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Browsing by study line "Växtproduktionsvetenskap"

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  • Leivonmaa, Liina-Johanna (2023)
    European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is native to Europe also in Southern Finland. Commercial varieties of it are used in hazelnut production. There are many pests like squirrels which are also interested of hazelnuts, and they are usually collecting and hoarding the hazelnuts in the early stage of ripening before nuts are fully mature. In this study the aim was to find out when is the earliest moment to harvest the yield from the trees and ripe them successfully postharvest. The study was done in Helsinki, Finland where there were three different sampling sites. Sampling started when the hazelnuts were still fully green and raw. Sampling continued until there was none of hazelnuts left in the trees or they were fully mature. One sample contained about ten nuts and three samples were taken from each sampling site at each sampling date. After hazelnuts were collected, they were placed for post-harvest ripening to the growth chambre. The quality, stage of development and convenient harvest of time of hazelnuts were evaluated based on physical properties measurements of hazelnuts before and after post-harvest ripening. In addition, control samples were taken of the nuts that ripened natural way in the trees. There was done comparison of samples to the control sample for success of post-harvest ripening. The successful post-harvest ripening was founded earliest in the hazelnuts which would have started ripening process in the tree naturally in the moment of harvest. Earliest moment to harvest hazelnuts is when the kernels have reached their final size and the color of the nutshell begins to change from green to brown. But it is challenging to determine one harvest time for premature harvest because hazelnuts grow and ripe various times in the same tree in a long period. The further it is possible to postpone the harvest, the more certain it is to succeed in post-harvest ripening most of the nuts.
  • Orjala, Jenni (2023)
    Long-term, one-sided cultivation of crops has become more common in farming systems in recent decades, but at the same time, it has had negative impacts on soil structure, soil carbon reserves and the biodiversity of farming systems. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a legume that can be used to diversify crop rotations and improve protein self-sufficiency. Pea can symbiotically fix nitrogen from the atmosphere with the help of nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria living in its root nodules, and convert it into usable forms for plants, thus reducing the need to use industrial fertilizers. The following crop may also benefit from the organic nitrogen derived from the pea crop residues and pea’s ability to reduce pest pressure on cereals. The aim of this study was to study the pre-crop effects of pea on the formation of dry matter and nitrogen yields of oat (Avena sativa L.) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). The study was conducted as a field experiment in Haltiala with a completely randomized block design in four replicates. The study included four oat treatments (fertilized with 90 kg (N) ha-1 and either oat, pea or pea-rapeseed mixture as a pre-crop, and unfertilized oat with a pea-rapeseed mixture as a pre-crop) and two rapeseed treatments (pea as a pre-crop, unfertilized or fertilized with 90 kg (N) ha-1). In the study, the pre-crop did not affect the amount or formation of dry matter or nitrogen yield of oats and rapeseed. The effect of fertilization on the formation of dry matter and nitrogen yield was also small, but the maximum rates of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen uptake occurred earlier in fertilized than in non-fertilized treatments. Although pea as a pre-crop did not significantly affect the amount of dry matter and nitrogen yield of the crops during the growing season, it did not either affect them negatively compared to the monoculture oat because their yields were similar. Drought in June and July limited the release of nitrogen for plant use, which explains the effect of both the pre-crop and the fertilization treatment being rather small in the dry matter and nitrogen yield of oats and rapeseed. Pea very likely has a positive effect on the growth of the following crop, but further research is needed in different soil types and in more favorable weather conditions.
  • Ndah, Renata (2022)
    Aluminum (Al3+) toxicity is a major limiting factor in acidic soils when pH<5.5 and faba bean experiences yield decreases in these conditions. The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family plays a vital role in Al3+ tolerance across species. This study searched for an ortholog of MtMATE66, a gene involved in Al3+ resistance in barrel medic, in faba bean and quantified the ortholog’s relative expression in 4 faba bean genotypes (GPID_0022, GPID_0153, GPID_0178 and GPID_0191). pBLAST of MtMATE66 in the faba bean unpublished genome identified the ortholog jg20333.t1, with 88.6 % identity, e-value 0.0 and bit score 880. InterPro Scan and NCBI CDD conserved domain queries classified jg20333.t1 as a MATE in the DinF subfamily. MEME Suite identified the 50-amino acid citrate exuding motif characteristic to MATEs exuding citrate in Al3+ tolerance while a multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis clustered jg20333.t1 with Al3+ -tolerant citrate exuding MATEs. The SWISS Model 3D structure and DeepTMHMM predicted an α-helical, twelve-transmembrane protein topology. The plasma membrane was predicted as the subcellular localisation of jg20333.t1 by ProtComp, WoLFSPORT and YLoc, however SignalP identified no signal peptides. The molecular weight 54.57kDa, theoretical isoelectric point 8.60 and grand average of hydropathicity 0.67 of jg20333.t1 were calculated by ProtParam. EMBOSS Needle and GSDS aligned 13 exons. Four biological replicates of faba bean plants were set up for 3 different treatments: acidic of pH 3.81 (Ac), acidic of pH 3.81 plus Al3+ (Al) and neutral of pH 6.01 (N) in a greenhouse and root tip samples were collected 45 days after transplanting in peat media for RNA extraction. The relative expression of jg20333.t1 was determined by RT-qPCR of jg20333.t1 as target gene, Vfactin as reference gene and N as internal calibrator. The Cq values generated were analysed using the 2-ΔΔCq method and showed high relative fold change in both Ac and Al. The upregulation in Al confirmed the implication of jg20333.t1 in faba bean tolerance to Al3+. The upregulation in Ac suggests upstream regulation by STOP transcription factor. The four genotypes had no significant difference in fold change. Based on these results, it is concluded that jg20333.t1 is a faba bean MATE gene, VfMATE, implicated in Al3+ tolerance by citrate exudation.
