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Browsing by discipline "Home economics"

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  • Peuhkuri, Ulla (2017)
    The focus in recent research related to household work has been the allocation of time. The results suggest that the overall time spent in household chores has dropped especially amongst the youth and that the work is shared unevenly between genders. Household cleaning is generally regarded as the least pleasant chore despite its necessity in a functional household. Reducing the burden of routine household work has been attempted through rationalization with varying degrees of success. Inspired by this, the major goal of this study is to find out whether understanding the motivation of individuals will provide means for developing more effective methods of rationalization. The focus in this study is the cleaning motivation of young people and, in particular, measuring the motivation through Job Characteristics Model. The research gives insight what factors explain the changes in the cleaning motivation amongst the youth. The motivation is quantified using the so-called motivation potential score. The research data was gathered through a questionnaire based on Job Diagnostic Survey. The answers (N=140) were collected mainly through two Finnish Facebook groups (HC-partiolaiset and Kopeda) although the questionnaire was open to anyone with the correct hyperlink. The answers were analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis software using explorative factor analysis and regression analysis. The results suggest that Job Characteristic Model may work for describing the motivation of household cleaning. The measured mean motivation potential score of the youth was 50.5 with minimum and maximum values 17.5 and 109.6, respectively. Out of the measured factors, only the cleaning frequency clearly explains the changes in the motivation potential score. The results cannot be generalized to the population level due to a small sample size and missing repeated study. More research is required in order to adapt the used models to household cleaning motivation.
  • Penttinen, Kaarina (2013)
    Aims. The post-war time in Finland was a golden era of reconstruction and the baby boomers were born. Earlier the 1950's have been a subject of studies in architecture, suburban studies, home technology and social politics. The following research questions arose from the ageing of the baby boomers: what actually occurred in everyday life in Finnish families during the 50's and how well-being manifested itself in demanding circumstances? The aim of this research was to let the contemporaries themselves tell the story of the 50 s, in the context of home economics. The themes and the questions of the research are as follows: 1.Well-being in families: Which factors contribute to well-being in families? 2.Connections between everyday life, built environment and surrounding nature: Which factors connect the everyday life to environment? 3.Functionality in families and the technological development at homes: Which technological innovations are utilized by families? Data and methods. The research approach was narrative. The data for this qualitative research consists of 15 narrative stories from informants (n=16) in different age groups from different parts of Finland. Informants were invited through the organization Marttaliitto and via the researcher's own interest groups. The theoretical framework lies in the interpretive oral history. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results and conclusions. There were five themes which contributed to well-being in families. Functional housing and development of the built environment were important contributing factors. Target-oriented action to achieve a good life and responsible human agency to increase solicitude both between the family members and in community. Everyday life was connected to the environment on many levels, through economical and emotional factors. There was a wide variety of the artifacts that families used. They can be categorized whether they were used in housekeeping, if they promoted functionality at homes or were used during the leisure time. Societal factors have a great impact on forming the relationship between everyday life and environment. To raise the standard of living through target-oriented action is dependent on the development of the infrastructure. Political actions to promote the welfare state have been a carrying force of development of the 50 s, having a positive effect on households activity. Societal factors to promote welfare improve health and increase equality in education.
