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  • Harmaja, Reetta (2021)
    Assessing children’s early communication skills is important for preventing possible later language difficulties. The Finnish version of Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales, Developmental Profile (FinCSBS) is a screening tool in which parents assess their 6-24 months old child’s development in social communication, understanding and speech. Earlier studies have found connections between early communication skills and later language development. However, these language tests have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the usability of FinCSBS for assessing 2-year-old children and the possible associations of their early communication skills with receptive and expressive language, naming and the use of inflectional forms at 3,5 years of age. This study sample is part of the validation study of the short form version of the MacArthur Communication Inventories Finnish version (Sanaseula study). Participants (N=50) were typically developed children from monolingual Finnish families. Parents filled out the FinCSBS checklist when their children were 2 years old. The same children were assessed again at 3,5 years of age with different tests (Reynell Developmental Language Scales III, Boston Naming Test and Finnish Morfological Test). Associations between early communications skills and later language skills were studied by using Spearman’s correlation coefficient and logistical regression analysis. The stability of skills was examined by comparing whether there were differencies in later language skills between those who had succeeded poorly, typically or well earlier in FinCSBS. There were no correlations between the total scores of FinCSBS at 2 years of age and language skills year and a half later. However, this study shows a trend that the level of competence is a rather stable quality so that weak early communications skills will manifest later on as weak language skills. In this study, early understanding did correlate with a later ability to use inflectional forms. It is recommended to use FinCSBS with typically developing children earlier than at 2 years of age when the prelinguistic period is ending and most children will get high scores in the assessment.
  • Honkamaa, Milla (2022)
    Objectives. Narrative production demands coordination of many linguistic and cognitive skills and therefore it is considered as a multifaceted measurement tool in assessing children’s linguistic skills. Narratives can be observed at global and local levels, in other words through macro- and microstructures. Previous studies have shown contradictory results regarding the ability to distinguish children with developmental language disorder (DLD) from typically developing peers by examining the narrative macrostructures. Regarding the issue, there is a limited research data when examining Finnish as a second language. In this thesis the narrative macrostructures are examined in successive bilingual children with typical and atypical language development. The objective of this thesis is to examine qualitatively the macrostructures, especially story grammar and episodic GAO-structures of the narratives and the qualitative features appearing in above mentioned and in overall structures of the narratives. The thesis aims to clarify the differences and similarities between the typically developed children and children with DLD. Methods. The sample of this thesis was collected in 2021 as a part of the MULTILINGUA -research project. The sample consists of narrative assessments of eight successively bilingual 7- year-old children, four with a typical development and four with a suspected language disorder. The assessments were made with the Kissatarina assessment tool developed by Leena Mäkinen (2019). A theory-based approach was used in the analysis of the story grammar and furthermore the narratives were analyzed qualitatively through a data-driven approach. For the analysis of the story grammar, a scoring template was made using Stein and Glenn’s (1979) story grammar model and the information scoring in the Kissatarina. The expressions children used in the macrostructural elements in their narratives were analyzed in the light of the data, focus being on the settings, episodic structures, and the overall structures of the narratives. Results and conclusions. Overall production of the story grammar elements was poorer with children in the DLD-group in comparison to the children with typical development. In addition, the individual variation within the DLD-group was greater. Differences between the groups appeared most evident in the production of the narrative’s initiating events and expressing characters’ internal reactions and emotions, in which the children in the DLD-group showed weaker performance. For the qualitative analysis, typically developed children mainly produced more complex and coherent narratives. In all examined areas the qualitative differences between individuals were evident. The results of this thesis reveal that assessing the macrostructures in narratives might help in differentiating children with DLD from typically developing children.
  • Markkinen, Eeva (2021)
    Aims of the study. Actors, singers and other professional voice users are at a high risk of experiencing voice problems during their careers. The biggest reasons for this are heavy vocal load and the voice user’s internal and external factors. Voice professionals’ voice problems are common, even though the awareness of vocal health and the knowledge and the use of voice care are good. This study aims to map self-reported voice problems and the occupation-spesific special features of voice use in adult voice actors working in Finland. The aim of the survey was to find out what kinds of vocal symptoms exist and how they affect the voice actors’ psycho-social well-being. Moreover the prevalence of risk factors and their connection to voice symptoms was searched. Voice actors’ voice care was also mapped. The aim of this study is to create new knowledge of an unresearched occupation. Methods. The research material was collected using an electronic survey. The survey was created for this research. The survey consisted of research-spesific sections and included both validated sections that had been translated to Finnish (Screen11 and Voice Handicap Index) and sections that were created for this research. In the survey there were both open and closed questions. 24 voice actors answered the questionnaire. The analysis of the research material was done with SPSS. In the qualitative analysis the questions were typificated, compiled to statistics and example answers were chosen. The statistic analysis was used to find out the prevalence of certain phenomena. Saphiro-Wilk normality test was conducted and on basis of the results correlations and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U -test were chosen over parametric tests. These tests aimed to find out the connections of dependent and independent variables. Results and conclusions. The participating voice actors didn’t report having voice problems within the 12 month period under consideration. Thus voice problems didn’t affect the participants’ experince of psycho-social competence. Other questions, however, revealed a prevalence of 79,2% voice problems. There was no connection of risk factors, such as using demanding voice qualities, to vocal symptoms or the psycho-social experince. Voice actors had searched for and had reseived help from professionals, such as phoniatrists and speech therapists. The experiences of the benefits varied. Nearly all given voice care means were in use. Because the research material was limited and the survey would need some adjustment, more research is needed. This research offers some guidelines in the study of voice actors’ voice problems, but on basis of this research conclusions or generalisations of the prevalence of voice problems or risk factors can’t be made.
