that form the basis to differing interests, perspectives and decisions that direct urban land-use policy in these forest fragments. The empirical phase has been conducted among city officials in the City of Espoo (FI), who represent different operative units and positions. The analysis was conducted through an exploratory and semiquantitative Q methodology. In the study, the respondents (N=27) validated statements (Q=35) related to planning decisions on small forest fragments. The factor extraction was conducted by principal component analysis. The seven analysed factors form consistent value patterns, which may be used when describing and interpreting the justification of urban planning regulation in forest fragments. In each individual value pattern, either valuation of the local landscape, public good or personal advantage is emphasised. From the common worlds, argumentation based on the industrial or the market worlds highlight personal affinity, whereas, for instance, the civic or the domestic world form a basis for argumentation on social values and the common good. Human-centred biophilia is the most explanatory of the value patterns. Based on the valuation, forest fragments are seen as an integral part of the urban structure especially due to their cultural ecosystem services, such as recreational possibilities, effect on residents´ environmental consciousness and stability of the local landscape.
  • Rautio, Sanna (2022)
    Social and urban scholars have long been concerned with questions of how unknown others encounter and relate to one another in the city. Stranger encounters can happen spontaneously and serendipitously, for example, at bus stops, in trains or on park benches, often viewed as “chance” encounters. Other stranger encounters are carefully planned, for example, by using digital technology including online social networks, websites, and digital platforms. Today, digital platforms are reshaping the way we relate with strangers, yet there is little research on how stranger encounters are reconfigured by practices mediated through digital platforms. Against this background, the thesis attempts to address this research gap: stranger encounters mediated by two location-based digital platforms for social networking in Helsinki. The thesis focuses on two Finnish digital platforms for social networking, Nappi Naapuri and Commu, which are based around neighbourhood and community interactions. Both platforms lower the threshold of communication between strangers which have the potential to help eliminate loneliness, stress, and promote a sense of community. The thesis analyses planned encounters when meeting with other platform users to better understand what types of stranger encounters are emerging from digital platforms. Rather than focusing on the figure of the stranger as ‘other,’ the thesis examines digitally mediated practices whereby stranger encounters are valued and actively pursued by platform users. Through fieldwork encounters with strangers in Helsinki, the thesis analyses six stranger encounter vignettes to argue that by practicing an open and generous attitude towards unknown others can allow for moments of sociable curiosity, escapism, and intimacy to emerge between strangers. Using multiple methodologies including, autoethnography, walking with participants, participant observation and interviews, the thesis aims to better understand the role digital platforms can play in increasing stranger encounters in the city and how they have the potential to bring different people together to learn from one another and work on manners of cohabitation.
  • Jossi, Anin (2023)
    Urban development causes a decline of biodiversity, which is alarming as it is crucial for the health of urban nature as well as urban residents. The latter play an important role in the conservation of biodiversity, as they have to accept it. While previous studies have used single attributes and smaller samples to examine whether and how people know about biodiversity, little attention has been paid to place-based perceptions in a more holistic manner at the city level and with including different perception attributes. This study is a secondary analysis of data collected through public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) in Helsinki, Finland, as part of the CO-CARBON project and aims to understand how perceptions of high biodiversity vary between different age groups considering the type of green space, the frequency of access to different green spaces, the distance of perceived high biodiversity from home, and the location of high biodiversity. I analyzed responses of younger (n1 = 290, aged 16-39), middle-aged (n2 = 286, aged 40-52), and older (n3 = 283, aged 53-98) residents of Helsinki using geographical information systems (QGIS and ArcGIS) for spatial and statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for non-spatial analyses. Statistical significances of the different variables were tested with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), Chi-square tests, Spearman rho, and optimized hotspot analysis. Some differences, but also similarities, could be found between age groups in their perception of high biodiversity. The age groups are similar in the number of mapped points in terms of green space type, as they mostly perceived natural green spaces as high in biodiversity, but older people differed from the others in terms of frequency of access to green space types, while younger people differed in terms of marking high biodiversity further away from home. Notably, all age groups perceived central bigger green areas, especially Vanhankaupunkilahti, the most as high in biodiversity. Younger people formed the most spatial hotspots of perceptions of high biodiversity, as well as a coldspot at Malmi airport, while the oldest age group formed the fewest hotspots. As a consequence of these results, I discuss and conclude what measures through which media tools could be taken in order to achieve more knowledge and involvement of biodiversity conservation. Further research on perception of biodiversity will benefit from understanding what was understood to be biodiverse at the mapped location, examining other groups, studying effective communication of biodiversity issues and conservation events, looking at biodiversity opposed to high biodiversity, and examining the biodiversity perception of wetland and urban green spaces in more detail.