  • Ranta, Marjo (2016)
    Aim. Several study claim that the childhood eating habits have effect until adultery. Increasing the knowledge of nutrition information in Finland has not provided wanted results. To address this problem new methods to implement food education is under development. Recent study evaluating food education method called "taste lessons" (org. "clases du gout") has showed results that show positive effects on children eating habits. The method focuses mainly on inquiry learning and sensory education. During fall 2015 Ruukku ry. implemented a tour called "Makumestarikiertue" that offered knowledge about nutrition in positive fashion by using taste lessons. The basis of this study was to obtain information from Makumestarikiertue. One central aspect of the tour was a track called "aistirata". (transl. sensory track) This track included various food oriented tasks. The study focused on reviewing children and their parent's experiences, interaction created during various tasks, reception of the event and practical functionality of the track itself. Methods. Target audience of the study was event participants (n=1574, in which k=367 were observed). Study material was obtained by observing group k. The material consisted of observational material and notes created during the events. Overall material was acquired from six different events that took place between August and November. Method used for content analysis was qualitative. Grounded method approach was also used during the analysis. Results and conclusions. The results of the study show that the event described in the thesis is capable of inspire participants to express and interpret their experience of senses and create positive experiences with food. The participants were interested of laying thought to their experience towards food and express and describe their reactions. However, this requires that the participants are guided and encouraged enough during the event as the track can otherwise be passed without much reasoning. In addition, the participants require information and tools to connect "aistirata" tasks to their personal behavior towards nutrition. Connection helps the participants to utilize newly acquired information at their own surroundings after the event has taken place.
  • Keskinen, Jonnamaria (2017)
    Aims. The aim of the study is to research the causes and reasoning for starting vegetarian diet. The research explains how and why one's vegetarianism has begun. In addition, it elaborates on how a vegetarian experiences his or her diet in the surrounding environment. Thirdly, the study focuses on deviations from the vegetarian diet and why and when they occur. The theoretical background of the study is based on the history of vegetarianism and on the consumer food choice model. The research questions are: How and why did the subject's vegetarianism begin? How does a vegetarian experience his or her diet in the surrounding environment? How and why do deviations occur from a vegetarian diet? Methods. The material of the study was collected from two group interviews organised on Facebook. Altogether, thirteen people were involved in the interviews. Eight of them were vegan, three lacto-ovo vegetarians and two lacto vegetarians. Participants were between ages of 23 and 30. Eleven of the entrants were women and two were men. The material was analysed using the content analysis method. Results and conclusions. Fifteen themes stand out from the material. The vegetarianism was usually started in progressive stages. The causes for starting a vegetarian diet are based on ecological matters, ethical matters, animal rights and the individual's health. Usually changing one's diet to vegetarianism was as result of more than one single cause. Family's and friends's opinions are both positive and negative towards one's vegetarian diet. The interviewees are dissatisfied towards the narrow choices of vegetarian meals in restaurants. Also, they criticize the high price level of vegetarian products in food stores. The interviewees agree on the challenges in maintaining the vegetarian diet in social situations (ie. events). But in general, maintaining in the vegetarian diet is seen as easy and effortless. Interviewees are contented towards the diverse variety of vegetarian food options in grocery stores. The deviation to one's vegetarian diet may occur during holidays due to avoidance of conflicts and due to avoidance of food waste. Additionally, an individual may make a deviation to his or her vegetarian diet in case of drugs or stimulants. Many of the interviewees think that deviations to one's vegetarian diet are made using dairy products or eggs but not meat.
  • Alhainen, Netta (2016)
    Aims and objectives. The purpose of this study is to define what primary school teachers find important in food education and how it is present in school and in class. As well as the aforementioned the aim of this study is to, based on the teachers' experience, find out what kind of support and added value primary school teachers get from the Ruuan reitti -learning material, published by Ruokatieto Yhdistys and how the material could be developed further. The theoretical context of this study is compounded of home economics education, the curriculum of home economics education, examination of the learning environment and materials as well as the multidimensionality food education. The research questions are: 1. a) What subjects within food education are important from primary school teachers' point of view? b) How food education is present in their school and in their class? 2. How the Ruuan reitti -learning material supports food education in primary school and what added value does it bring? 3. How would primary school teachers want to change or develop the contents and methods within the learning material? Methods. The nature of this study is qualitative research, which conforms to the principles of case study. The material was compiled using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and observation. Nine primary school teachers from three different schools in the Uusimaa region took part in the study. Analysis of the dataset was executed as a meta-combination of context analysis and systemic textual analysis. Results and conclusions. According to the interviewees the most important aspects of food education are healthiness, food behaviour, environment and day-to-day life of a child. In schools food education is present during school meals, within the curriculum and in class. In class teachers mainly effectuate the themes they themselves find important. According to the results the learning material is a valuable asset and it applies well in to teaching. As the main development proposal teachers were hoping for more complete material and various electric applications like games, tests and videos.