  • Jyakhwa, Sarkal (2022)
    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is an economically important plant RNA virus causing huge damage to wide range of arable and vegetable crops. A study was conducted in Nicotiana benthamiana to know if a TuMV mutant carrying a mutation in a thoroughly conserved WD-domain interacting motif and WG motif in HCPro protein can be mechanically transmitted to a healthy plant or not. HCPRoWD is a mutation in “AELPR” motif where glutamic acid and arginine are replaced by alanine. This mutated virus is here referred as TuMVWD. Similarly, in TuMVAG the tryptophan residue in the WG pair is changed to alanine and this mutated HCPro is called as TuMVAG. Four treatments, TuMVWT (positive control), Mock (negative control), TuMVWD and TuMVAG were made. Three plants per treatment were agroinfiltrated and five plants per treatment were used for mechanical inoculation experiment. Green fluorescent protein (GFP), a quantitative reporter of gene expression, was measured followed by qPCR for quantification of vRNA (viral RNA) accumulation. In agroinfiltrated plants, newly emerged leaves showed strong fluorescence in TuMVWT and TuMVAG by 14 dpi (days post inoculation), but TuMVWD showed poor GFP as compared to TuMVWT. During mechanical inoculation experiment, none of the treatments developed GFP in systemic leaves by six dpi but by 14 dpi GFP accumulation in the upper leaves of TuMVWT and TuMVAG was increased. TuMVWD was not used for 2nd mechanical experiment as it did not cause systemic infection during 1st mechanical inoculation experiment even by 14 dpi. Results from vRNA accumulation showed that mechanical transmission of virus was reduced with TuMVAG and not possible with TuMVWD. However, mutations had negative effect on vRNA accumulation.
  • Lehti, Jasmin (2022)
    Couch grass is one of the most common perennial weeds that cause significant yield losses in temperate regions. In conventional farming, glyphosate has been commonly used to control couch grass. As attitudes and regulations are tightening towards the use of herbicides, it is necessary to find effective alternatives to replace herbicides, especially glyphosate. This master’s thesis aimed to examine the efficacy of different mechanical methods to control couch grass. The second aim was to study how these methods affect the spring cereal yield and its quality. The hypothesis was that with mechanical control methods couch grass can be controlled as effectively as with glyphosate. Data was collected from two field trials located in Inkoo and Ruukki in 2020-2021. The study plan included seven treatments: direct drilling, ploughing (in two treatments), tine cultivation, a combination of tine cultivation and ploughing, Kvickfinn cultivator, and fallowing. The coverage of couch grass was visually estimated before tillage and before harvest. Field trials were photographed with drones before harvest. The density of couch grass was defined from direct drilling plots before sowing. Biomass samples of couch grass and barley were collected from every plot for one square meter in Ruukki at harvest timing. Spring barley was harvested, and grain yield and its quality were analyzed. The coverage of couch grass was lower with Kvickfinn and fallowing than with direct drilling in Inkoo. There was no difference in yield and quality between mechanical control methods and direct drilling. In Ruukki the infestation of couch grass was more abundant and more even than in Inkoo. The coverage and biomass of couch grass were highest in direct drilled plots in Ruukki. The yield and quality of spring barley were the lowest and poorest in direct drilled plots. Couch grass was almost totally controlled with fallowing. It has to be taken into account that the results base on the data of only one growing season. Therefore, the long-term effects or the effects of weather are still uncertain. Based on the data, it is possible to conclude that fallowing is the most effective method to control couch grass. It seems that with mechanical control methods, couch grass can be controlled as effectively as with glyphosate. With mechanical control methods the spring cereal yield and quality were better than with direct drilling. It is important to control couch grass because it limits crop growth and yield formation.
