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Browsing by Subject "minitabletti"

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  • Naukkarinen, Noora (2013)
    The pet medication industry is growing but there are still challenges especially in feline medication. Palatable flavours, efficient taste masking technologies and easily administrable dosage forms are needed to facilitate feline medication. Based on the literature review, there is only little information about cat's preference to individual flavours. The methods for palatability testing should be improved to achieve reliable results. Most common taste masking technologies are flavouring and tablet coating. In experimental section different flavours for taste masking were studied. Five main flavours were selected: phenylalanine, leucine and methionine as possibly good flavours and arginine and denatonium benzoate as bad flavours. In preformulation experiments tableting characteristics, thermal behaviour and crystal structure of flavours were analysed. The aim was also to study their possible incompatibilities with tablet excipients. The main compatilibility study method was X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), but differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also used. Excipient povidone (PVP) was incompatible with nearly all of the main flavours. The use of lactose as an excipient was excluded because of the risk of the Maillard reaction. In tableting studies a tablet mass containing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, mannitol, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), crospovidone, talc and sodium stearyl fumarate was produced. Minitablets of diameter 3 mm without any flavours were compressed. Also minitablets with flavours phenylalanine and denatonium benzoate were compressed. Minitablets complied with the European Pharmacopoeia tests for uniformity of mass, disintegration and friability. However, characterization and handling of minitablets was found to be challenging due to very small size of the tablets. Minitablets are a promising technology for facilitating feline medication in the future.
  • Ylä-Outinen, Saija (2011)
    Ksylitolilla on edulliset käyttöominaisuudet. Edullisista käyttöominaisuuksista huolimatta ksylitolin käyttö lääkevalmisteiden apuaineena on vähäistä. Viime vuosina lääketeollisuudessa on kuitenkin lisääntynyt kiinnostus ksylitoliin ja muihin sokerialkoholeihin. Kirjallisuudesta löytyy vain vähän tietoa ksylitolin puristuvuudesta ja sen soveltuvuudesta tablettien täyteaineeksi. Tässä työssä karakterisoitiin erilaisten ksylitolilaatujen ominaisuuksia ja niiden soveltuvuutta suorapuristuksella valmistettavien tablettien täyteaineeksi. Materiaaleina käytettiin kolmea rakeistettua ksylitolia ja kahta jauhemaista ksylitolia. Ksylitolilaaduista tutkittiin ominaisuudet, joilla on vaikutusta materiaalin puristumiseen. Tutkittavat ominaisuudet olivat kaato- ja tärytiheys, todellinen tiheys, partikkelikoko ja partikkelikokojakauma ja valuvuus. Kirjallisuuden perusteella ksylitoli on lievästi hygroskooppinen, joten tässä työssä tutkittiin myös ksylitolin hygroskooppisuus eri olosuhteissa. Työssä tutkittiin ksylitolin puristuvuutta yksin ja yhdessä huonosti puristuvan lääkeaineen, parasetamolin, kanssa. Eri ksylitolilaatujen puristumista tutkittiin eri-kokoisilla painimilla. Ksylitoli on hyvin soveltuva apuaine myös lapsille tarkoitettuihin lääkevalmisteisiin ja siten tutkittiin myös oliko ksylitolista mahdollista puristaa minitabletteja. Minitablettien käyttö tulevaisuudessa lasten annostelumuotona tulee todennäköisesti lisääntymään. Rakeistetut ksylitolilaadut puristuivat tämän tutkimuksen perusteella suhteellisen hyvin. Jauhemaiset ksylitolit puristuivat huonosti. Syynä näiden huonoon puristuvuuteen oli liian suuri partikkelikoko ja partikkelikokojakauma, joka esti partikkelien välisten sidosten muodostumista. Parasetamoli heikensi huomattavasti kaikkien ksylitolilaatujen puristuvuutta. Ksylitoli ei siis yksinään pysty kumoamaan parasetamolin huonoa puristuvuutta, vaan formulaatioon tarvittaisiin ksylitolin lisäksi jokin yleisesti tablettien suorapuristuksessa käytettävä täyteaine. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella ksylitoli on hygroskooppinen, mutta vasta suhteellisen kosteuden ollessa hyvin korkea (95 %). Siten ksylitolin hygroskooppisuus ei ole haitaksi ajatellen ksylitolia sisältävien valmisteiden valmistusta tai säilytystä.
  • Lehtola, Minna (2018)
    Tramadol products for cats are not commercially available. Problems may occur when dividing a tablet registered for humans due to uneven distribution of active ingredient within a tablet and bitter taste of tramadol. Minitablets have multiple benefits, including small size, better uniformity of content, coatability and fast administration, in comparison to a divided conventional tablet. The purpose of this study was to develop minitablets which are possible to coat with a taste masking coating. Physical and chemical properties of tramadol hydrochloride, such as water solubility, temperature behavior and hygroscopicity were studied. Additionally, compatibility of tramadol hydrochloride with excipients was studied by a 3-month stability exam. The pre-tests of granulation were carried out by using lactose or ascorbic acid as an active ingredient to model tramadol hydrochloride. The granulation was performed with high shear granulator and tableting with a rotary tablet press. The only variable factor between the granulation batches was the amount of granulation fluid. The impact of the amount of granulation fluid to the tableting properties was examined by determining particle size distribution, Carr index and Hausner ratio. Uniformity of mass, uniformity of content, hardness, disintegration time and dissolution were examined. The study revealed that tramadol hydrochloride did not have incompatibilities with the examined excipients. Tramadol hydrochloride was not hygroscopic even though it was found out to be freely soluble in water. Tablets with adequate hardness were successfully compressed of both granulated masses and the direct compression mass. However, the direct compression mass had more undesirable properties regarding the processes. Most batches fulfilled the requirements set for uniformity of mass and uniformity of content. Although the purpose of this study was to develop a tablet for veterinary medicine, the results in this study may be utilized in developing a formulation for pediatric medicine.