  • Kivinen, Minna (2016)
    Goals. The goal of the study was to determine how foodstuffs were advertised in Pirkka magazines during the years 1954-1964. The theoretical framework of the study was that the choice between different foods is a socially and culturally determined phenomenon that can be influenced by nutrition education and advertisement. History of eating in Finland and the nutrition challenges faced during the set time period were also examined in the study. This is to help describe the social and cultural environment as related to food in the examination period. The period was set to approximately ten years after the food rationing ended. Methods. The materials in the study were advertisements in Pirkka magazines that were published between the years 1954-1964. Advertisements were collected from microfilms and from original copies. A total of 510 advertisements of foodstuffs from every other year were chosen as a representation of the total material base. The contents of the advertisements were categorized according to a predetermined set of variables as per the advertisements' references to the product group, persons appearing in the advertisements, and the claims to nutritional qualities and other attributes. The results acquired through the categorization were analyzed through the means of content analysis. Results and conclusions. The advertisements focused on advertising consumer grade stimulants, and processed or new foodstuffs. Common fresh products were not represented in the material. The most advertised products were coffee, wheat flour, oatmeal, margarine, and butter. The advertisement of food stuffs was not directly related to the amount of food-stuffs consumed. Foodstuffs were advertised especially by emphasizing the perceptible quality and healthiness of the product. The healthiness of the product was argued to be associated to its vitamin content. The persons appearing in the advertisement were mostly women and children who were to appeal to the viewers' emotions and to set the target audience. Contemporary nutritional challenges and nutrition discourse were also reflected in the advertisements as nutrition science's period of vitaminology and the rivalry of butter and margarine were observable in them.
  • Komulainen, Johanna (2015)
    Aims. The aim of this study was to find out what kind of things challenge and burden the relationship even to the verge of marital crisis. Previously this subject has been studied in Finland mainly with quantitative methods. The intention of this study was to collect more detailed information about what are those challenging situations in everyday life and how do they impact to the well-being of the relationship. Additionally it was looked into what kind of help couples are looking from marital camps. Methods. The qualitative research data was collected from marital camp participants in 2014. It comprises experiences of 82 individuals, of which 59 responded by writing on paper or electronically through the "E-lomake" service and 23 people responded verbally in a short interview. Semi-structured questionnaire was used as a basis of both written replies and interviews. The study frame was phenomenological-hermeneutic, as the interest was particularly the everyday experiences that respondents were describing. The data was reviewed with a thematic analysis of the narratives, because most important was what the respondents told, or what kind of episodes the narratives retained. Results and conclusions. Especially general haste and lack of time spent together burden relationships. These shows as, for example, tense mood, diverging from each other and declining of the emotional connection. Also communication between spouses diminishes or changes along with haste and then disagreements come more common, too. Good communication skills are considered very important, and for this issue respondents searched help also from marital camps. In everyday life stress is caused by coordination of work and family life, sharing of domestic work and childcare and parenting. Based on this study, thought to break-up does not arise from any specific separate challenge of everyday life.
