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Browsing by study line "Humanistinen opintosuunta"

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  • Pohjonen, Elina (2022)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastellaan reaktioita Akavan puheenjohtajan Sture Fjäderin kommenttiin maahanmuuttajien palkasta Twitterissä vuonna 2018 vastadiskurssin ja hegemonisen kamppailun näkökulmasta. Tarkastelen, mitä hegemonioita ja antagonistisia kilpakumppaneita keskustelussa syntyy. Tutkielmassani käytän pääteoriana Ernesto Laclaun ja Chantal Mouffen teoriaa hegemonisten vastadiskurssien luomisesta. Lisäksi käytän Stuart Hallin länsimaisen hegemonian kritiikkiä maahanmuuttajien rooliin ja asemaan liittyvässä kappaleessa. Pyrin analysoimaan merkitysten rakentumista kielellisesti. Aineisto koostuu 225 twiitistä, jotka kommentoivat tai ottavat kantaa Akavan puheenjohtaja Sture Fjäderin lausumaan matalammasta palkasta kouluttamattomille maahanmuuttajille. Aihe valikoitui aiheeksi, sillä siihen sekä siitä käytävään keskusteluun tuntui kulminoituvan monta yhteiskunnassa vaikuttavaa ja vaikuttanutta ilmiötä, kuten globalisaation ja pakolaisuuden tuoma maahanmuutto sekä neoliberalismin tuoma markkina- ja tehokkuusvetoisuus ja toisaalta sen vastavoimat. Lisäksi taustalla vaikuttavat myös Suomen kontekstille ainutkertaiset historialliset tapahtumat ja konteksti sekä ammattiyhdistyliikkeen valtasuhteet työmarkkinoilla. Molemmat käsittelykappaleet keskittyvät tarkastelemaan keskustelussa ilmeneviä vastakkainasetteluja, jotka ovat osittain limittäisiä ja päällekkäisiä. Ensimmäisessä käsittelykappaleessa keskityn erityisesti siihen, millaisia eri merkityksiä maahanmuuttajat saavat ja miten keskustelun eri osapuolet kuvaavat kohderyhmää sekä heidän oletettua rooliaan suomalaisessa yhteiskunnassa ja suomalaisilla työmarkkinoilla. Toisessa käsittelykappaleessa tuon esiin keskustelun taustalla piileviä ristiriitaulottuvuuksia, jotka näkemykseni mukaan osaltaan vaikuttavat Fjäderiin kohdistettuun kritiikkiin. Vastadiskurssista löytyvät Laclaun ja Mouffen teorian mukaisesti epäsymmetrinen vallanjako sekä sen nimittäminen sorroksi, yhteisesti jaettuun arvoon, tasa-arvoon, vetoaminen sekä ratkaisun ehdottaminen. Keskustelusta löytyy perinteisiä niin luokkaan, ammattiin ja koulutukseen kuin puoluepolitiikkaankin viittaavia vasemmisto-oikeisto ristiriitaulottuvuuksia, mikä saattaa osaltaan heijastella reaktioita tuolloin vallassa olleeseen oikeistohallitukseen sekä maailmanlaajuiseen neoliberalistiseen ajatteluun.
  • Lehtinen, Milja (2023)
    Internationalisation and international mobility have particularly during the past decades become staple topics of discussion in professional and educational contexts as well as in popular discourse. This ideological shift has also brought along a popular narrative of international mobility and non-local identities being majorly beneficial assets that encourage and enable new skills and outlooks on life, both personal and professional. While recent studies have started to show evidence on the impact and relation of international mobility and non-local identity development, the actual process and experience-level of this identity building is still relatively less studied. This study aims to fill this gap in research by giving a glimpse into the current thoughts and ideas of young adults regarding international mobility and their identity. By looking into the thoughts and experiences of those internationally-minded and mobile, we can get valuable insight into the potential future trends of internationality more broadly. Using an umbrella-term of non-locality to examine the full array of internationally aligned social identity terms, this study asked 50 students with previous mobility experiences and identification with a sense of internationality and non-local identity, how they personally experience the relationship between mobility and non-local identity building and maintaining. The data was gathered using a qualitative open answer survey, with questions and their analysis following principles of phenomenological analysis. Alongside phenomenology as a broader philosophy of science, Social Identity Theory and Self-categorisation Theory were used as theoretical frameworks to understanding social identity formation. Phenomenological analysis done on the data identified the core form of ‘being’, Dasein, in the relationship between international mobility and non-local identity development of young adults as the freedom of social non-belonging and the freedom to choose one’s social belonging. The four entities of meaning situated around Dasein were the experience of physical and social rootless, the feeling of uniqueness and unrelatability of one’s identity experience and mobility experiences related to it, mobility as an inherent personal need and an expected want, and the experience of change and growth acquired through identity development and in relation to one’s mobility experiences. Results showed a strong connection between mobility experiences and non-local identity building, but also strong variations in the way mobility was approached and made a reality depending on personal circumstances and potential social, economic, or other limitations. Factors such as how personally motivated and interested participants were in internationality more broadly, the timing when one had their first mobility experiences, how many and how long mobility experiences one had and what kind of contact to locally experiences multiculturality and internationality one had before and after becoming internationally mobile, all played into how stable and strong an identity participants portrayed. While this study opens up an understudied part on internationality, future studies on internationalisation and non-local identity formation, particularly in relation to mobility, could benefit from a study of an even broader sample, in order to ascertain how universally applicable these findings are. Furthermore, the relationship of non-local identity and privilege, particularly socio-economical, should be looked into more thoroughly in order to understand how accessible identity categories like non-local identity truly are.