  • Patronen, Senni (2021)
    Aims: The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a new phonemic awareness test to study children who have potential problems in their reading skills. The children were second graders whose reading skills either had or had not caused worry at home or school. The phonemic awareness test was developed for investigating and providing intervention on phonemic awareness. This new method includes ten different ways to change phonemes in a word. We determined if some of these phonemic changes are better at separating the groups from each other and whether there are differences between the tasks in the degree of difficulty. In addition, the children were also tested with standardized neuropsychological tests that measure reading-related skills. The study was done completely remotely and one of its aims was also to get additional information on feasibility of neuropsychological testing in remote environments. Methods: 16 participants took part in the study. Eight of them were children whose reading skills had caused worry and other eight whose reading skills had not caused such worry. The study was done remotely using Zoom and the experiment took about 1-1,5 hours depending on how quickly the child completed the tasks. There were 11 tasks altogether, which assessed the child’s reading and writing skills and skills that can affect these, such as phonological skills, working memory and rapid naming. Results: The groups differed from each other almost in every standardized test and also in the new phonemic awareness test. In the new phonemic awareness test children who had caused worry on their reading skills got less points in every part, but the groups differed statistically significantly in five of them only. These five included changing the beginning or the ending of the word, diphthong, diphthong to long vowel and changing a vowel to a consonant. The degree of difficulty varied between the subtests of the phonemic awareness task, the pattern of performance being comparable in the two groups. Detecting differences between word beginnings and syllables was the easiest and detecting diphthong and vowel to consonant or consonant to vowel changes were the most difficult. These results are promising, suggesting that the phonemic awareness test could serve to identify problems in phonemic awareness in children whose reading skills are suspected to be poor. This study also suggested the feasibility of carrying out neuropsychological tests remotely.
  • Lindroos, Jenni (2021)
    Tutkielma käsittelee Gillian Flynnin romaaneja Teräviä esineitä (Sharp Objects, 2006), Paha paikka (Dark Places, 2009) ja Kiltti tyttö (Gone Girl, 2012). Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan romaanien naishahmoja ja heidän käyttämäänsä väkivaltaa ja pyritään selvittämään, miten nämä hahmot vastaavat yleisiä stereotyyppejä väkivaltaisista naisista. Teoreettisena lähtökohtana käytetään feminististä kriminologiaa, erityisesti tutkimuksia narratiiveista, joita yleisesti käytetään kuvailtaessa rikollisia naisia ja selitettäessä heidän väkivaltaisuuttaan. Näistä narratiiveista tutkielmassa keskitytään kolmeen, joissa väkivaltaiset naiset käsitetään joko hulluiksi, pahoiksi tai uhreiksi. Tutkielmassa käsiteltävät henkilöhahmot jaetaan kahteen väkivaltaisen naisen arkkityyppiin, joita käsitellään erikseen kuhunkin liittyvien stereotypioiden kautta. Näistä ensimmäinen on väkivaltaiset teinitytöt. Tutkielmassa esitän, että Flynnin tyttöhahmot ovat tietoisia modernin yhteiskunnan teinityttöihin kohdistamista käsityksistä ja odotuksista ja osaavat käyttää niitä hyödykseen oman väkivaltansa salaamiseksi. Lisäksi kartoitan seksuaalisuuden ja väkivallan yhtymäkohtia, jotka koskevat romaaneissa nimenomaan teinityttöjä ja jotka liittyvät erityisesti yhteiskunnalliseen ”paha”-narratiiviin. Toinen tutkielmassa analysoitava arkkityyppi on väkivaltainen äiti. Flynnin romaanien äitihahmot satuttavat sekä omia lapsiaan että muita, ja heidän motiivinsa vastaavat selkeämmin olemassa olevia stereotyyppejä, erityisesti ”hullu”- ja ”paha”-selityksiä. Yhdistän äitihahmojen väkivallan myös heidän tytärtensä ja omien äitiensä väkivaltaisuuteen ja siten myös ”uhri”-narratiiviin, joka liittyy olennaisesti kysymyksiin väkivallan periytyvyydestä. Tutkielmassa todetaan, että Flynnin nais- ja tyttöhahmot osaltaan sekä rikkovat että vahvistavat stereotyyppejä naiseudesta ja väkivallasta. Naisten rooli romaanien pääasiallisina väkivallan tekijöinä kyseenalaistaa jo itsessään perinteisiä sukupuolirooleja, mutta osa hahmoista päätyy edustamaan stereotyyppisiä käsityksiä naisten väkivallasta. Toisaalta osa hahmoista, etenkin Amy romaanissa Kiltti tyttö, vastustaa tällaista yksinkertaista lukemista, mikä voidaan nähdä osoituksena Flynnin kritiikistä fiktion ja muun median stereotyyppisiä naiskuvia kohtaan.