  • Hietanen, Lea (2016)
    Aims. The main objective of this research was to find out what kind of factors are related to agency of young people in parental home context. This research explored assets from householdings perspective in everyday living. Continuous changes in the internal everyday householding and external operational environments challenges agency of young people. Young people also facing the chancing and growing expectations and demands. The research motive from the household teacher's perspective was to find out what kind of viewpoints can be found from everyday householding that can be use for recognizing and strengthening the relationship between the agency of young people and householding. Theoretical viewpoints for this research were attaches to dynamics of family members home been and work, the modalities of agency and positive psychology research. Research questions were: 1. Which agency building factors are resulting from home constructing activity? 2. What kind of tensions and conclusions can be found from householding activities? 3. What the young person has learned in householding classes and how this is present in householding activities? Methods. The research was carried out as a qualitative research. Research material was gathered from stories received by email. The material consisted of written stories about young people's participation in everyday living. These stories were written by parents who have or have had upper comprehensive school aged children living in their home. Ten stories were received. Results and conclusions. Relationship between object and subject of home constructing activity were seen as building factors for agency. Tensions and strenghts between young and parent were seen to be resolution from young peoples participation in home. Tensions and conclusions were themed by (1) changes in home operation model, (2) parents attitude and role, (3) youngs attitude and role and (4) things guiding individuality and object. External communities, specially youngs relationships with peers and household teaching were seen to support young agency in home. Teaching the meanings to every day living aroust from the research material. Parents described this as discussion and interaction with the young and it was seen as important factor for building agency.
  • Aspholm, Laura (2020)
    Man has lived in space for 20 years. The importance of housing and living in space to man has been viewed as physiological and psychological changes, such as from the perspectives of nutrition, stress tolerance, or muscle endurance, but not from the perspective of everyday life. While astronauts are on expedition their main job is scientific research. However, the station is inhabited and lived for long periods of time, eating, hygiene and spending time with colleagues. The purpose of this study is to look at living and everyday life at the station from the perspective of home economics. The study has looked at videos produced on the ISS International Space Station, which can be found on YouTube’s video service. The selection criteria for the videos were that they highlight housing, everyday life and household activities. The material has been analysed by thematising and classifying the situations that have occurred in the videos according to living, everyday practices and household activities. The material was examined from the perspective of how housing is organized and how everyday life and household functions come into play in a non-home environment. According to the study, living in the station and in use of the premises, features and functions can be perceived that are related to home environments. Astronauts live in very small spaces, so versatility is necessary. Defining the ISS space station as a household is challenging, but with certain criteria this can be done, as everyday routines and household activities can be identified in that form of housing and living. Astronauts have a very regular everyday life with rhythms. In the morning, they wash up and eat breakfast. This is followed by the start of the working day with changing tasks or scientific experiments. The content of the working day also includes daily fitness. Astronauts have at least three meals a day and they are communal situations. In the evening, the crew has free time. They can contact the family, read a book, or just look at the globe spinning below from the window. Doing everyday activities with microgravity makes them a new kind of challenge and, on the other hand, fun to perform.
  • Lavonen, Liisa (2016)
    According to the newest Finnish curriculum (2014) home economics can be taught in the lower classes (1–6) of comprehensive school as one of the elective subjects or as an integrated club activity. In this research redesigning of home economics will be limited into inquiry-based learning which is applied in phenomenon driven teaching. This research aims to develop the use of inquiry based learning in regular classroom environment. The design will also integrate the use of mobile devices to analyse the results of phenomena and digital appliances to collect data on the situational interest of the students. This Master's thesis redesigns a new way of teaching home economics in primary school using the inquiry based learning and finding a way to wake interest into studying natural scientific phenomena in everyday life. This research was inspired by the University of Helsinki LUMA centre's Pikku-Jippo science club activities. The methodological approach applied was design research and it was conducted in two cycles. During the first cycle the data collected consisted of videos captured by students. In the second cycle the data were collected by using digital polling appliance. Both cycles followed the same kind of inquiry based learning method which is also applicable both in home economics education and natural sciences. The data were collected from one primary school class in Helsinki. The students were aged 7–8 years. The analysis of the video data was started by watching the videos extensively. The research results were analyzed using theory-based content analysis. The results indicate that mobile devices guided students to make observations of the phenomena, and to discuss both reactions and used instruments with their peers. The data from the second cycle were analyzed using qualitative observation methods. The re-designed teaching methods increased enthusiasm in the observed classroom. The students experienced them as an innovative way to learn and observe natural phenomena of everyday life.