  • Heimbürger, Tia (2023)
    Interculturality and mobility are increasing throughout the globe making societies more multicultural. Today, we can recognize English to be a lingua franca, a shared language for those who do not share their mother tongue. Due to this development, companies are transitioning into work environments where English is used as a business lingua franca (BELF). This thesis aims to investigate individuals’ experiences, opinions and emotions attached to BELF in work environments in Finland. Data for this study was collected in the beginning of 2023 through an anonymous online survey. The survey consisted of 28 questions, both multiple choice and open-ended questions. The survey was sent through email to potential respondents, gathering in total twenty responses. The analysis of the data is conducted through qualitative thematic analysis to identify categorical themes of language attitudes, experiences of BELF, and how respondents perceive cultural neutrality and forms of successful communication. The research findings suggest that negative experiences are more discussed and detectable as respondents can articulate and distinguish them better, in comparison to positive experiences. The research further demonstrates that respondents view BELF positively due to the different opportunities that are presented through the transition. Successful BELF communication is recognized to be successful through the use of field-specific vocabulary. Cultural neutrality is viewed in many ways by respondents, where it creates at times a cultural-neutral environment, but not always, leaving the study inconclusive on this matter. Furthermore, suggestions for future research focuses on the individual’s experience and qualitative research in order to get a more extensive understanding on the implications of BELF for individuals.
  • Etola, Sanna (2022)
    Encouraging work-based immigration as well as international talent attraction and retention are high on the agenda of many national governments. This master’s thesis analyses the intersection of nation branding and international talent mobility by exploring the ways in which the nation brand is directed towards talent attraction and the vision drivers and themes that are communicated in nation branding documents and on international talent attraction websites of Finland and the Netherlands. In addition to reviewing relevant literature on nation branding, international talent attraction and retention, this thesis provides the case study contexts of Finland and the Netherlands by describing the local policies and the administrative processes regarding work and residence permits. Contextualizing the study is important to understand the local premise and the reality behind the communication. The empirical research material of this thesis consists of Finnish and Dutch nation branding documents and international talent attraction platforms, publicly available online. The material is interpreted utilizing qualitative, theory-driven thematic analysis. The thesis’ empirical analysis is based on Silvanto and Ryan’s (2014) strategic framework for relocation branding and international talent attraction, and the 936 identified empirical data extracts are coded according to their five vision drivers, the preliminary themes for the analysis. The research findings indicate that issues relating to innovation, career opportunities and quality of life in host nations are emphasized in nation branding and international talent attraction communication, while immigration policies receive substantially more limited attention. As a conclusion, Silvanto and Ryan’s (2014) framework is modified to better reflect the contents of the communication. In the light of this thesis’ Finnish and Dutch research material, the following modified and renamed vision drivers seem to be relevant for building an attractive relocation brand: Innovation, competitiveness and career opportunities; Cultural diversity and inclusiveness; Clear immigration policies, services and incentives; Concentration of talent, co-operation, (ethnic) and expatriate networks; and Quality of life and lifestyle.