  • Tarpio, Ximenna Alexandra (2021)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat – Abstract Acid sulfate soils are formed from sediment deposits containing sulfides, in which sulfur is present in the form of iron sulfides. In contact with air, the sulfur layer initiates a long-chain of biochemical and chemical reactions that increase the acidity of the soil and the amount of sulfate. Excessive acidity restricts plant development and growth. In acid soil, the aluminum solubility reaches a high level of toxicity for roots and slows down the microbiological degradation of organic matters, resulting in a reduction of nitrogen mineralization. Previous research results have shown that important liming has the potential to raise the pH of sulphate soils, and thereby reduce its acidity. With a high pH, the concentrations of ammonium and nitrate in the soil increase, facilitating nitrogen uptake and thereby also improving the efficiency of nitrogen uptake by plants. It has been speculated that, by increasing the nitrogen uptake efficiency and nitrogen utilization in plants, it will improve nitrogen use efficiency and so will reduce denitrification in sulphate soils and the resulting N2O emissions. However, to date, the studies on the effect of liming on plant nitrogen uptake (UPE) and utilization efficiency (UTE) and, consequently, on plant nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) have been minimal. The purpose of this study is to investigate how liming affects the yield formation and nitrogen uptake efficiency for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in unfertilized and fertilized acid sulfate soils. The field trial was established in Viikki, Helsinki, in the spring 2018. It followed split-plot design, in which the main plots were combinations of plant and nitrogen fertilization treatments (0 or 100 kg of nitrogen per hectare of fertilized barley (Kaarle) or unfertilized fallow) and lime treatments (0; 7,7; 15,3 t/ha) in four replicates. Liming raised the soil pH as expected and also increased nitrogen mineralization during the growing season, which is reflected in the nitrogen uptake. The effect of liming and fertilization on crop formation was small for barley biomass, yield component and grain yield. On the other hand, the liming effect reduced the nitrogen absorption efficiency and the nitrogen utilization efficiency and thereby the efficiency of nitrogen use. Fertilization also increased nitrogen uptake, but also decreased nitrogen utilization efficiency and nitrogen harvest index. The combined effect of liming and fertilization increased nitrogen mineralization. Liming treatment clearly increased nitrogen mineralization more in unfertilized soils than fertilized (there was no difference between liming levels). The drought in June and the low moisture limited the mobilization of nitrogen released from fertilizer in the soil, which would explain the effect of the nitrogen fertilizer treatment remaining relatively small. The drought also limited the development of the roots and thus the uptake of nitrogen and other nutrients. Lime treatment did not change NUE, UPE and UTE, but increased nitrogen mineralization and nitrogen uptake during the growing season, suggesting that under more favorable conditions the liming treatment could improve the efficiency and therefore improve the profitability and ecology of the barley crop. Further studies are needed as the results of studies performed elsewhere may not be valid under boreal conditions.
  • Tammisto, Otto (2023)
    Farmers are increasingly aware of the drawbacks involved in traditional techniques to terminate vegetation. No-till methods have been implemented but in organic farming it has been difficult to find efficient alternatives to tilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of tarping as an alternative way of vegetation termination without tillage under the conditions of southern Finland. The study compared five different tarping treatments and bare fallow. The treatment period was 10 weeks, and the follow-up period was 4 weeks after the end of the treatments. The effectiveness of the treatment was monitored by estimating vegetation cover and studying the effect of treatment on soil, nitrogen content, moisture, temperature and structure. Occultation was found to be as efficient as bare fallow as a method to terminate vegetation. Solarization, on the other hand, even increased the growth of weeds. Tarping also had a positive effect on the humidity and nitrogen content of the topsoil. More research is needed since observations suggest that with larger sample size occultation would have been more efficient than bare fallow. Occultation can be a potential alternative tool for vegetation termination and weed control for small gardens/horticultural farms and landscaping.
  • Nummi, Iida (2022)
    Maissi (Zea mays L.) on yksi maailman yleisimmistä viljelykasveista. Maissia hyödynnetään maailmanlaajuisesti esimerkiksi ihmisravinnoksi, bioenergian tuotannossa sekä nautakarjan karkearehussa. Rehuna käytetään tuleentunut jyväsato tai koko kasvusto tuleentumattoman korjattuna. Tuleentumattomasta maissisadosta saadaan yhdellä korjuukerralla suurempi kuiva-ainesato kuin muista yksivuotisista rehukasveista tai säilörehunurmista. Runsas yhdellä korjuukerralla korjattava sato on lisännyt viljelijöiden kiinnostusta rehumaissinviljelyä kohtaan. Maissi voidaan kylvää muovista tai muusta katekalvomateriaalista valmistetun katteen alle. Katekalvo luo kasvulle kasvihuonemaiset olosuhteet ja nopeuttaa itämistä ja kasvuunlähtöä. Maissinviljelyä on tutkittu Suomen olosuhteissa vain vähän, joten lisää tutkimusta maissin viljelymenetelmistä tarvitaan. Tämän maisteritutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten katekalvon käyttö vaikuttaa rehumaissisadon määrään ja laatuun. Kenttäkoe tehtiin Helsingissä kasvukaudella 2018. Koe oli osaruutukoe, jossa pääruututekijä oli kolme korjuuajankohtaa ja osaruututekijänä oli katekalvo (katekalvo, ei katekalvoa). Katekalvon käyttö lisäsi tuore- ja kuiva-ainesadon määrää verrattuna katekalvottomaan käsittelyyn. Katekalvon käyttö lisäsi rehumaissista saatua tuoresatoa keskimäärin 5 tn/ha ja kuiva-ainesatoa (KA-sato) 2,2 tn/ha. Laatuominaisuuksista katekalvon käyttö vaikutti ainoastaan tärkkelyspitoisuuteen. Katekalvon käyttö lisäsi tärkkelyspitoisuutta 40 g/kg KA verrattuna katekalvottomaan. Katekalvon käyttö vaikutti odotetusti sadon määrään mutta ei laatuun. Johtopäätöksenä voidaan todeta, että katekalvon käyttö mahdollistaa runsaamman tuore- ja KA-sadon kuin ilman katekalvoa. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella katekalvoa voidaan käyttää Suomen olosuhteissa kasvattamaan sadon määrää.