  • Sinisalo, Mari (2016)
    Aims. This study focuses on dishwashing in Finnish households in the 2010s: more specifically by reviewing individual meanings, tidiness habits associated with dishwashing and environmentally sustainable practices. The research problem statement was defined based on a multi-disciplinary literature review. Hallman's perception of housework as a human interaction and a historic review of rationalization of Finnish dishwashing guided the structuring of research questions. Dishwashing related tidiness habits were sought to contextualize from the study data using Aalto's perception of tidiness. The aim of the study was to collect information on dishwashing activities in participating households, define importance of dishwashing as housework and to note dishwashing related tidiness habits brought up by the participants. Previous studies indicate that dishwashing is considered as an important daily housework that has been relieved through rationalization of dishwashing and introduction of machinery, however, the standard of hygiene has increased. Methodology. All participating households were located in Uusimaa region. Data was obtained by thematic interviews which were carried out at participants' home. Interviews were transcribed for classification into themes and types. Adult members of each household were interviewed. In total eight households with varying number of members were interviewed. In total 14 people were interviewed. Results and conclusions. High level of dishwashing hygiene was observed at each household: dishwashing proved to be an important daily activity and its outcome is not to be compromised. Participants using a dishwasher mainly used the dishwasher and piled up some dishes in the sink waiting for washing. Participants who are routined manual washers washed the dishes manually and as soon as possible after use. Tidiness was the main driving force in ecological choices: water saving and the use of environmentally friendly washing liquids. Dishwasher was perceived to ease and speed up washing. In conclusion it can be said that dishwashing is considered being an important daily activity which is sought to be carried out smoothly using good equipment. Based on the results a new research problem statement could be designed focusing on water and energy consumption of dishwashing in households.
  • Wahlberg, Ulrika (2016)
    This study is an analysis of the dwelling of an old house and unfolding it's ontology. The interpretation is mainly built on observations as well as interviews with inhabitants. The study is a process of interpretation driven also by the impressions on the phenomena delivered by visual arts, literature and media as well as by the researcher's own interpretations and experiences. What is the ontology of the dwelling of an old house, is a question posed in this study. A phenomenological analysis is the basis of the research. The method chosen means that the analysis is built on the phenomena itself and its unfolding. The research is first and foremost interested in the experience associated with the dwelling of an old house rather than its appearance. The study possesses features of a case study, as its main research material is composed of three cases: two open group discussions and an open interview. The analysis is also influenced by observation and personal reflection. The study is transdisciplinary and conveys a natural discourse between interpretations rising from different sciences. In addition to home economics, the study of arts and aesthetics are central to this dialogue. The goal is to generate new viewpoints to home economics and to give stimulus to the other sciences involved in the dialogue. The study questions within the sciences. In this study the transdisciplinary approach strives at returning new kinds of interpretations on the phenomena of dwelling, which in turn advances and builds the theoretical foundation and vision of home economics as well as probes in to the future. The analysis of the dwelling of an old house is a process of interpretation, which crystallizes as an idea of the dwelling of an old house as a performance. The dwelling of an old house is an overall aesthetic experience that includes motion, unpredictability and interaction. The metaphor of a performance highlights the dynamism and uniqueness of the dwelling.
  • Tähtinen, Minni (2015)
    This thesis analyses how young, blogging girls see and experience commercialism in blogosphere. My aim is to find out what kind of consumers these girls are and which qualities are typical among them. Do these girls feel that blogs have the possibility to have an influence on other peoples consuming and does commercialism have some kind of role in their blogs. There are some previous studies about adults and older adolescents and their roles in Finnish blogosphere and that is why this study concentrates on 13–15 year old girls. The theoretical background of this thesis is based on consuming, social media and commercialism on internet and blogs. The data of this study was collected from 13–15 year old girls who write blogs quite regularly. They (N=17) answered to five different open questions and were able to see all the other girls' answers and comment on them. Beside this data I also used some blogs and blogposts that these same girls have written. This is a qualitative study that was analysed with the following methods: qualitative content analysis, themes and types. In the analysis I introduce some common thoughts and thoughts that vary from other answers. I have created three different types of a young, blogging girl. These types can be used when constructing curriculas and lessonplans especially in home economics classes These girls' thoughts about consuming do vary quite a bit according to my data. Their wish to be a critical consumer came up in many answers and some of them were able to show some qualities of critical consuming in their answers. These girls were also able to find some factors that have an influence on their consuming in social media. They had different opinions regarding the commercialism of the blogosphere. It is a common thought that their own blogs have some forms of commercialism in them even though they don't have any official co-operation with any companies. Their thoughts of commercialism in social media were very mature.