  • Kairala, Viivi Matilda (2023)
    Climate change is the most pressing and dangerous crisis that the world faces today, as it concerns not only the lives of our generation but the future of the world. Especially the so-called small island nations have been viewed as particularly vulnerable to climate change in international climate change discourse. However, these views, both in academia and political negotiations, have often ignored the views of islanders themselves. There is a need for a better understanding of how islanders conceptualize vulnerability and other types of agencies such as resistance in order to create better policies to battle climate change. In this thesis, I set out to find answers to three questions: how island representatives conceptualize their vulnerability and resistance to climate change, how these concepts have changed during the years following the influential Paris Agreement in 2015, and whether there are differences between how islands talk about the concepts. In this thesis I analyzed 40 speeches by nine Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) countries in five Conference of Parties (COP) -meetings from 2016 to 2021. The transcripts of speeches were collected from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) website and analyzed using critical discourse analysis, with the help of decolonial theory to interpret the results. Firstly, island representatives conceptualized climate vulnerability as a phenomenon caused both by climate change and colonial systems. Islanders both recognized themselves as vulnerable, but also used the concept to criticize colonial systems that both cause these vulnerabilities and prevent finding solutions to them. Thus, climate vulnerability is both a real threat to the islanders and a way to criticize colonial systems. Secondly, by using the concept of resistance, island representatives demonstrated the complex, varied ways of existing on the islands by presenting themselves as moral leaders and large ocean nations. Thus, islanders have the capability to be both leaders and followers, small and large, and vulnerable and resistant – one must not simplify the complex island experiences using only one term, vulnerability. Thirdly, both vulnerability and resistance as concepts have undergone changes throughout the six-year period studied, as urgency to find solutions has grown. These changes imply that the ongoing phenomenon of climate change is affecting the ways islanders understand and perform their vulnerability and resistance in the international arena. Thus, researchers and policymakers need to pay attention to more possible changes in the future. Finally, there are both similarities and differences between AOSIS countries in how they conceptualized climate vulnerability and resistance, proving that the diversity of island experiences should not be simplified in academia or climate negotiations.
  • Fairuz, Faria (2023)
    Durga puja holds profound religious and social significance as a major Hindu festival in Bangladesh. However, in 2021, this sacred festival was marred by a series of communal violence across the country originating from a Facebook live video. The video accused the Hindus of defaming Islam. During this distressing event, the dissemination of online conspiracy theories and hate speech against Hindus played a crucial role in spreading violence. This study seeks to delve into the complex dynamics of Facebook conspiracy theories and hate speech during the aforementioned attacks. It aims to understand the mechanisms through which Facebook conspiracy theories and hate speech contributed to the instigation and justification of violence against the Hindu community. Data for this study were collected from an anonymous Facebook group. Theoretical concepts such as communalism, epistemic crisis, online echo chambers, filter bubbles, and attention factory have been used to understand the Facebook group members’ engagement with conspiracy theories and hate speech. The qualitative analysis of data reveals three major discourses: discourses of communal hate, discourses of the source of violence, and discourses of rationalizing violence. The study further examines the contribution of Facebook’s algorithm to cultivating conspiracy theories and hate speech and propagating violence.
  • Wu, Jingsi (2023)
    The past decades witness a dramatic increase in Chinese student migrants, particularly women. This study focuses on Chinese female student migrants in Japan who are from intermediate and lower middle class urban families and examines how they renegotiate and challenge the gendered expectations of their family and society and achieve mobility through educational migration. On one hand, because of the one-child policy and reform and opening up, sons and daughters have relatively equal access to educational resources. They are encouraged to be self-reliant, cosmopolitan, and independent individuals. On the other hand, they still face a normatively gendered life circle, such as marriage. Three lenses are used to understand the life experience: positionality, transnationalism, and mobility. Education is the key to migration and mobility. The mobility in their transnational journey is gendered, both in terms of its causes and consequences. This study tells a story of “finding a way out”. From the geographical aspect, it is a way out of their hometown, and from a gendered viewpoint, it is a way out of the gendered maze of modernity and tradition which breaks the gender norms and creates their own lives. However, migration does not solve the gender problem, and the maze of modernity and tradition transcends national borders. As a woman, a new employee, and a foreigner, they face a new set of challenge abroad. Even though there is no answer to liberation, they depict their lives with autonomies and agencies.