  • Heikkilä, Venla (2023)
    Hiilen kierto maaperän orgaanisen hiilen (SOC) ja ilmakehän välillä vaikuttaa sekä ilmastoon että maatalouden tuottavuuteen. Orgaaninen aines, johon maaperän hiili pääosin on sitoutunut, on maaperän tuottavuuden perusta. Viljelymaiden maaperän hiilipitoisuuden laskusta on tullut maailmanlaajuinen uhka kasvintuotannon kestävyydelle. Suomalaisilla viljelymailla on raportoitu viime vuosikymmeninä jatkuvaa hiilipitoisuuden laskua. Maaperän hiilipitoisuutta voidaan lisätä erilaisilla kierrätettävistä biomassoista valmistetuilla kierrätyslannoitevalmisteilla. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten neljä erilaista kierrätyslannoitekäsittelyä (biokaasumädätteet, nestelannoite + kuituliete, lihaluujauho, maanparannuskomposti + ammoniumsulfaatti) vaikuttavat maaperän hiilipitoisuuteen ja hiilipitoisuuden muutoksiin verrattuna väkilannoitettuun ja lannoittamattomaan kontrolliin monivuotisessa kenttäkokeessa. Tutkimuksen aineisto saatiin HYKERRYS-hankkeesta (2016–2021) peltokokeesta. Maan kokonaishiilipitoisuuden määritystä varten hyödynnettiin aineistoa, mikä oli kerätty ennen kokeen aloitusta, ennen runsashiilisten maanparannusaineiden ja kompostien levitystä sekä kaksi vuotta maanparannusaineiden ja kompostien levityksen jälkeen. Maanäytteet kerättiin sadonkorjuun jälkeen pintamaasta (maakerros 0-20 cm) maanäytekairoilla. Kokonaishiilipitoisuus oli määritetty vuosina 2016–2018 Variomax CN-analysaattorilla ja vuosina 2019–2021 LECO CN-analysaattorilla. Tulosten perusteella eri kierrätyslannoitekäsittelyllä aikaan saatu maaperän hiilipitoisuuden muutos runsasmultaisella hietasavimaalla ei eroa lannoittamattomasta tai väkilannoitetusta kontrollista. Kierrätyslannoitekäsittelyiden välillä oli tilastollisesti merkitseviä eroja. Nestelannoite + kuitulieteruuduilla oli tilastollisesti merkitsevästi pienempi (8,3–10,8 %) hiilipitoisuus kuin muilla kierrätyslannoiteruuduilla lähtötilanteessa. Lihaluujauhoruutujen hiilipitoisuus oli tilastollisesti merkitsevästi pienempi (12,7–13,8 %) kuin väkilannoiteruuduilla ja nestelannoite + kuitulieteruuduilla 2021. Hiilipitoisuuden nousu viimeisenä vuotena nestelannoite + kuitulieteruuduilla (34 %:n nousu) oli tilastollisesti merkitsevästi suurempi kuin lihaluujauhoruuduilla (3 %:n nousu). Maaperän hiilipitoisuuden nousu viiden vuoden tarkastelujaksolla oli keskimäärin 17,5 % kaikissa koejäsenissä, myös lannoittamattomassa kontrollissa. Kierrätyslannoitteilla ei saatu merkitsevästi kontrolleja suurempaa pitoisuuden nousua aikaan. Tämän aineiston pohjalta ei voida selvittää maanpäällisen ja maanalaisen biomassan vaikutusta maaperän hiilipitoisuuteen, joten lisätutkimusta tarvitaan.
  • Hartikka, Laura (2023)
    Fertilization is one of the most significant factors that affects the yield formation of cereals. Decline of organic matter and soil degradation are consequences of excessive use of chemical fertilizers and other unsustainable ways of producing food. Industrial and urban by-products contain nutrient-rich biomass that can be utilized as fertilization for cereal crops. Organic recycled fertilizers also enhance the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil and reduce agriculture’s dependence on external inputs. However, impacts of recycled fertilizers on yield components of barley is understudied topic in Finland. Research of the topic would provide important information of yield formation of cereals with recycled nutrients. The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of meat and bone meal, ammonium sulphate, biogas sludge and vinasse on yield components and yield of barley in comparison with unfertilized control and chemical fertilizer. Data for this study was collected from HYKERRYS2-project’s (2019-2020) field in Helsinki. Yield components were separated and calculated from barley plant samples. One of this thesis’ aim was to study how the different nutrient contents of fertilizers and properties of loamy soil affect to yield formation between the fertilization treatments. Yield components or yield from recycled fertilizers didn’t differ statistically significantly from chemical fertilizer either year. In 2019, ammonium sulphate significantly increased yield by 55 % in comparison to the unfertilized control, and the difference was due to increased weight of heads (g/m2) and number of heads (m2). In 2020, biogas sludge significantly increased yield by 71 % in comparison to the unfertilized control and the difference was due to increased number of grains (m2) and weight of heads (g/m2). Grain yield correlated positively with the amount of soluble and total nitrogen, manganese, magnesium, and potassium in fertilization. In conclusion, recycled fertilizers are as effective on yield formation of barley as chemical fertilizers in a clay soil. In the future the use of recycled nutrients will likely increase, hence further research of the topic is needed. Climate change is predicted to increase drought and heat stress during the growing season, which will alter the yield formation. Farmer can’t fight the weather, but sustainable cultivation methods ease the adaptation to the new growing conditions. Recycling of nutrients also promotes the shift from current linear economy to circular economy.