  • Prior, Milana (2021)
    In this thesis, I study intensifiers, which are the adverbs that either strengthen or weaken the modified word. The intensifiers that strengthen the meaning of the following lexeme are called amplifiers, whereas the intensifiers that weaken the following lexeme are called downtoners. In turn, these groups of intensifiers are divided into various categories. In particular, I concentrate on maximizers, a category of amplifiers, and mitigators, a category of downtoners. The study is limited to the American variety of English. The aim of this research is twofold. Firstly, I analyze the frequency distributions of maximizers and mitigators across different registers in American English. Secondly, I discuss the reasons for the possible register variation between the different categories of intensifiers. Therefore, I conduct both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data. I use the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) as my data. I chose it for the current research due to its large size of around 1 billion words, as well as the fact that its contents are fairly evenly divided by register. Consequently, it enables the comparison of the studied lexemes across the registers in American English. Furthermore, COCA has a function of viewing a sample in the expanded context, thus making possible the qualitative analysis of the samples. The most significant finding was the preference for maximizers in informal written registers and for mitigators in formal written registers. Further, the formal spoken register, represented by unscripted TV and radio show conversations, clearly preferred maximizers to mitigators. On the contrary, the informal spoken language of TV shows and movies had a low frequency of both categories of intensifiers. As concerns the reasons for this variation, there can be several theories. One of them is the collocational patterns of the intensifiers. Another reason is the stylistic and functional characteristics of the registers. For example, academic prose style favors hedging, or tentative language. Therefore, the academic register has a high frequency of mitigating adverbs. Instead, radio show hosts may have a preference for using definitive, attention-catching phrases and thus are more likely to use maximizers such as incredibly or extremely.
  • Laukkanen, Olavi (2019)
    Tutkielma käsittelee persoonapronominien käyttöä Yhdysvaltojen presidenttien kansakunnan tilaa käsittelevissä puheissa (State of the Union Address) poliittisen diskurssianalyysin näkökulmasta ja korpuslingvistiikan kvantitatiivisia menetelmiä hyödyntäen. Työssä selvitetään millaisia funktioita persoonapronomineilla on ja onko niiden käytössä eroja presidenttien välillä tutkimalla niiden frekvenssejä eli esiintymistiheyksiä sekä niiden kollokaatteja eli samassa kontekstissa esiintyviä sanoja. Aineistoni koostuu vuosina 1980-2018 pidetyistä kansakunnan tilaa käsittelevistä puheista, joiden esittäjinä olivat presidentit Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama ja Donald Trump. Kokoamani korpus on kooltaan 219 365 sanaa ja se on annotoitu käyttäen ohjelmaa, joka merkitsee tekstiin sanaluokat (part-of-speech tagger). Korpusanalyysiä varten käytettiin AntConc-tietokoneohjelmaa, joka mahdollistaa frekvenssi- ja kollokaatiohaut. Tutkielma osoittaa, että persoonapronominien käytössä suurimmat erot ovat usein presidentin eri puheiden välillä eivätkä eri presidenttien välillä. Sisäisen vaihtelevuuden laajuus viittaa siihen, ettei eri presidenteillä ole selkeitä tai johdonmukaisia pronominityylejä. Monikon ensimmäisen persoonan pronomineja käytetään puheissa selkeästi eniten verrattuna muihin persoonapronomineihin, mikä saattaa kertoa niiden funktiosta yhteisen amerikkalaisen identiteetin vahvistamisessa ja presidentin halusta esiintyä osana laajempaa yhteisöä. Kollokaatioanalyysi osoittaa, että eri persoonapronomineja käytetään erilaisissa konteksteissa ja erilaisiin tarkoituksiin. Esimerkiksi yksikön ensimmäisen persoonan pronominit esiintyvät usein kommunikaatioverbien ja mentaalisten verbien kanssa, kun taas monikon ensimmäisen persoonan pronominit esiintyvät konteksteissa, joissa käytetään kansallista tai sodankäyntiin liittyvää retoriikkaa. Toisen persoonan pronominit toimivat lauserakenteessa hyvin usein objekteina eivätkä subjekteina, mikä osoittaa niiden olevan keino puhutella yleisöä ja luoda interaktiivinen suhde kuuntelijoihin. Monikon kolmannen persoonan pronomineja käytetään tutkimuksen mukaan lähinnä viittaamaan tavallisiin amerikkalaisiin ja heidän arkielämäänsä.