  • Aaltonen, Sirkku (2011)
    Aims. The aim of this thesis is to cover Marilyn Monroe's relationship with food as it appears in literature written about her. The study covers the years from 1942 to 1962, when Marilyn was between ages 16 and 36. As an adult, she was responsible for her own food intake. The emphasis of this study is on the following: what kind of food Marilyn ate, how different stages of her life affected her relationship with food, whether the food she ate was made by her or someone else, how interested she was in food, and what kind of food she liked. The historical context is also an important part of this study. Methods. The research material consists of literature written about Marilyn Monroe. This literature was the analyzed using content analysis. The research material was then divided into categories, which are different times of Marilyn's life. Considering the sources was a very important part when gathering material. Results and conclusions. As a result, Marilyn's relationship with food varied during her lifetime. During her first marriage she had to learn to cook for the first time in her life, and thus she sometimes made mistakes. Food was also gathered by hunting and fishing. As a young starlet in Hollywood Marilyn didn't have a lot of money for food, so she ate very little and very inexpensively. As her career progressed she was able to enjoy food more. Marilyn's second husband was from an Italian-American family, and Marilyn learned to cook Italian food and broil steaks. After moving to New York Marilyn often ate at her friends' homes. When she got married for the third time she really wanted to be a good housewife. During this period her cooking improved considerably. She also learned to cook Jewish dishes. After the marriage ended Marilyn was facing the hardest time of her life, until she moved to Los Angeles and bought her own house. She was planning to invite friends over for food and good times, and also said that she enjoyed champagne and good food.
  • Oja, Maija (2016)
    Objectives The aim of this study is to research and analyse preliminary debates by Finnish Parliament about the citizens initiatives called "Tahdon2013" and "Aito Avioliitto". The themes that emerged from the debate are analysed and discussed in the light of literature and previous studies. The themes are quantitatively or qualitatively meaningful topics risen from the debate. Different voices are identified from the debates through the Bakhtin's (1991) polyphony theory and the model of the activity theory of speech by Ritva Engeström (1999). The purpose is to clarify what is being discussed about the renewal of marriage law and Rainbow Families in the Finnish Parliament and to analyse voices behind these opinions. The frame of reference is family research in Home economics science. Methodology Citizens' initiatives Tahdon2013, discussed in spring 2014, and Aito avioliitto, discussed in fall 2016, were used as material in this study. Citizens' initiatives can be found transcribed on the Parliament website. Findings and conclusions The analysis of both citizens' initiatives reveals that there was a clear dichotomy between those who supported and resisted the amendment to marriage legislation. From the literature it can be concluded that meaning of marriage has been changed in the society to the direction where marriage does not necessarily mean having children and people do not get married for safety. Getting married is more about love, not about having children. There has been a clear separation between a family and marriage, parenthood and sexuality. For those who resisted the change of legislation, marriage is still an old institution for starting a family. These arguments were related to Christian and more conservative values. For those who supported the change the main arguments surrounded around human rights and being able to marry the person who you love despite the gender of the other. Differences in opinions were caused from differences in values. Differing values inflicted different voices that members of parliament were using. Only a few personal voices could be found, but it can be concluded that certain rules were followed in conversations, which made it more difficult to find different voices. However, it was possible to adapt the polyphony theory in to this setting as well.