  • Laine, Nora (2023)
    Pollination is highly important ecosystem service for food production. Especially the importance of insect pollination is high since many crops depend on insect pollination or benefit significantly from it. Populations of insect pollinators have declined globally over many decades and there are several reasons for it. For example, changes in landscape structure due to agricultural intensification causes declines in pollinator habitat such as field margins. Field margins are important for nesting and foraging of many insect pollinators. The aim of this study is to find out how the flowering plants in the field margins of turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) affect the abundance and species richness of insect pollinators. The data of turnip rape has been collected from 34 field margins in the summer of 2017 in the Uusimaa region and the data of caraway has been collected from 30 field margins during summer 2019 also in Uusimaa region. Both insect pollinators and flowering plants were observed and recorded. Out of all the observed insect pollinator species hoverflies were abundant in both the field margins of turnip rape and caraway. The total coverage of flowering plants positively affected the abundance of insect pollinators in the field margins of caraway but the same result wasn´t detected on turnip rape. The total coverage of flowering plants on average was higher in the field margins of caraway than in the field margins of turnip rape. Also, the abundance of insect pollinators in total and the amount of insect pollinator species was higher in the field margins of caraway than turnip rape. The total coverage of flowering plants didn’t affect the amount of insect pollinator species in either the field margins of turnip rape or caraway. The abundance of inflorescences of Fabaceae in the field margins of caraway had a positive effect on the number of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) but the same result was not detected in the field margins of turnip rape. Also, the number of inflorescences of vetches (Vicia) positively affected the number of bumblebees in the field margins of caraway but not in the field margins of turnip rape. The results of this study show that the number of flowering plants in field margins affects the abundance and occurrence of insect pollinators. Further research would be important to understand the effect of field margins of multiple different crops to insect pollinators in order to secure insect pollination as an ecosystem service also in the future.
  • Yli-Puntari, Sanni (2022)
    The advantages of foliar fertilizers are to provide the necessary plant nutrients to the crop at the optimal time of growth and the miscibility of foliar fertilizers with plant protection products in the same tank mix, thus avoiding additional costs. The aim of this experiment was to determine whether the foliar fertilizers which are most commonly used by sugar beet farmers can be safely mixed with standard Conviso® One herbicide tank mixture without mixing problems or without phytotoxic symptoms on Smart KWS sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Altissima-Group). There was no previous study about the compatibility of foliar fertilizers in the standard Conviso® One tank mix and the result of this experiment were believed to provide significant information for the cultivation of Smart sugar beet. Two subtests were performed; a field trial for phytotoxic symptoms and a miscibility and 24 -hour standing test to determine the effect of hard and soft water on miscibility. The field test was organized at the one trial site of Sugar Beet Research Center in Meltola, Paimio and the mixing and standing trial was performed indoors in the same location. In both experiments, 11 different foliar fertilizers were tested. During the experiment visual mixing and application evaluations of sugar beet were performed. Sugar beet leaf and root samples were collected from the experiment area and one row of sugar beet was harvested for yield and quality analysis. There were two hypotheses; the miscibility of the standard Conviso® One tank mix together with foliar fertilizers doesn`t show any miscibility problems during the mixing or spraying, and the tank mixture doesn`t decrease the yield or quality of Smart sugar beet. The conclusion of this experiment was that the tested foliar fertilizers can be safely mixed into the basic Conviso® One tank mix without any miscibility problems during the mixing, spaying or after 24-hour standstill period. Miscibility problems were not observed with either water type (hard or soft) during mixing or after 24-hour standing time. The tank mixture didn`t have negative effect to Smart sugar beet yield but the treatments showed a difference in the potassium content of the root, which is one of the factors determining the quality of the sugar beet.
  • Manka, Veera (2022)
    Eight active farms participated in the OSMO-project between years 2015 and 2018. Each farm had unique soil health related challenges. The aim of this work was to identify factors related to soil manganese concentration and mobility and develop tools and materials to help farmers better to understand manganese related soil health issues. Manganese cycling and mobility in soils was analysed through soil structure, electric conductivity (EC), SOM, pH and soil iron concentration. Soil manganese concentration was evaluated with three indicators: pH-corrected acid ammonium acetate + EDTA extractable manganese, acid ammonium acetate + EDTA extractable manganese and the amount of manganese available to plants based on the volume of soil available for root growth. Foliar fluorescence measurement to evaluate manganese deficiency in plant tissues is shortly discussed. Soil manganese concentrations and mobility in soil profiles varied because of soil chemical and biological properties but also because of farming practices and changes in physical soil properties. To improve manganese availability in arable farming, soil health analysis through multiple indicators together with consistent soil health improvement and crop rotation is recommended for all active farms. When using fluorescence measurements to evaluate the need for foliar manganese fertilisation, the use of control solution is necessary for reliable results. More research is needed on manganese efficient crops and crop rotation and its effects on manganese cycle and availability in soils. To improve scientific understanding on soil processes, more research is needed about soil redox-reactions, electric conductivity, pH and how the dynamic change in soil Eh-pH environment relates to soil health.