  • Ciesla, Robert (2021)
    Streaming, also referred to as vlogging, is the act of providing real-time video content over the internet. This activity encompasses numerous sub-genres such as video gaming and irl (”in real life”). Degenerate streaming is a new sub-genre often consisting of belligerent public behavior and drug abuse. Streamers sometimes receive monetary donations for their efforts from their audience. The actors taking part in this variety of streaming can be said to embody features of an antihero, a concept appearing in literature since antiquity. An antihero is a central character in a work of fiction who often lacks moral fortitude, resorting to dubious behavioral patterns in order to reach their goals. A dark triad personality is used in scientific literature to describe individuals with a history of psychopathic, opportunistic (i.e. Machiavellian), and narcissistic characteristics. This study frames the public personas of Finnish degenerate streamers as antiheroes in the context of the dark triad personality; their public communications are also analyzed within this framework. The topic is approached using a qualitative data-analysis of a total of 24 hours of degenerate streaming as well as with character typologies. The data-set consists of material created by five individual streamers. The main themes found in this material are identified and further categorized into sub-themes. In the analysis section of this study the life histories and potential root causes of degenerate streamers are discussed; a poor economical standing and mental health issues were identified as contributing factors. Some correlations with Finnish public political discourse are also suggested. This thesis contains descriptions of potentially upsetting events, such as domestic violence.
  • Ayiwe, Emonie (2022)
    Breakdance is a hip hop dance which originated in the South Bronx of New York City in the 1970s. Hip hop is a global phenomenon which values authenticity, community and individuality. Breakdancers often dance with others to develop their style and create a community of like-minded individuals. Dancers may travel to other countries to compete for titles and develop their skills by participating in workshops. The current study explored expressions of identity in South Korean breakers. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis served as the theoretical framework for the study. It is often used in identity research exploring how individuals make sense of their identity in a given situation, phenomena or context. Trough IPA, the embodied practice of dance can be assessed where one’s feelings, emotions and the body can be made salient. Five South Korean male breakdancers from five different cities were interviewed. With the use of semi-structured interviews, questions aimed to be non-directional and open to interpretation. The analysis showed that the dancers expressed their identity in breaking in different ways. Individuality was valued through developing one’s own dance style and having a nickname. Some dancers indicated using their body to express themselves and experiment with different styles of dancing. Music acted as a way to introspect, to identity feelings and emotions in oneself. For a few of the dancers, the clothes they were while dancing were the same as their everyday clothes. Further, the breakdancers placed importance in dancing and learning from others to develop their dancing style. Importantly, for all of the dancers, it was crucial to acknowledge and understand the roots of hip hop. The dancers explored their journeys in breaking and continuously referred to their past and present. The breakers’ identity was affected by their dancing style, clothing, music, the use of their body and their relationship to other breakers. The current research adds to the already existing but limited research on sense making processes of breakdaners. Future research could explore the notions of community and sense of belonging in other hip hop subcultures, and develop research focused on breakdancers’ meaning making processes.
  • Rangel Bustamante, Francisco (2022)
    In the past two decades, Finland has gone through significant demographic changes. As more migrants from the Global South arrive in Europe, comparing their stories and analyzing how migration has impacted their lives is critical. Specifically, the particularities beneath migrant communities are necessary to grasp the diversity of minority groups arriving North. This thesis investigates the migration stories of queer migrants living in Finland. From an insider's perspective, this research analyses how Latin American gay migrants position themselves within migration narratives. Six participants who identified as gay men living in the metropolitan area of Helsinki were interviewed to reveal their perspectives on race, migration, and sexuality through an intersectional lens. Using holistic-content narrative analysis and position analysis, the participants' stories were examined to depict the specific nuances of the migration experiences of sexual and gender minorities. The study showed that gay Latino migrants strategically located and dislocate from positions according to the context narrated in their stories. Participants preferred to accentuate their queerness and hide their Latin American identity in different social circumstances. Particularly in Finland, gay positioning was narrated as more positive than the Latin American position. Accordingly, this research depicts how queer migrants from Hispano-America living in Finland accept and reject distinct social positions and reimagine their identity after arriving in Finland through narrative inquiry.
