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Browsing by Subject "lääkehaittatapahtuma"

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  • Salminen, Sanna (2011)
    The background of this study is increase in the ageing population and in medication use. Aged-related changes in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics may change medication response in elderly patients and lead to adverse reactions. For elderly people the risk of being hospitalized due to adverse drug reactions is four times higher than for younger people. Many of these problems could be prevented by avoiding the use of certain drugs in the elderly. Several criteria have been developed to assess medication appropriateness in the elderly. The aim of this study was to develop a new Finnish Medication Risk Assessment (MRA) tool to be used by trained nurses to assess the presence of risks related to use of medicines in outpatients aged 65 years and older. A preliminary tool was developed through a comprehensive literature review of tools to indicate appropriateness and risks of elderly medications, and through expert opinions. The tool was then validated by using three-round Delphi-method. Delphi-method is a qualitative consensus method which is based on group judgement of a subject matter. The first and the second Delphi-rounds measured the tool's suitability and the third Delphi-round measured the importance of the items of the tool in estimating risks related to the use of medications of elderly patients. In this study, 33 expert geriatric panelists were approached of whom 11 physicians, three pharmacists MSc (Pharm.) and four nurses agreed to participate. The results from the Delphi-rounds were evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. Through the three-round Delphi-method was developed a MRA -tool that contains 19 items. According to the panelists the items of the tool are either important or moderately important. This indicates that the tool is valid to estimating medication risks in use of medications in this population. Further studies are needed to test the tool among nurses and patients. The MRA -tool was primary developed for estimating risks in medication use, but it could also be used for educational purposes. In the future, it is possible to implement safer and more appropriate pharmaceutical treatment for elderly patients by using this Medication Risk Assessment -tool.
  • Tikkanen, Johanna (2020)
    Between 5% and 57% of patients experience an adverse drug event during their hospitalization. Reducing medication errors can help prevent adverse drug events. A particular risk for medication errors arises when a patient moves between home and care centers if accurate medication information is not transferred with the patient. Medication reconciliation is a process to ensure accurate and comprehensive medication information across transitions of care. The aim of the study was to find out how many and what kind of discrepancies can be detected by performing medication reconciliation in a primary care unit. In addition, pharmacists and nurses experiences of the medication reconciliation process and the medication reconciliation form were examined. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in the study. Quantitative study data consisted of all Medication reconciliation forms (PASQ) completed in January-June 2014. Data were analyzed using quantitative descriptive methods. The qualitative research material consisted of six individual interviews conducted in June 2014. The material was subjected to inductive thematic content analysis. Patients (n = 117) had a mean age of 81 years and almost all (n = 105) had at least six regularly used medications after medications were reconciled. Almost every patient (n = 115, 98.3%) had at least one discrepancy in their medication compared to the patient information system. On average, patients had seven discrepancies in their medication lists. The most discrepancies were associated with psycholeptics (9.5% of all discrepncies). The most common types of discrepancies were new drug (45.4% of all discrepancies) and discontinued drug (19.6%). Nurses and pharmacists saw the medication reconciliation process as an important part of successful patient care. Challenges associated with reconciling medications were caused by lack of time, the fragmentation of information systems and the health status of patients (information given by patients could not be trusted). Only one-third of the patients were interviewed, although international publications on medication reconciliation strongly emphasize patient involvement. The results of this study are in line with previous research and confirm the view that medication reconciliation should always be done across all transitions in care. The role of the patient as part of the medication reconciliation process should be further emphasized in the future, as only interviewing the patient can provide a true picture of the patient's medication.