  • Kuosma, Marlen (2018)
    Adolescence is a unique time, which includes different development tasks. One phase strongly linked with adolescence is the act of becoming independent and thus moving to a home of your own. Adolescence has changed over the past years, which has had an effect on the youth`s emancipation. Emancipation still heavily includes management of different everyday skills. The know-how of the everyday skills can be considered important because of that. Still improving these skills requires training, in which the childhood home plays an important role. The role of the parents, before and after the moving-out process of their emancipating adolescent, is irreplaceable. The goal of this study is to approach emancipation from the adolescent`s perspective, trough everyday skills. My research questions are the following: 1. What skills living an independent life requires? 2. What challenges has emancipation brought forward? 3. What type of support adolescents need for emancipation? The material consisted of 6 interviews, in which the emancipation of adolescents was handled. Supporting the interviews was pictures taken by adolescents from their own everyday life. The material was analyzed by using content analysis. The study showed, that the skills learned at childhood home, helped with the moving out process. All of the adolescents in the interview talked that, with gaining independence they have had to take responsibility of their everyday life in a completely new way, thus improving their mastery of everyday life. Financial and emotional support if the parents was seen as a significant positive factor in the emancipation procress. Emancipation had also brought changes to their own everyday life and routines. For some of the adolescents this meant more freedom in life, while for some others emancipation meant, for an example a decrease in quality of sleep and nutrition. Every adolescent saw that the moving out process was an important phase of their youth, which gave the possibility of a more independent life. Even though the childhood home was nice to visit after moving out, the youth didn`t consider moving back in. Own home was the placem where they could be on their own, and the same time be Mr. Oneself.
  • Noso, Elina (2017)
    Objectives The purpose of the study is to find out how the 14 cookbooks selected for research help homemakers towards a more ecological and sustainable future. Research questions are divided into three themes: sustainable development, ecology and ecological choices. This study examines the pictures, recipes and texts for cookbooks as well as the functionality of their instructions. In general, very few studies have been conducted on cookbooks. Methods The study focuses on 14 Finnish cookbooks, each containing a structure of recipes according to different seasons. Cookbooks were published during years 2010-2013 and were written by food professionals, amateurs, musicians, and other people familiar with the topic. The data were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis with the help of key questions: what, why and how. Books within the same theme were compared against each other, and recipes and pictures were evaluated for how they support the homemaker. Results and Conclusions Originally, the cookbooks studied here were supposed to be ecological, however, the seasonal separation was not sufficient to describe ecological qualities, since ecology is the sum of many factors as defined by the theoretical part of the thesis. The cookbooks studied here help the homemaker to move towards a more ecological and sustainable future to varying degrees. Only two cookbooks emerged as more informative on the topic. When the homemaker is ready to make sustainable changes, he or she can get new ideas for everyday life, such as dining instructions, from the ecological cookbooks. Thus it can be said that ecological cookbooks play a role in helping the homemaker to move towards a more ecological and sustainable future.
  • Varvio, Ulla (2017)
    Aims. The purpose of this study was to identify the current state of mangling based on web discussions. The theoretical reference frame is formed by review on the history and present day of mangling. In theory part, mangling is presented broadly from the basis of home economics point of view: through the effects of everyday life, time use, space planning, as well as through developments of home appliances and materials. The main question of the study is to find out what is the current state of mangling based on the web discussions? The second and third question searches answers to the meanings and aims given for mangling. Methodology. The study was a qualitative research based on home economics, cultural study and virtual ethnography. The research is ethnographically partially empirically oriented research. The data consists of the internet online discussions and newsgroups that deal with mangling. The data was collected from a total of seven different Internet forums which were in websites of four different media and one organization. Total material was 253 comments. Analysis method was content analysis. Results and conclusions. There were both positive and negative meanings associated with mangling. In the whole material, there was a strong division to supporters and opponents of mangling. To summarize mangling divided opinions. The most common aims for mangling were: to reduce dusting of textiles, ironing, to make linen shiny and saving closet space. The data had more reasons for why not mangle than reasons for mangle. The most common reasons for why not mangle were: lack of time, other equipment, lack of space at home and the development of materials. It seems like mangling is individual choice. Those who wanted to mangle prioritized it in their use of time, money and living space as well it was a skill they wanted to handle. Mangling was a hobby and a source of pleasure.