  • Vandewalle, Eveline (2022)
    Science fiction (a subgenre of speculative fiction) imagines the future outcomes of current socio-political and technological developments. These stories inspire their audiences, which enable them to influence not only the public imaginary but also policy-making. However, scholars such as Lidchi and Fricke (2019), Mitchell and Chaudhury (2020), Streeby (2018) and Whyte (2018) have pointed out that mainstream speculative fiction is often rooted in structures of Whiteness and ignores the experiences of people of colour and Indigenous (BIPOC for short) societies. These BIPOC narratives demonstrate, however, that there is a plurality of realities and criticise White speculative fiction for its limited frame of reference. In order to diversify the genre and to broaden our point of view, scholars have called for increased engagement with BIPOC Futurisms. This thesis aims to answer this call by focusing on Indigenous Futurisms: works made by Indigenous peoples that use speculative fiction to imagine futures that embed Indigenous perspectives, recover Indigenous experiences and move beyond colonial structures. In this way, the works contribute to decolonization processes. Although the genre is gaining popularity and has received increased attention, there is only little discussion on the Futurisms made by the Sámi people. This thesis therefore, applies the discussion of Indigenous Futurisms to the Sámi context in order to learn what the futures imagined by Sámi artists look like and how they relate to the ones created in other contexts. Through a textual analysis, two works (Sunna Kitti’s 2118 (2018) and Elle Márjá Eira’s Sámiin leat rievttit (2019)), will be described as Sámi Futurisms by examining the genre conventions, narrative elements and forms. The analysis shows that the works embed a variety of Indigenous futurist themes, and centre Sámi characters, experiences, values and ways of living. The works, thus, have the decolonizing impact that is inherent to the genre of Indigenous Futurisms. Additionally, both 2118 and Sámiin leat rievttit refer to the colonial processes that impact(ed) the Sámi while simultaneously demonstrating their resilience and survivance in the face thereof. Finally, by taking into consideration the socio-historical context of the Sámi people, it becomes clear that the works engage with and put forth the revitalization and diversification of Sámi cultural identity.
  • Kela, Leena (2023)
    Since the early 2000s, European nation-states have exhibited an increasing tendency to prohibit the use of Islamic veils. This has typically been justified by claiming that Muslim practices such as veiling symbolize the oppressive, non-secular, fanatical, and ultimately non-European nature of Islam. Historically, Europe has indeed tended to essentialize and Other Muslims, that is, construct simplified “us vs. them” understandings of “Western” and “Muslim” identities. In the more recent decades, however, globalization and growing cultural diversity have brought up concerns over the future of such understandings. I therefore argue that veiling bans are much less about the veils per se and more about what increasing, visible diversity means for familiar constructions of “European”, “Finnish”, and “Muslim” identities. As a result of these concerns, a demand for minorities and immigrants to demonstrate loyalty to the local “national” culture has become prevalent. While a national ban like the one in France and several other European countries has not (yet) been implemented in Finland, there have already been political discussions of whether such a ban should be ratified. Moreover, surveys and polls have shown that Islam is persistently viewed as a foreign religion that is inherently different from “Finnishness”, suggesting that the debate over Muslim minorities’ place in Finland will continue to come up. The decisions that are made will affect how religious minorities are approached. Therefore, in this thesis, I analyze how Finnish people justify bans on Muslim women’s veils in their comments under Helsingin Sanomat online news articles, examining what Islamic veils are perceived to mean. The analysis will further demonstrate how such comments work to (re)construct exclusionary Finnish identity. The key research question which I answer is: How do readers of Helsingin Sanomat online news articles justify the banning of Islamic headscarves in their comments? The qualitative content analysis of overall 209 comments from the time period of 2016–2022 reveal that Muslim women’s veils were perceived to challenge “Finnishness” because they were thought to symbolize oppression, partiality, resistance to integration, danger, extremism, and even poor health. The findings therefore demonstrate that Muslim identity is constructed as the foreign and illiberal opposite to liberal Finnish identity, and denying Muslim women certain fundamental rights, such as freedom of religion, is justified by arguing that it is a way to protect the otherwise liberal, enlightened “local” societies. It is argued, then, that as long as Muslim women continue to veil themselves, they cannot be accepted into the “in-group”. Overall, the findings of this thesis provide a nuanced understanding of how Islam, Muslims and especially veiled Muslim women are perceived by Finnish individuals in particular, especially from an intersectional perspective.