  • Palonen, Aura (2020)
    Early life conditions have long-term effects on the fitness and survival of individuals. Foetal development is an especially crucial period and even small changes may have large impacts on the development of individuals. Mammal foetuses may be exposed to additional testosterone either from their male littermates or their mother. This additional prenatal androgen exposure leads to masculinization of female features and behavior. In males the effects of additional prenatal androgen exposure are less drastic due to their own testosterone production. The anogenital distance, defined as the distance between the anus and genitalia, has been used to determine the sex of young mammals since males have longer anogenital distances than females. An elongated anogenital distance is an indicator of additional prenatal androgen exposure in females, and in some species also in males. It correlates with for example increased aggressiveness in both females and males. In females a longer anogenital distance has also been connected to delayed puberty and decreased fertility. I studied the effects of additional prenatal androgen exposure on weight and important life-history traits in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) with data from a long-term study. Banded mongooses are small co-operatively breeding mammals living in family groups of 10-30 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Breeding is extremely synchronized within groups and in most cases all pregnant females give birth on the same day. The resulting communal litter is cared for by most adults in the group regardless of relatedness. Adults escort the pups until three months of age, providing the pup with food, grooming and protection. This early life care has long-term fitness benefits for the pups. Pregnant females may change the phenotype of their offspring via maternal effects. When the competition faced by breeding females is more intense, they compensate by investing more resources to their foetuses, making them bigger. Using the anogenital distance as a proxy for additional prenatal androgen exposure, I measured its effects on weight at early life and maturity, the amount of care received as pups and whether the individual reproduced in its lifetime or not. I hypothesized that a longer anogenital distance may be an indicator of increased competitiveness in the banded mongoose. It could lead to a cumulative advantage since more aggressive individuals may be able to access more food and care, which leads to higher maturity weight and lifetime reproductive success. I also measured the effects of resource abundance and intensity of competition during gestation on the anogenital distance of the pups. I hypothesized that mothers may prepare their offspring for future competitive environment by exposing them to androgens during gestation. In males a longer anogenital distance predicted higher weight both at early life and maturity. Higher weight at the beginning of the escorting increased the amount of care received, which in turn increased weight at maturity. A longer anogenital distance therefore has both direct and indirect fitness benefits in male banded mongooses. In females, a longer anogenital distance predicted lighter weight at maturity, suggesting that it may have negative effects on female growth and development. This study offers evidence that additional prenatal androgen exposure has long-term fitness consequences on banded mongooses and that these consequences are sex specific. Future research should focus on confirming the connection between additional prenatal androgen exposure and longer anogenital distance in this species, as well as assessing the effects of prenatal androgen exposure on survival, puberty and growth of especially female individuals.
  • Trizna, Dmitrijs (2022)
    The detection heuristic in contemporary machine learning Windows malware classifiers is typically based on the static properties of the sample. In contrast, simultaneous utilization of static and behavioral telemetry is vaguely explored. We propose a hybrid model that employs dynamic malware analysis techniques, contextual information as an executable filesystem path on the system, and static representations used in modern state-of-the-art detectors. It does not require an operating system virtualization platform. Instead, it relies on kernel emulation for dynamic analysis. Our model reports enhanced detection heuristic and identify malicious samples, even if none of the separate models express high confidence in categorizing the file as malevolent. For instance, given the $0.05\%$ false positive rate, individual static, dynamic, and contextual model detection rates are $18.04\%$, $37.20\%$, and $15.66\%$. However, we show that composite processing of all three achieves a detection rate of $96.54\%$, above the cumulative performance of individual components. Moreover, simultaneous use of distinct malware analysis techniques address independent unit weaknesses, minimizing false positives and increasing adversarial robustness. Our experiments show a decrease in contemporary adversarial attack evasion rates from $26.06\%$ to $0.35\%$ when behavioral and contextual representations of sample are employed in detection heuristic.
  • Firon, Csilla (2019)
    Tavoitteet. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tarkastella uudenlaisen afasian kuntoutukseen suunnatun kuorolauluintervention subjektiivisesti koettua hyötyä. Interventio oli osa Helsingin yliopiston Kognitiivisen aivotutkimuksen yksikön Laulun sanoin -hanketta ja se koostui kuorolaulusta, ryhmämuotoisesta MIT (melodinen intonaatioterapia) -kuntoutuksesta sekä laulun harjoittelusta tablettitietokoneella. Interventioon osallistui afasiaa sairastavia henkilöitä sekä heidän läheisiään. Aiemmissa tutkimuksissa on havaittu, että musiikilla ja laululla voi olla kuntoutuksellisia vaikutuksia muun muassa kielellisiin toimintoihin. Afasian kuntoutuksessa on eniten tutkittu MIT-menetelmää, mutta myös uusia musiikkia sisältäviä kuntoutusmuotoja kehitetään aktiivisesti. Subjektiivisesti koettua kuntoutuksesta saatua hyötyä ei ole afasian osalta erityisesti tutkittu, vaikka oman kokemuksen tiedetään vaikuttavan kuntoutuk- sen lopputulokseen. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan, minkälainen subjektiivinen arvio afaattisilla henkilöillä ja heidän läheisillään oli interventiosta. Lisäksi tarkastellaan, oliko afasian vaikeusasteella, harjoittelumäärällä tai demografisilla tai kliinisillä taustatiedoilla yhteyttä koettuun hyötyyn sekä erosivatko afaattisten henkilöiden ja läheisten kokemukset toisistaan. Menetelmät. Aineiston muodosti osallistujien intervention jälkeen täyttämät kyselylomakkeet subjektiivisista kokemuksista, interventiojakson aikana toteutuneet harjoittelumäärät sekä osallistujien demografiset ja kliiniset taustatiedot. Kyselylomakkeeseen vastasi 23 afaattista henkilöä sekä 11 läheistä. Aineistoa analysoitiin tilastollisesti Friedmanin testillä, Mann–Whitney U-testillä, Spearmanin järjestyskorrelaatioanalyysilla, Wilcoxonin merkittyjen sijalukujen testillä sekä yhden otoksen t-testillä. Avointen kysymysten vastauksia analysoitiin tyypittelemällä vastauksia teemoittain ja laskemalla esiintymisfrekvenssejä. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Afaattiset henkilöt kokivat intervention hyödylliseksi ja myös läheiset kokivat, että interventio oli afaattisille henkilöille hyödyllinen. Afaattisten henkilöiden ja läheisten kokemukset intervention hyödyllisyydestä eivät eronneet toisistaan, eikä harjoittelumäärän, kliinisten tai musiikillisten taustatietojen ja koetun hyödyn välillä havaittu tilastollisesti merkitsevää yhteyttä. Erityisesti mielialan kohoaminen, uusiin ihmisiin tutustuminen ja vertaistuen saaminen nousivat esiin kvalitatiivisissa vastauksissa. Näiden tulosten perusteella voidaan ehdottaa, että ryhmämuotoinen kuoro- laulukuntoutus, jossa on MIT:n elementtejä, vaikuttaa positiivisesti afaattisten henkilöiden mielialaan, sekä heidän itse arvioimana että läheisten arvioimana. Interventiosta voi jatkotutkimuksen avulla ke-hittää afasian ryhmämuotoisen laulukuntoutusmuodon.