  • Söderholm-Emas, Annika (2022)
    Grain legumes are grown on less than 2% of the arable area of Europe, while large quantities of soybean and soymeal are imported for feed for pigs and poultry. Crop rotations need diversifying by adding grain legumes for soil health and for the break-crop effect, lowering pest, disease and weed pressures in the subsequent crop. The economic effects are of interest from adding legumes to crop rotations and can be evaluated by modelling crop rotations and comparing the means of the gross margins (GM) from the rotations. In Finland, cereal-based crop rotations dominate the important crop growing areas of Southwestern Finland. The most common rotation during a five-year-period can consist of a cereal monoculture with two or more cereal species. The largest potential for diversification in crop rotations can be found on pig, poultry, and cereal farms. Modelling of grain legumes in crop rotations has previously been done for Västra Götaland in Sweden, Brandenburg in Germany, Calabria Italy, eastern Scotland in the United Kingdom, and Sud-Muntenia i Romania. The aim of this work was to create modelled crop rotations for Southwestern Finland to evaluate the gross margin, NO3-N-leaching, and N2O-emissions of the crop rotations. Yields were modelled for a ten-year period following actual yield fluctuations. They were analysed and there were no significant differences in gross margin detected in the crop rotations, whether they were a legume or an all-cereal rotation. Significant differences were found in N2O-emissions between the crop rotations
  • Kulmala, Noora (2022)
    Domesticity and the highest possible degree of domestication of food have attracted more and more people over the last couple of years. The protein solvency ratio is only 15% in Finland. Legumes are an important part of feeding in domestic animal production, but the use as a human food is also increasing. Because of the increasing use of protein, it would be important to take a note of the amount of sulfur in fertilizers. The sulfur affects plant growth directly through photosynthesis and the amount of chlorophyll. Plant growth, in turn, affects crop formation. The purpose of this thesis was to research the effect of sulfur on the yield formation of peas (Pisum sativum L.) and thereby on the yield level using an organic fertilizer or a mineral fertilizer. The study was conducted as field experiment during summer 2020 in Southwest Finland in cooperation with Biolan's contract farms and HKScan. In the field experiment, peas were cultivated, fertilized with either organic Novarbon Arvo 3-1-15-5 granular fertilizer made from chicken manure, or YaraMila Y3 (23-3-8-3) mineral fertilizer prepared by Yara. Novarbo Arvo is designed as a protein crop fertilizer due to the addition of potassium sulphate as well as YaraMila Y3. During the growing season, the SPAD value of the crops was measured and the dry matter (%), moisture content (%), biomass, nitrogen and sulfur content and yield components were determined six times. In addition, the protein content, moisture content (%), dry matter (%) and fresh weight were determined from a sample taken from the seeds in the yield. Protein crops need sulfur for their growth and for the formation of crop components. The results showed that sulfur affects the SPAD value, the sulfur content of the plant, and the nitrogen content in the crops during the growing season. The decrease in the sulfur content in the crop affects the decrease in the SPAD value and the nitrogen content. The SPAD value correlates with photosynthesis and nitrogen content. The organic fertilizer released nutrients more slowly than the mineral fertilizer, which was reflected in more steady growth of organic fertilized crops. In addition, the higher sulfur content of the organic fertilizer increased the SPAD value, sulfur content, and nitrogen content during the growing season. The amount of fertilizer sulfur can affect the sulfur content of pea crops. The higher sulfur content during the growing season resulted in a higher protein content in the seeds. The yield of peas with the organic fertilizer was slightly lower than the mineral fertilizer, but the protein content of the seeds was higher. The organic fertilizer granules proved to be a viable fertilizer alternative alongside the mineral fertilizer.
  • Jäntti, Laura (2023)
    Perunalla on viime vuosien aikana havaittu tummia nekroottisia oireita mukulan kuoressa ja oireiden ulkonäön perusteella oireita on alettu kutsua kuoppataudiksi. Kuoppatauti voi näyttäytyä hyvinkin eri asteisena ja sitä voivat aiheuttaa monet erilaiset mikrobit. Tässä työssä tutkin Boeremia ja Fusarium -sienten tunnistamista perunanäytteistä PCR-menetelmällä sienilaji- tai sukuspesifisten PCR-alukkeiden ja geelielektroforeesin avulla. Tutkimusmateriaalina oli kuoppaoireisista perunaeristä keväällä 2021 saatuja mukulanäytteitä. PCR-tuotteet lähetettiin sekvensoitavaksi. Saatuja DNA-sekvenssejä verrattiin geenipankissa oleviin sekvensseihin BLASTn-menetelmällä ja tuloksista pääteltiin, mitä lajia kukin näyte-DNA edusti. Sen toteamiseksi, ovatko mukuloista eristetyt sienet todella kuoppataudin (ainoita) aiheuttajia, tehtiin taudinymppäyskokeita viljelymaljoilla kasvatetuilla sienillä. Terveiden mukuloiden pintaan tehtiin kolhuja, joihin ympättiin sienikasvustoa ja mahdollisten oireiden kehitystä seurattiin usean viikon ajan. Saatuja oireita verrattiin alkuperäisissä näytteissä havaittuihin oireisiin. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää mitkä patogeenit voivat aiheuttaa siemenperunoille nekroottisia ja väriltään tummia kuoppia. Inokulointikokeen tuloksia analysoitaessa todettiin tilastollista merkitsevyyttä (p< 0.01) ensimmäisen aikapisteen mittauksissa kontrollin ja Boeremian S- ja K-isolaattien välillä sekä kontrollin ja Juxtiphoman välillä. Toisen aikapisteen mittauksissa tilastollista merkitsevyyttä (p< 0.01) todettiin myös kontrollin ja Fusariumin välillä. Tulokset viittaavat siihen, että nämä kuoppaoireisista perunoista eristetyt sienet voivat aiheuttaa tautioireita perunan mukuloissa