  • Del Fabro, Alice (2022)
    This thesis investigates how the ideas of boyhood and what it means to be a man are constructed and performed in Japanese shōnen anime and how these representations contribute to gender stereotypes. The original assumption of the writer is that performances of masculinity cannot be separated from those of femininity, as the duality is present in every individual, and the negotiation of their gender performance of gender is inherently personal, although culturally informed. The analysis focuses on the Japanese shōnen anime Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood (Hagane no Renkinjutsushi). The case study is justified by the role media plays in portraying the culture, and it is essential to analyse representations of gender and sexuality in popular culture to grasp how these are understood and reproduced in films, books and tv shows that influence the way people relate to each other. To start the conversation, Japanese anime history is firstly introduced. Then the leading concepts of patriarchal gender roles, gender performance and male gaze are explained and put in dialogue with representations of androgyny and masculinity/femininity in other shōnen manga/anime. The analysis focuses on three supporting characters: Envy, Alex Armstrong and Olivier Armstrong. The method used in this thesis is visual and focuses on meaning systems and perception of reality as culturally situated. Through the analysis of visual elements, speech, non-verbal communication (NVC), gestures and camera angles, the researcher claims that the three subjects of the study perform gender in both a subversive and conforming way to patriarchal gender norms. To summarise, masculinity exists in many forms as it is individually performed and transforms socially and culturally through time. It has never been a fixed and static concept; as such, the masculinity we have known under the patriarchal rule is doomed to change (Kimmel, 1994). How it changes is something that we will see gradually. The main findings of this thesis are that gender play in Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood is encouraged and praised rather than condemned. Those characters associated with patriarchal gender norms are severely punished, whereas those who openly resist them avoid fatal punishment. Masculinity in this thesis is reduced to elements of gender stereotypes formed under the patriarchal ideology and is played inconsistently within FMAB as we encounter characters who fit the gender stereotype and the expectations. Still, we also find characters that subvert gender performance and gender norms while being aware that specific contexts require them to adopt a performance more closely related to the gender they present on the outside. From the dichotomy old generation (Father)-new generation (the protagonists), FMAB can be seen as a commentary on shifting views of gender but also as a shifting in generational understandings of it overall. This can be seen in the group of characters who survive until the end. These are all characters who have no issues with gender fluidity.
  • Kivelä, Satu (2022)
    Tämän tutkielman aiheena on tutkia tehokkuuden eetoksen kokemuksia. Tehokkuutta mitataan usein numeraalisilla mittareilla, jolloin tehokkuuteen liittyvät kokemukset ja tunteet sivuutetaan. Tutkielmani tarkoituksena on tehdä näkyväksi tehokkuuden eetokseen piiloutuvia sukupuolistuneita normeja. Maisteritutkielmani pääkysymykset ovat: Miten tehokkuuden eetos materialisoituu? Miten affektit tuottavat tehokkuuden eetoksen toistamista? Tarkastelen maisteritutkielmassani sukupuolistuneita normeja, jotka voivat itsessään olla syrjäyttäviä ja ongelmallisia yhdenvertaisuuden ja tasa-arvon näkökulmasta. Tutkimusaineistoni koostuu viiden eri aloilla ja eri puolella Suomea asiantuntijatyötä tekevän nuoren naisen haastatteluista. Aineiston keräsin loka- ja marraskuussa 2021. Tutkimusotteeni on fenomenologinen, jossa ajatellaan, että kaikki kokemamme merkitsevät meille jotain. Fenomenologisessa merkitysteoriassa ihminen nähdään olemuksellisesti yhteisöllisenä. Aineiston analyysissa otteeni on induktiivinen. Teoreettinen viitekehykseni nojaa Ahmedin affektiteoriaan ja kriittiseen työelämä- ja organisaatiotutkimukseen. Tutkimukseni perusteella uusliberalistiseen tehokkuuden eetokseen kytkeytyy sukupuolistuneita normatiivisuuksia liittyen sukupuoleen, ikään, aikaan, vammattomuuteen ja valkoisuuteen. Normatiivisuudet materialisoituvat rakenteissa, käytänteissä, ideoissa ihannetyöntekijyydessä, ideaalityöruumiissa ja habituksessa. Normien valta toimii affektien kautta. Haastateltavien kokemuksissa sukupuolistuneisiin normeihin törmääminen aiheuttaa tahmaisia riittämättömyyden, paineen, ahdistuksen, pelon ja häpeän affekteja. Sukupuolistuneet normit risteävät toistensa kanssa. Useampaan sukupuolistuneeseen normiin törmääminen samanaikaisesti synnyttää erilaisia affekteja, jotka myös risteävät, kerrostuvat, tahmaistuvat ja myös voimistavat niitä. Affektit saavat aikaan tehokkuuden eetoksen toistamista eri elämänalueilla.