  • Peltomaa, Heidi (2022)
    Aim. This thesis investigates other-initiation of repair (OIR) made by people with aphasia (PWA). OIR means the practices used in conversation for requesting a clarification on something in the other speaker ́s turn. Aphasic conversation and repair has been studied a lot. However, there is hardly any studies about the OIR of PWA. Method. The data has been collected and the transcriptions made in a research project Managing the problems of speaking and understanding in conversations of speakers with aphasia. The data of this thesis consists of nine conversations between a PWA and one or two familiar partner(s). The OIR sequences initiated by PWA were collected, and then grouped and analyzed. Results & Conclusions. PWA did produce OIRs but for some reason there was great variation between the participants. The repair sequences were short and the problems were solved effectively. Repeat-formatted OIRs were the most frequent type of OIR and targeting question words the most rare. The problems that the OIRs were targeting were often problems of understanding or hearing of speech. There were a lot of similarities between OIRs produced by PWAs and OIRs of typical Finnish conversation. The results help to establish a better picture of the OIR by PWA and are in line with the prevoius hypothesis about the phenomenon.
  • Jussila, Anu (2020)
    Background. Aphasia is a linguistic disorder that occurs after language acquisition and is most commonly caused by stroke. Research on novel word acquisition can contribute to the development of aphasia rehabilitation because it helps understand the relearning of words lost due to aphasia. Novel word acquisition has been researched mainly in chronic aphasia, in which learning is possible but shows large individual variation. There is initial evidence that novel word learning is also possible in non-chronic aphasia. Aims. The objective of this thesis is to study recovery and novel word learning in the subacute and chronic stages of aphasia. The thesis will also look into possible connections between learning in subacute aphasia and learning in chronic aphasia. These connections have not been previously explored. Methods. The multiple case study included four aphasic participants who were examined 0–3 months after stroke and again 12 months after stroke. The examination consisted of cognitive-linguistic background tests, questionnaires and a computer-based novel word learning task. In the latter, the participant was tasked with learning the associations between given pseudo-words and images through feedback and repetition. Research data was analyzed case by case. Results and conclusions. Recovery and novel word learning in subacute and chronic aphasia varied among the participants. In both stages, some participants learned new vocabulary and were able to transfer it into their long-term memory. The changes in novel word learning from subacute to chronic aphasia also varied among the subjects. These changes were not systematically connected with the severity of the participants’ aphasia, their baseline learning ability or an alleviation of cognitive-linguistic symptoms. Learning ability in subacute aphasia does therefore not always appear to predict learning ability in chronic aphasia, but novel word learning is possible in both subacute and chronic aphasia. Aphasia recovery shows considerable individual variation.
  • Koivisto, Maria (2020)
    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a widely used research tool for detecting antigens and can be used in medical and biochemical research. The co-localization of two separate proteins is sometimes crucial for analysis, requiring a double staining. This comes with a number of challenges since staining results depend on the pre-treatment of samples, host-species where the antibody was raised and spectral differentiation of the two proteins. In this study, the proteins GABAR-α2 and CAMKII were stained simultaneously to study the expression of the GABA receptor in hippocampal pyramidal cells. This was performed in PGC-1α transgenic mice, possibly expressing GABAR-α2 excessively compared to wildtype mice. Staining optimization was performed regarding primary and secondary antibody concentration, section thickness, antigen retrieval and detergent. Double staining was performed successfully and proteins of interest were visualized using a confocal microscope after which image analyses were performed using two different methods: 1) a traditional image analysis based on intensity and density of stained dots and 2) a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) machine learning approach. The traditional image analysis did not detect any differences in the stained brain slices, whereas the CNN model showed an accuracy of 72% in categorizing the images correctly as transgenic/wildtype brain slices. The results from the CNN model imply that GABAR-α2 is expressed differently in PGC-1α transgenic mice, which might impact other factors such as behaviour and learning. This protocol and the novel method of using CNN as an image analysis tool can be of future help when performing IHC analysis on brain neuronal studies.
