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Browsing by Subject "pistemutaatio"

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  • Tikkanen, Alli (2019)
    Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1) is an influx transporter expressed widely throughout the body in tissues such as intestine, liver, brain, placenta and skeletal muscle. Since many clinically used drugs are transported by OATP2B1, changes in the function of the transporter due to genetic polymorphism could lead to altered pharmacokinetics or -dynamics of OATP2B1 substrate drugs. The aim of this Master’s thesis was to create and optimize a cellular uptake assay to study the function of OATP2B1. Furthermore, the aim was to study the effects of six naturally occurring nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants on OATP2B1 transport function in vitro. With site-directed mutagenesis, single nucleotide changes were introduced into the gene coding for OATP2B1. OATP2B1 variants were expressed in human derived HEK293 cell line using baculovirus expression system. A cellular uptake assay with estrone-3-sulfate and a fluorescent probe 4’, 5’-dibromofluorescein (DBF) as substrates was set up and optimized. With the assay, OATP2B1-mediated uptake of variants was compared to the transport activity of OATP2B1 wild type. Amino acid changes Ser486Phe and Cys520Ser impaired OATP2B1 transport function severely. In addition, variant Thr318Ile transported DBF and estrone-3-sulfate less efficiently compared to OATP2B1 wild type, but Arg312Gln, Thr392Ile and Ser532Arg transport function was not affected. A method to study OATP2B1 function was created successfully. According to the results, single amino acid changes in OATP2B1 can impair OATP2B1 function. The results and method can be utilized to understand findings from pharmacogenetic studies in vivo, and to predict consequences of especially rare variants, which can be difficult to detect in small sample populations in clinical studies. However, further studies on the expression level and cellular localization of OATP2B1 variants are needed to fully characterize the impact of the variants studied.
  • Jaakkonen, Liina (2022)
    OATP1B1 is an influx transporter that is predominantly expressed in the liver, and it mediates the uptake of many clinically important endogenous compounds and drugs from portal vein blood into hepatocytes. OATP1B1-mediated uptake affects the rate of hepatic elimination of substrate drugs, directly affecting their plasma concentrations. Some naturally occurring single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the SLCO1B1 gene encoding OATP1B1 can alter the transport function of the transporter resulting in alterations in pharmacokinetics, efficiency and toxicity of substrate drugs. The aim of this master´s thesis was to examine the effect of four naturally occurring SNVs of the SLCO1B1 gene on transport activity, expression, and localization of the OATP1B1 transporter in vitro. SNVs 170G>A (R57Q), 388A>G (N130D), 452A>G (N151S) and 758G>A (R253Q) were created using site-directed mutagenesis in the SLCO1B1 gene presenting in the pENTR221 plasmid. Recombinante baculoviruses were produced in Sf9 cells using the Bac-to-Bac® Baculovirus Expression System and used to transduce HEK293 cells for the overexpression of OATP1B1 wild type and variant proteins. An uptake assay was used to study the transport activity of the OATP1B1 variants in HEK293 cells. Western blotting was used to study the expression of OATP1B1 proteins in membrane vesicles. Immunofluorescence staining was used to determine the localization of OATP1B1 wild type and variants in HEK293 cells. Transport activity of the OATP1B1 variants R57Q and R253Q was significantly decreased compared to wild type. In contrast, transport activity of the N130D ja N151S variants was not significantly altered. The reasons for the changes in transport activity could not be reliably estimated due to the failure to measure the expression levels of OATP1B1 proteins by Western blotting. However, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the localization and expression of the all the studied OATP1B1 in baculovirus transduced HEK293 cells were comparable to the wild type. The results of this master´s thesis indicate that SNVs 170G>A and 758G>A can impair the transport activity and substrate uptake functions of OATP1B1 in vitro. Additional in vitro studies of transport activity, expression and localization of the variants R57Q and R253Q will be required to confirm these results. In the future, the R57Q and R253Q variants should be also studied for their possible clinical significance in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of substrate drugs, as SNVs 170G>A and 758G>A may increase the exposure and the risk for adverse effects of OATP1B1 substrate drugs.