  • Kokkala, Marikaisa (2024)
    Viime vuosina Suomessa on havaittu tummia, pyöreitä ja pieniä kuoppia varastoidulla perunalla. Kuopat ovat pinnallisia, ja ne voivat olla yhdistyneet suuremmiksi kuopiksi. Perunan kuoppataudiksi kutsuttu oire heikentää varastoidun perunan laatua. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, mitkä sienipatogeenit aiheuttavat pinnallisia kuoppaoireita perunassa. Kuoppaoireisista perunoista eristetystä DNA:sta tunnistettiin sieniä PCR-menetelmän ja ITS-sekvensoinnin avulla. Perunoista eristettiin myös viljelymenetelmällä sieniä, jotka tunnistettiin samalla tavalla. Tartutuskokeisiin valittiin viisi niistä sieni-isolaateista, jotka oli tunnistettu ITS-sekvenssin perusteella. Tehtiin haavainokulointikoe, jossa terveitä perunoita haavoitettiin ja tartutettiin valituilla sienillä. Tehtiin myös toinen inokulointikoe, jossa haavoittamattomia emoperunoita tartutettiin sienillä. Emoperunoina käytettiin tavallisia ruokaperunoita ja minimukuloita. Perunoiden tuottamia tytärmukuloita tarkasteltiin kuoppaoireiden varalta, ja taimien korkeus ja tytärmukuloiden yhteispaino mitattiin taimettumisen ja sadontuoton analysoimiseksi. Kuoppaoireisista perunoista eristetyt sienet tunnistettiin ITS-sekvensoinnin avulla lajeiksi Fusarium acuminatum, Ilyonectria crassa, Juxtiphoma eupyrena, Plectosphaerella cucumerina ja Plectosphaerella plurivora. Haavainokulointikokeessa käytetyt sienet aiheuttivat tilastollisesti merkitsevät oireet kontrollikäsittelyyn verrattuna ensimmäisessä mittauspisteessä. Haavoittamattomien emoperunoiden tytärmukuloissa ei havaittu kuoppaoireita. Sienet I. crassa, P. cucumerina, P. plurivora ja Ilyonectria-isolaatti LO3 lisäsivät ruokaperunoiden tytärmukulasatoa. Käsittelyillä ei ollut vaikutusta minimukuloiden sadontuottoon. Käsittelyt edistivät ruokaperunoiden taimettumista. Minimukuloiden taimettumista edisti I. crassa-käsittely, ja taimettumista hidasti P. cucumerina-käsittely. Tulosten perusteella voidaan todeta, että F. acuminatum, I. crassa, P. cucumerina ja P. plurivora ovat perunalle patogeenisia sieniä. Sienet voivat myös edistää perunan taimettumista ja sadonmuodostusta perunalajikkeesta riippuen. Kokeissa ei kuitenkaan saatu aikaiseksi samanlaista kuoppaoiretta kuin alkuperäisissä kuoppaoireisissa perunoissa oli havaittavissa, joten lisää tutkimusta tarvitaan osoittamaan, ovatko kyseiset sienet kuoppaoireen aiheuttajia.
  • Hautala, Elina (2023)
    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the world's third most important food crop, and its biggest threat is late blight caused by the fungus Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Although plant breeding has been aimed at developing resistant varieties, the use of fungicides is still the main control method. Breeding has the potential to produce functional and sustainable varieties, but its slowness and the adaptive nature of the pathogen make development challenging. Along with breeding and fungicides, different management practices, and prediction and monitoring models based on understanding the epidemiology of the pathogen and the combined effects of weather conditions, are means to develop more sustainable potato cultivation. In Finland, the Potato Research Institute conducts variety testing of potatoes. In the variety trials carried out in 2019 and 2020, the susceptibility of different potato varieties to late blight and the progression of foliar blight during the growing season were monitored. In addition to late blight resistance, an important criterion for the usefulness of the varieties tested is the yield level, which is examined in the trials. Differences were observed between the varieties in terms of foliar blight and the speed of its progression between the years. In both years, the foliar blight epidemic appeared later than expected in the trial area. The main reason for the delayed appearance of foliar blight was the weather conditions during the growing season. Late starch potato varieties proved to be the most resistant to foliar blight in the trials, and the weakest foliar blight resistance was observed in food potato varieties. Differences were also observed between the varieties in terms of 1000 tuber weights and tuber blight. Variety selection and weather conditions during the growing season have a significant impact on late blight pressure and the amount of damage caused. The most important characteristic of a variety is the yield, which was not measured in the experiments. Variety research conducted in Finland is important because the late blight resistance and agronomic characteristics of varieties coming from mainland Europe may not necessarily correspond to the information provided by the breeder in Finnish conditions. In the future, the development of integrated plant protection will play an increasingly important role in controlling P. infestans epidemics, as single actions will not provide sustainable solutions.