  • Jaurimaa, Janessa (2020)
    Objectives. Anxiety causes significant suffering in different life domains, and its prevalence rates are high already in childhood and adolescence. Often symptoms develop into a disorder which is why identifying factors associated with anxiety is important. Anxiety disorders run in families but only few studies have examined the association between maternal and child anxiety on a symptom level. It’s possible that this association is mediated by parenting competence but, as far as is known, this has never been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of maternal anxiety with child anxiety and fears both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. It was also examined whether this association is mediated by parenting competence. Methods. The sample of this study was part of the Finnish Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) cohort. The sample consisted of 992 mothers who evaluated their own anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory) first when children were 2–5 years old and again when they were 7–11 years old. In the latter follow-up mothers also evaluated their parenting competence (Parenting Sense of Competence) as well as children’s anxiety (Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale for Parents) and fears (The Short Form of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children – Revised). The association of maternal anxiety with child anxiety and fears was examined with linear regression analysis. The mediating effect of parenting competence was examined with mediation analysis. Results and conclusions. Child anxiety and fears were associated with both current and previous maternal anxiety. Children of more anxious mothers showed more anxiety and fear-related symptoms and the association with mother’s former symptoms was as strong as with mother’s current symptoms. The associations of maternal anxiety with children’s later anxiety and fears were partially mediated by parenting competence. These results support previous findings that even low maternal anxiety is associated with child development and elaborates them by showing that it is associated specifically with child anxiety and fear-related symptoms. The current findings also extend existing knowledge about this association by showing that it is partially mediated by parenting competence. These findings can be utilized in prevention and treatment of childhood anxiety.
  • Niinivaara, Noora (2021)
    Äidin perinataalimasennuksen eli raskaudenaikaisen ja synnytyksen jälkeisen masennuksen on todettu olevan yhteydessä moniin lapsen kasvun ja kehityksen ongelmiin. Aiemmissa tutkimuksissa on löydetty äidin perinataalimasennusoireilun yhteys lapsen ADHD-oireisiin ja heikompaan toiminnanohjaukseen. Aihetta on kuitenkin tutkittu toistaiseksi melko vähän, ja ADHD-oireita käsitelleiden tutkimusten kohteina ovat olleet pääasiassa alle kouluikäiset lapset. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, onko äidin perinataalimasennusoireilu yhteydessä kouluikäisen lapsen ADHD-oireisiin ja toiminnanohjaukseen. Tutkimuksessa selvitetään lisäksi, vaikuttaako sukupuoli äidin perinataalimasennusoireilun ja kouluikäisen lapsen ADHD-oireiden väliseen yhteyteen sekä äidin perinataalimasennusoireilun ja lapsen toiminnanohjauksen väliseen yhteyteen. Tutkimukseen osallistui 2 002 äiti-lapsiparia, jotka kuuluivat suomalaiseen The Prediction and Prevention of Pre‐eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) -kohorttitutkimukseen. Äidit vastasivat masennusoirekyselyyn 14 kertaa raskausaikana alkaen raskausviikolla 120/7–136/7 ja päättyen raskausviikolle 380/7–396/7 tai synnytykseen sekä kaksi viikkoa ja kuusi kuukautta synnytyksen jälkeen. Äidit arvioivat lastensa ADHD-oireita sekä ADHD Rating Scale että Conners’ 10-item Scale -kyselylomakkeilla ja toiminnanohjausta Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) -kyselylomakkeella. Äidin perinataalimasennusoireilun yhteyttä lapsen ADHD-oireisiin ja toiminnanohjaukseen tutkittiin lineaarisella regressioanalyysillä, jossa huomioitiin useita äitiin ja lapseen liittyviä taustamuuttujia. Sukupuolen vaikutusta äidin perinataalimasennusoireilun ja lapsen ADHD-oireiden sekä äidin perinataalimasennusoireilun ja lapsen toiminnanohjauksen välisiin yhteyksiin tutkittiin moderaatioanalyysillä. Lineaarisella regressioanalyysillä tutkittiin, onko sukupuolen ja äidin perinataalimasennuksen välillä yhdysvaikutusta ennustettaessa lapsen ADHD-oireita ja toiminnanohjausta. Tutkimuksen tuloksista ilmeni, että äidin masennusoireilu sekä raskausaikana että synnytyksen jälkeen oli yhteydessä lapsen voimakkaampiin ADHD-oireisiin ja heikompaan toiminnanohjaukseen. Tulosten perusteella lapsen sukupuoli moderoi äidin ensimmäisen raskauskolmanneksen masennusoireilun ja kouluikäisen lapsen yliaktiivisuus-impulsiivisuusoireiden välistä yhteyttä. Sukupuoli ei kuitenkaan moderoinut muita äidin perinataalimasennusoireilun ja lapsen ADHD-oireiden välillä löytyneitä yhteyksiä eikä vaikuttanut äidin perinataalimasennusoireilun ja lapsen toiminnanohjauksen väliseen yhteyteen. Tutkimus lisäsi tietoa siitä, kuinka äidin masennusoireilu jokaisena raskauskolmanneksena ja synnytyksen jälkeen on yhteydessä kouluikäisen lapsen voimakkaampiin ADHD-oireisiin ja heikompaan toiminnanohjaukseen. Tässä tutkimuksessa sukupuoli moderoi äidin ensimmäisen raskauskolmanneksen masennusoireilun ja kouluikäisen lapsen yliaktiivisuus-impulsiivisuusoireiden välistä yhteyttä, mutta kyseessä saattaa olla satunnainen löydös. Sukupuolen mahdollisesta vaikutuksesta äidin perinataalimasennusoireilun ja lapsen ADHD-oireiden väliseen yhteyteen tarvitaan lisää tutkimuksia.