  • Zogg, Fabienne (2023)
    A polarised debate revolves around the West African CFA franc reform. Studies have indicated that the currency is widely considered a symbolic relic of colonial times, slowing down the economic growth in African countries. However, it has also been argued that the CFA franc has contributed to the economic stability of the former colonies in the continent. The growing anti-CFA franc movement in French-speaking West Africa reflects changing attitudes, especially among young people. The study aims to examine how this currency reform is portrayed in the news media in France and its former colony, Ivory Coast, by using frame analysis as a method. Ivory Coast is an example of a country that has demonstrated close political, economic, and cultural ties with France since its independence in 1960. A data-driven, qualitative frame analysis is an effective process to examine the connection between media and broader cultural and political approaches. The data, including 17 news articles published online in 2019–2020 and three news images, is gathered from a French newspaper called Le Monde and from an Ivorian newspaper by the name Fraternité Matin. Based on the analysis, the following four frames were found: dominance, symbolic change, uncertainty, and leadership. The study findings show the controversial and sensitive nature of the CFA franc due to its colonial heritage. In many news stories, the currency reform is mainly referred to as a symbolic change without concretely addressing the roots of the matter. In Ivorian news coverage, the active leading role of its president in promoting this reform is strongly emphasised, whereas Le Monde suggests that France wants to adopt a more passive role. The visual elements strengthen the perception of the close relationship between France and the Ivory Coast, as well as contribute to the anti-CFA franc discourse. The initiative of this currency reform shows signs of renewal regarding France’s relationship with its former colonies. However, its role as the guarantor of the monetary zone strengthens the idea of neo-colonial dominance.
  • Martin, Leah (2021)
    This thesis examines rhetoric and reality in the Citizenship Grant Program (CGP), a program which allocates funding to community-based organizations that assist immigrants in becoming US citizens. The CGP is an area of US immigration policy which has gained consistent bipartisan support since its inception in 2009, yet has been unexamined in critical policy research. Using the CGP’s main policy texts as data, I employ rhetorical analysis—unpacking the persuasive arguments of the program, how they are constructed, and how they construct citizens. Then, I examine what the rhetoric illustrates about US national identity and who is authorized to claim it. Throughout the research project, I am theoretically grounded in the concept of borderscaping, which emphasizes the performative aspect of constructing cultural borders. Over the course of the analysis, I observe that the CGP constructs arguments differently over time and space— depending on the political party of the governing presidential administration and its stance preference towards either the integration or the assimilation of immigrants. Yet, I also find that all iterations of the CGP construct certain immigrants as threats to social cohesion, seeking to weed out those who do not adhere the state’s demands for model citizenship. With my findings, I connect the dots between rhetoric and the practical realities of naturalizing immigrants. I not only expose the existing power relations at play in former and existing iterations of the CGP, but highlight everyday peoples' agency in borderscaping the future of the policy.
  • Abou Askar, Razan (2023)
    This thesis examines the stories of three Arab Queer individuals in Finland in relation to universal LGBT/Queer rights discourse. The main aim of this study is to explore more critically the implications of the so-called universal LGBT/Queer rights discourse on Arab queer individuals’ experiences and narratives in Finland through their own stories as a medium of sense making about the world. Secondly, and pertaining to the first objective, this research intends to inquire into the possible contributions of a methodology grounded in local concepts and categories of knowledge production in studying an under-researched topic as such. Inspired by conversational method in Indigenous research as discussed in literature by Kovach (2010), hakaya (stories) were used in this research as a means of gathering knowledge. Additionally, art-based methods were included as part of this research in order to engage the participants’ stories from the offset and to foster reflexivity from my end as a researcher throughout the research process. The research material was analysed in conversation with Edward Said’s (1978) work on Orientalism, as well as the contributions of several scholars on Decolonial Queering. Through a comprehensive analysis of data gathered via thematic analysis, artistic reflexivity, as well as follow-up conversations, three common themes were identified: a) pressure to assimilate; b) exclusion/exoticising inclusion; and c) feeling unsafe. The findings in this thesis demonstrate a clear link with previous literature discussed, indicating a perpetual issue when it comes to stories of Queer Arabs being mediated and filtered to feed dominant narratives informed by a Western lens which disregard the subjectivity and distinctive experiences of Arab queer individuals. This points to the necessity as well as the inherent challenge of bringing queerness into conversation with decolonisation to pave the way for the past, present, and future to be reimagined, as well as narrated differently. By utilising a combination of conversational and art-based research methods, this study also reveals that a methodology grounded in local methods of knowledge production—like hakaya or storytelling in the case of this specific thesis—in research on an under-researched topic as such can promote more equal participation and collaboration, yielding more nuanced findings as a result. Moreover, this paper concludes that utilising Art-Based methods can play a substantial role in the process of bringing forth the question of ‘what are the voices that have not been archived?’ and in fostering the visibility of historically marginalised and silenced voices. These findings will help to inform future research in the area and provide a better understanding of the complex dynamics at play when it comes to research on sexuality.