  • Klemelä, Sanni (2018)
    In this study, I examine how consumers choose wine. The research questions are as follows 1. What factors in general affect wine buying? 2. What factors influence choosing wine in the store environment? 3. What is the significance of responsibly consuming in choosing wine? The research background consists of research on wine-making, its environmental impact, as well as wine-labelling. This framework also includes the wine choosing- and consumer behaviorism theories. Previous research has shown that wine choosing is affected by price, country of origin, taste descriptions, as well as the labelling. The data consists of seven research subjects, of whom five were women and two men. The subjects were between 29-70 years of age, six subjects lived in the Helsinki metropolitan area and one in central Finland. The data were collected with the thinking aloud protocol, in which the subjects report their wine selection process by speaking aloud. All the wine selecting was done in the Alko store environment. The recorded data was transcribed, after which it was structured with content analysis to fit the research questions. The analysis highlighted the researcher's abductive reasoning, where the collected data and the theoretical framework alternated to answer the research questions. My research shows that wine consumption is social: it is consumed in everyday life, as a socializing drink, and in combination with food. The main wine selection factor is time. When there is little time the subjects either chose a familiar product, or ended up impulsively for a colorfully labelled product. With more time, the subjects spent more time on comparing products. Independent comparisons made in the selection process were aided by the Alko product information cards. They contain information about the price, flavor descriptions, as well as taste type classifications and food symbols. Alko customer service is valued and needed especially if you're looking for wines to pair with food. Sustainability and ecology did not largely influence wine selection. Except for organic wines, the subjects had incomplete knowledge in different wine growing methods and the associated labelling. In general, it can be stated that the less the consumer had knowledge of the label entries, the more frustrated they were, when there were several entries. All the subjects were, however, interested to know more of the entries. It seems that the information given by the Alko information cards and customer service, affect the customers attitude towards the different entries.
  • Lahtinen, Krista (2020)
    Goals. In Finland the popular confirmation school provides young people an opportunity to reflect on their values. One of the goals of confirmation work is to equip the young to ethical reflection on themes like sustainability. As a part of sustainability education food-related themes provide an easily approachable way to reflect on the impact of one´s choices on oneself and others. Eating is a complex phenomenon related to many conflicts both at the individual and societal level. The goal of this study is to describe and analyze meals at a confirmation camp from the perspectives of different actors. The purpose is to examine the role of food at a confirmation camp and to look at the practices that are regarded as indicating sustainability at meals. This study also analyzes how sustainability can be improved at confirmation camps. Methods. This study was conducted as an ethnographic case study. The data was collected at a Vantaa parish confirmation camp and consisted of focused interviews of confirmands, young confirmed volunteers, parish workers and food service staff as well as a field diary kept by the researcher. The interviews were carried out individually or in groups with 20 people participating. After being transcribed the data was analyzed using data-driven content analysis. Results and conclusions. Food had a wide range of meanings at the confirmation camp of which the most important seemed to be receiving nutrition and experiencing eating as a so-cial event. The meal times were also moments to share information, they gave a structure to the days and food was seen to affect the atmosphere at camp. Between the shared meals, the young people were constantly snacking sweets and other snacks they had brought to camp. Different actors had different perceptions of the visibility of sustainability in confirma-tion camp meals, but in general it was thought not be visible enough. Among other things increasing the share of vegetarian food and improving recycling opportunities were suggested to promote sustainability. The lack of resources and co-operation and the eating habits of young people were seen as challenges for carrying out the developmental suggestions concerning sustainability.