  • Linnankoski, Johanna (2021)
    The aim of the study. Maternal depression during pregnancy occurs in up to one in four women. It is a serious condition that can have long-term negative effects on the development of the foetus and the child through a harmful intrauterine environment. Maternal depression during pregnancy is for instance associated with internalizing mental health symptoms and temperament in children. However, there is little research evidence on the association of maternal depression during pregnancy with anxiety symptoms in school-aged children. Childhood anxiety symptoms can have serious and long-term consequences for an individual in terms of psychosocial, academic and professional functioning. This study examines whether maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy increases the risk of anxiety symptoms in school-age children. I also investigate whether infant negative emotionality mediates the association between maternal depression symptoms during pregnancy and anxiety symptoms in school-age children. Methods. The sample of this study, which consists of 1625 mother-child pairs, was part of a larger PREDO (The Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction) follow-up study. Data from 3-12 months infancy follow-up and follow-up at the age of 7 to 11 years were used in this study. Mothers rated depressive symptoms during pregnancy using a self-assessment questionnaire (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Mothers assessed their children's negative emotionality (Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire) in the infant follow-up and their children's anxiety symptoms (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, parent report version & The Short Form of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised) in the school-age follow-up. The associations between maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and anxiety symptoms in school-age children were examined with linear regression analysis. Negative emotionality in infancy as a mediator of this relationship was examined with mediation analysis. Results and conclusions. According to this study, maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy increased the risk of anxiety symptoms in school-age children. The observed associations between maternal depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in children were independent of all the covariates selected for this study, such as maternal depression symptoms during follow-up at the age of 7 to 11. Preliminary research findings were also obtained on negative emotionality in infancy as partly mediating the association between maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and anxiety symptoms in school-age children. This study helps to increase understanding of the early risk factors of anxiety symptoms in children and the importance of preventive measures during pregnancy. High negative emotionality in early childhood is also a justified target for interventions.
  • Sachan, Sinivuokko (2021)
    At low concentrations, biogenic amines (BA) promote natural physiological activity, but at higher concentrations they can cause a wide variety of health hazards, especially for more sensitive individuals. The BA determination in wine is challenging due to the variation in physicochemical properties and the potential matrix effects of other compounds in the sample. It is important to develop efficient sample purification methods to minimize matrix interference. Derivatization is required for most biogenic amines due to the absence of chromophores. The conditions that promote the origin or formation of biogenic amines in wines are not yet fully understood, as many factors contribute to their formation. The main sources or stages of BA formation during wine-making should be identified in order to reduce BA levels by corrective measures. Currently, the analytical community is striving for more environmentally friendly methods. The literature review examines methods for determination of biogenic amines in wines from 2005 until 2020. The methods are high-performance liquid chromatography, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography, high-temperature liquid chromatography, nano-liquid chromatography, micellar liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, micromachined capillary electrophoresis, gas chromatography, immunoassay, sensor, colorimetric method, thin-layer chromatography and ion chromatography. The health disadvantages of biogenic amines and the problem areas associated with their determination from a complex wine matrix, such as matrix effect and derivatization, are also surveyed. In addition, changes in the BA profile during different stages of winemaking and storage, as well as the effect of the grape variety and lactic acid bacterial strain on the BA profile, are surveyed. Validation determines the suitability of a method for its intended use. In the methods for determining the literature review, measurement uncertainty - possibly the most important validation parameter - had not been determined in any of the validations. The aim of the research project was to obtain a functional and validated method for the determination of biogenic amines in wines for the Alcohol Control Laboratory at Alko Inc. In the method tested, histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, phenylethylamine and isoamylamine derivatized with diethyl ethoxymethylene malonate were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and diode array detector. The method was not sufficiently reliable, so a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of histamine in wines was introduced, which provided a useful method for the Alcohol Control Laboratory. The validation determined specificity/selectivity, recovery, repeatability, systematic error, estimation of random error, measurement uncertainty, expanded measurement uncertainty, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The European Food Safety Authority has confirmed histamine and tyramine as the most toxic amines. The International Organization of Vine and Wine has not set legal limits for BA levels, but some European countries have had recommended maximum levels for histamine. Many wine importers in the European Union require a BA analysis even in the absence of regulations. Based on the literature review, high BA levels were found in the wines under study, including levels of histamine, tyramine, and phenylethylamine that exceeded the toxicity limits. Some wines had biogenic amines below the detection limit, so the production of low-amine wines is possible. In addition, certain strains of lactic acid bacteria were found to significantly reduce the BA levels in wine. High-performance liquid chromatography is the most widely used determination method. An increasing trend is to develop simpler methods such as the portable sensor-based method.