  • Kaipainen, Ruska (2022)
    Maatalouden vaikutus vesistöjen rehevöitymiseen on ollut pinnalla useita vuosia. Kalkitus on ikivanha metodi, mutta se on pitänyt pintansa maanparannuskeinona erityisesti Suomessa, jossa peltomaat ovat luontaisesti happamia. Kalkituksen päätarkoitus onkin neutraloida peltomaan happamuutta ja näin parantaa ravinteiden saatavuutta sekä vähentää haitallisten aineiden liukoisuutta viljelykasveille, mikä nostaa viljelykasvin satoa. Kuitenkin erityisesti rakennekalkkien on havaittu stabiloivan savimaan rakennetta tehokkaasti, mikä vähentää mahdollisesti pintamaasta eroosion kautta tapahtuvaa fosforikuormitusta vesistöihin. Rakennekalkituksen vaikutuksista viljelykasvien satoihin puuttuu vielä yksityiskohtaista tieteellistä tietoa viljelykasveittain ja maalajeittain erityisesti Suomen olosuhteissa. Esimerkiksi Ruotsissa tehdyissä rakennekalkituskokeissa on saatu ristiriitaisia tuloksia sen vaikutuksista viljelykasveihin eri pelto-olosuhteissa, eri vuosina. Tämän tutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää eri rakennekalkitustasojen (0, 8 ja 12 Mg ha-1) vaikutusta vehnän Triticum aestivum L. ’Amaretto’ sadonmuodostukseen korkean (pH(H2O)=6,5) ja matalan (pH(H2O=5.2)) lähtö-pH:n omaavilla savipelloilla. Tutkimus toteutettiin peltokokeina kasvukautena 2020 Sokerijuurikkaan Tutkimuskeskuksella, Hevonpäässä, Varsinais-Suomessa. Koeasetelmana oli sovellettu osaruutukoe, jossa pääruudun osatekijä oli pellon pH ja osaruutuina rakennekalkkikäsittely. Rakennekalkkina käytettiin kalsiumoksidia 19,5 %:a sisältävää tuotetta ja se levitettiin syksyllä 2019. Korkean pH:n lohkolle vehnä kylvettiin 1.5.2020 ja matalan pH:n lohkolle se kylvettiin 26.5.2020. Rakennekalkitusta seuraavana vuotena, etenkin alemman pH:n olosuhteissa, rakennekalkitus paransi vehnän satoja vain hyvin suureella 12 Mg ha-1 käsittelyllä. Päinvastoin korkeamman pH:n olosuhteissa rakennekalkitus ei lisännyt vehnän satoa, vaan aiheutti jopa sadon laskua. Jyvien kokonaistypenotto selitti sadon kasvua, sillä se lisääntyi myös erityisesti alhaisen pH:n sekä suurimman kalkkikäsittelyn olosuhteissa. Rakennekalkitus vaikutti myös ravinteiden kuten kaliumin sekä mangaanin pitoisuuksiin lehdissä ja korsissa sekä tähkien magnesiuminpitoisuuteen molemmilla lohkoilla. Toisaalta rakennekalkituksella ei ollut juurikaan vaikutusta satokomponentteihin eikä sadon laatuun. Kesäkuu 2020 oli kuiva ja aikaisemmin kylvetty lohko kärsi todennäköisesti kuivuudesta, mikä vaikutti todennäköisesti satotuloksiin etenkin korkeamman lähtö-pH:n omaavalla lohkolla, joka kylvettiin aikaisemmin. Tulosten perusteella ei voida tehdä vielä laajempia johtopäätöksiä rakennekalkin vaikutuksista vehnän satoon, vaan tarvitaan myös pitkän aikavälin tutkimusta sekä liittyen satoon, että maaperän ominaisuuksiin.
  • Kaakko, Emma (2022)
    The biological control of carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae)) was the focus of this study. The carrot psyllid is an important pest that causes significant yield loss. There is a lack of knowledge of the biological control of carrot psyllid with predators. In a recent study, larvae of Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and adult Anthocoris nemoralis Fabricius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) were used as biological agents. The field research was carried out in Western Finland in the year 2021. The flight peak was monitored with yellow sticky traps, and predators were applied at the beginning of the flight peak. The number of carrot psyllids’ nymphs and eggs was calculated in the biocontrol treatments as well as untreated controls and chemical control treatments and results were compared. Due to severe drought during the field experiment, biocontrol treatments were studied also in semi-field conditions in the pallet collar cultivation experiment. The number of predators per square meter in the semi-field experiment was the same as in the field experiment and the effect on the controlled amount of carrot psyllids was observed. Both results were analysed with SPSS-program. According to the results, the combined treatment with C. carnea and A. nemoralis (Anthocoridae), where C. carnea were released one week later than A. nemoralis, decreased statistically significantly the number of carrot psyllids’ eggs. The C. carnea treatment or A. nemoralis (Anthocoridae) treatment alone did not reduce the number of eggs or larvae. There is no previous research on the biological control of carrot psyllid, so there is no background literature on the subject. The research aimed to get information on the biological control of carrot psyllid and that goal was achieved. It is essential to do further research on this subject. The following aims might be to find out more information on predator density, the timing of the predator release, and the effects of different predators’ combinations in the biological control of carrot psyllids.