  • Nurmento, Roosa (2023)
    Wealthy people of the world also referred to as “the 1%” have a growing influence on society and the economy. The wealthy can be divided into three major categories, the rich, the super-rich and the ultra-rich, which gives a basis to examine the influence of the wealthy. The aim of this study is to understand wealthy individuals and their investing behaviour on a general level and to examine Germany and Monaco on a deeper level. Wealthy individuals in Germany and Monaco include Christoph Gröner, Dieter Schwarz, Dirk Rossmann, Michael Otto, Monika Bacardi, Tatiana Casiraghi, Max Verstappen, Charles Leclerc, and Stefano Pessina. The 1% equals 45 million adults globally whereas the 0,1% of the people equals to 4.5 million adults globally. The main investment categories of the wealthy include passion investments, real estate investments and mobility investments. Cultural capital theory and its three forms, embodied, objectified, and institutionalized states, are used to study and analyse the behaviour of the differences between the wealthy in Germany and Monaco. The data collection of this literature review consists of academic literature and articles on luxury, geographies of the super-rich, elite mobilities, wealth, and the super-rich, as well as, documentaries on the lifestyle of the wealthy in Germany and Monaco. The findings of this study suggest how the main categories of the wealthy have diverse investing and lifestyle behaviour. Strategies to increase or maintain an individual’s wealth includes tax havens, offshores, charitable organisations and investments. Bourdieu’s theory on cultural capital indicates how an individual’s background influences a person’s future but does not prevent people from lower-class backgrounds to achieve the same things as the people from upper classes.
  • Todorova, Mariyana (2021)
    This thesis investigates the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism advertising. The analysis is focused on case-studying Iceland due to the importance of tourism for the country’s economy and due to its successful tourism marketing campaigns. The thesis aims at analyzing the appeals and visual rhetoric techniques utilized by Iceland during the COVID-19 pandemic and further comparing them the ones from 2019. The comparison to pre-COVID-19 advertising, demonstrates what is the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on Iceland’s tourism advertising. What is more the study examines whether the pandemic shapes new values and desired tourism behavior and thus fills a research gap defined by Zenker and Kock (2020). The data consists of 7 official tourism advertisements of Iceland from 2019, 2020, 2021, published on their official YouTube channel, and the website: The joyscroll. The data is presented in the form of screenshots in the appendixes of this thesis. The data is analyzed via mixed methods, incorporating qualitative content analysis (QCA) of the appeals in combination with critical visual analysis (CVA). The CVA is further focused on the three dimensions of landscape, people, and heritage. The analysis shows that there is an evident change in both the preferred advertising appeals and in the visual rhetoric techniques utilized during the COVID-19 pandemic. What is more the analysis highlights the importance of emotional appeals and humor and the formation of a new value to Icelandic tourism – mental health.
  • Hynninen, Henrik (2023)
    This thesis looks to find what types of narrative themes emerged during the 2010s from articles published in The Finnish American Reporter related to the topics of preservation and celebration in the Finnish North American context. Additionally, this thesis examines what types of activities were featured as acts of preservation and celebration of Finnish culture and which of these acts were seen as success stories or failures. To get acquainted with the topic, this thesis introduces academic research related to the concepts of identity, ethnicity, heritage, preservation of heritage, celebration of heritage, immigration, and Americanization. These topics are further complemented by looking into what types of research has been conducted on Finns in North America prior to this thesis, and by telling the history of the Finnish community in North America. The main dataset for this thesis consists of 370 feature articles published in The Finnish American Reporter between January 2010 and December 2019. This study takes a qualitative approach and qualitative content analysis was used during the data collection process to identify relevant articles. These articles were then analyzed with narrative analysis tools in order to find themes that developed across the articles. This study finds that teamwork and collaboration was an essential theme across all the articles, which made the preservation and celebration of Finnishness possible. The variety of Finnish communities, experiences and activities were also carrying themes throughout all the articles. Several different Finnish cultural activities examined here were featured as success stories, but failures were also present in the articles. Many of the articles demonstrated Finnish communities and organizations fighting hard against the decline of Finnishness in North America.