  • Rasmus, Enni (2022)
    Backround Returning to work (RTW) is an essential part of stroke patients’ wellbeing. According to previous literature, severity of stroke is the most consistent predictor of RTW. However, the role of neuropsychological rehabilitation and cognitive deficits in the context of RTW is less clear. Closer examination of the predictors of RTW could enable the identification of stroke patients who are in a greater risk of unsuccessful RTW. Analyzing the connections between rehabilitation and RTW could help to provide better treatment. We studied whether RTW could be predicted by acute cognitive deficits, duration and different elements of neuropsychological rehabilitation. Methods Participants were 79 stroke patients (33% women) who had received outpatient neuropsychological rehabilitation. Prior to stroke, all patients had been either full or part time working or studying. Patients were neuropsychologically assessed in the acute phase. Logistic regression was used to assess variables associated with RTW. Results Of the patients, 49% had returned to work. Deficits in attention and processing speed predicted poorer likelihood to RTW. Fewer outpatient visits and more straightforward content of the rehabilitation were associated with RTW, possibly due to lesser stroke severity. Finally, most of the aspects of neuropsychological rehabilitation were associated with RTW. Conclusions According to this study, RTW of stroke patients can partly be predicted by acute cognitive performance. Results regarding attention and processing speed are in congruence with previous research. Additional research is needed to clarify the relations of cognitive performance and neurorehabilitation to RTW.
  • Salmi, Senja Emilia (2021)
    Tämä pro gradu -tutkielma tarkastelee mitä tyhmyys on Saarnaajan kirjassa. Tutkielman metodeina hyödynnetään semantiikkaa, hermeneutiikkaa sekä metaforien teoriaa. Tutkielmassa analysoidaan yksitellen kaikki jakeet, joissa hepreankielinen alkuteksti mainitsee sanan tyhmyys tai tyhmä. Tyhmyys jaotellaan seitsemään eri kategoriaan, joista jokainen paljastaa jotakin siitä, miten tyhmyys käsitettiin Saarnaajan kirjassa. Ensimmäiseen kategoriaan, tyhmyys viisauden vastakohtana, kuuluu suurin osa tarkasteltavista kohdista. Toinen kategoria käsittelee tyhmyyttä mielettömyytenä. Moraalittomuuden ja tyhmyyden kategoria paljastaa Saarnaajan kirjan yhdistävän tyhmyyden vääränlaiseen kultilliseen toimintaan tavalla, jollaista ei esiinny muissa Vanhan testamentin teksteissä. Sen sijaan tyhmyyden liittäminen puheliaisuuteen ja kuuntelemattomuuteen on hyvin tyypillistä muinaisen Lähi-idän viisauskirjallisuudessa, ja myös Saarnaajan kirjassa nämä piirteet yhdistetään tyhmyyteen. Laiskuus on ominaisuus, jonka Saarnaaja yhdistää tyhmyyteen. Myös liiallinen iloitseminen on tyhmän ihmisen piirre. Viimeisessä kategoriassa käsitellään tyhmyyden suhdetta pimeyteen, vasempaan ja pahuuteen. Pääosin Saarnaajan kirjan näkemys tyhmyydestä vastaa sitä, miten se ymmärretään myös muissa Vanhan testamentin viisausteksteissä. Erojakin löytyy niin tyhmyydestä käytettävien sanojen osalta kuin sen osalta mitä tyhmyydellä tarkoitetaan. Saarnaaja käyttää tyhmyydestä vain muutamaa sanaa, mutta on laajentanut niiden semanttisia kenttiä merkityksiin, joita kyseiset sanat eivät muissa teksteissä saa.
  • Foudila, Karoliina (2021)
    There has been a vivid public debate in Finland about the women and children who have been staying at al-Hol camp in Syria after the collapse of the ISIS caliphate. This thesis investigates the public debate in the media about these Finnish women and children. Using the method of qualitative content analysis, I examine 117 articles from Helsingin Sanomat from the period from May 1st to December 31st, 2019. My aim is to analyze the key issues that are raised in the debate; how the women and children are depicted; and the linkages between this debate and the changes taking place in the larger Finnish context. These changes involve on the one hand the society becoming more multi-religious, and on the other hand the rise of right-wing populism, anti-immigration, and Islamophobia. The theoretical basis of my analysis is the concept of othering in social sciences, namely the act of creating and using oppositional categories of ‘us’ versus ’them’, which are, for example, based on religion or race. The results show that the women are depicted as ’the dangerous Muslim other’ who could pose a security threat if they are brought back to Finland. These depictions are also shaped by the larger Finnish context, where there are contestations especially around religious diversity that is increasingly becoming a characteristic of society, about Finnishness as a modern identity, and about the challenges of Muslim communities today. My analysis also shows that while children’s rights and wellbeing remain an important goal of Finnish policies and legal obligations, the rights of the Finnish children in the camp have been contested in this debate. This is partly because of legal complexities regarding their repatriation to Finland, and partly because of a security-oriented perspective that sees some of the children as suspects and their relationship with their mothers as a problem. Overall, the analysis shows that the debate about these women and children at al-Hol is not just about whether the people should be repatriated, but about the current changes in Finnish society and the anxieties related to these changes.