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Browsing by Subject "yhdenvertaisuus"

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  • Kokkoniemi, Liisa (2018)
    The reform of vocational upper secondary education is mentioned to be one of the biggest development project in the field of education in Finland. It targeted to transform and update vocational upper secondary education comprehensively for instance by renewing funding system and reducing the amount of vocational qualifations. My main focus was in the questions of equality in this project and I used Capability approach as a tool for that. Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum have introduced the approach and they argue that societies that are seeking equality should offer the basic capabilities for all citizens. Inequality and deprivation are seen as an outcome of lacking enough capabilities. In Finland the approach is a new way of viewing the aspects of equality in education. One of the goals in this thesis was to figure out what are the capabilities that vocational education has to offer. The field of vocational education is wide. I focused on the viewpoint of young people who are studying vocational upper secondary qualifications. The aim of this master’s thesis is to examine how the changes that influence on younger students are constructed in the speech of reforms development phase and how the capabilities are constructed in the speech, especially the capabilities that vocational education offers to young students. The Ministry of education and culture have launched a YouTube-channel that shares video material on the current projects in education. I used the material on the reform of vocational education as the data of this research. The material includes videos that introduce the guidelines of reform and shared conversation of them. Material also shows recordings from the workshops that were held during the development process. Experts on vocational education were participated in the development phase and the data is based on their speech in recorded workshops. I analysed the data using discourse analysis. As a result I constructed five hegemonic discourses that were improved competence, educational market, individuality, offered abilities and offered possibilities. In these discourses were constructed a future where young students will be able to achieve enough capabilities and better competence, although there were many aspects of equality that weren’t discussed at all. Conclusions of this theses is that equality in vocational education still needs attention.
  • Markkanen, Minna (2011)
    The aim of this study was to examine accessibility in folk high schools from the perspective of students with disabilities or learning difficulties. Accessibility in education means that psychological, sociological and physical environment enables equal study opportunities. Therefore the focus in this survey was on equal study opportunity deficiencies. Folk high schools are an essential subject for accessibility research as they follow the equal educational policy of liberal adult education. This study is a part of Liberal adult education -research project (2010-2012), which is the first accessibility research in Finnish liberal adult education. The equality-based claim of accessibility together with the need to separate the experiences of students with disabilities and learning difficulties from common experiences led naturally to comparative research frame. Firstly, experiences of the experimental group (students with disabilities or learning difficulties, N=278) were compared to experiences of the comparison group (students representing the educational majority, N=498). Secondly, experiences within the experimental group were examined according to gender, need of support and educational background. This study was mostly quantitative survey study. Data was collected from folk high school students with an inquiry created for this study. Data-analysis was mainly made by using analysis of variance (GLM) and test of Kruskal-Wallis. Qualitative data was analysed as an additional element by quantification. Equal study opportunity deficiencies were found in teaching and studying, other people's awareness and attitudes, own attitudes, information and peer group, where the experimental group found significantly more accessibility deficiencies than the comparison group. The most considerable difference was found in teaching and studying, wherein also the quality of deficiencies was explained differently between the groups. Within the experimental group women experienced more accessibility deficiencies than men. Also regular and great need of support and low educational background were connected with the experience of greater accessibility deficiencies. As a conclusion it seems that the equality-based accessibility in folk high schools could be improved especially by differentiating teaching and learning. This study also proved general need for more exact definition of the intention of accessibility: is the priority to develop common quality or equality of education, and is the aim to remove the barriers or advance support to overcome them.
  • Koskenkorva, Kaisa-Leena (2023)
    The purpose of this study is to find out how Karelian language and culture are described in Finnish primary school textbooks. Karelian is one of the minority languages of Finland, used by approximately 30 000 people in Finland at different levels. More speakers of Karelian are found in Russia. Karelian language is different from the various dialects of Karelia. The research approach of the study is based on the methods of the European language diversity for all (ELDIA) research project, which has been used to study the status of Finno-Ugric minority languages in particular and the possibilities for language learning and revitalisation. Karelian language is highly endangered, although there has been some increase in revitalisation efforts in recent years. ELDIA's findings suggest that the availability of language products (e.g. textbooks), improves both the access of language speakers to their language and the status of the language in general. It was therefore decided to investigate how Karelian language and culture are presented in Finnish textbooks for basic education. Previous studies have shown that textbooks have a major impact on pupils' perceptions and attitudes. The research method used was discourse analysis with thematic analysis, which divided the references to Karelian language and culture found in textbooks into three different groups. The study included all primary school textbooks from three Finnish publishers (Sanoma Pro, Otava, Edukustannus) in the following subjects: Finnish language and literature, history, religion and environmental studies. The total number of books studied was 146 and they were in line with the 2014 basic education curriculum. Included were pupils' books, exercise books and teachers' guides. A total of 25 references to Karelian language and culture were found in the textbooks examined. These findings were divided into three different discourses according to the topic in which Karelian was mentioned. These three discourses are history, Kalevala and minority languages. There were 10 mentions related to history, 7 related to Kalevala and 8 related to minority languages. Most of the mentions were in the same textbooks. The mentions of the history theme were either related to the geographical area of Karelia, treaty of Nöteborg or the Karelian tribes. In connection with Kalevala, Elias Lönnrot was mentioned as having made collecting trips to Viena Karelia. Karelian poem singers were also mentioned. Mentions of minority languages were mostly part of a longer list of minority languages. All the findings were no more than two sentences long. Karelian language is therefore not described in a comprehensive way in this study. Based on ELDIA and other previous research presented, textbooks could play their part in improving the status of minority languages by telling more about them, giving a voice to speakers of the languages, and telling about minority languages and cultures on an equal footing with majority languages.
  • Kangasniemi, Anni (2021)
    This study explores how equality of education is addressed in the education policy analysis of the OECD and the European Union, while also assessing what other special educational aspects the analysis highlights. The study examines these questions in the cases of Finland, Estonia and Denmark. In previous literature, the OECD and the EU have been perceived as proponents of neoliberal educational policies, which are built on the principles of economic efficiency and competitiveness. These policies have been considered as potentially conflicting with traditional Nordic educational policies that emphasize equality. This study is a qualitative master’s thesis. The research material consists of the OECD’s Education Policy Outlooks and the European Commission’s European Semester Country Reports. The research method of this study is content analysis. The study showed that the OECD and the EU seem to have four distinct angles to equality of education in their country reports. These were the equality of students with immigrant background, socio-economic status and its effect on equality, gender equality as well as structural policies that can enhance equality. In terms of special education, the organizations emphasized student performance and questions regarding nature of schools and school quality. These two categories are further divided to more specific sub-categories. For student performance, the sub-categories are student learning results and taking part in education, whereas for nature of schools and school quality, the sub-categories consist of participation of the education system as well as schools as learning environments.
  • Himanen, Satu (2021)
    Understanding the concept of participation and its connection to equity is emphasized as education becomes increasingly diverse. Participation has been raised as one of the counterforces in the fight against inequality and therefore requires a strong knowledge base on equity. However, research shows that participation is not achieved equally and that children have unequal opportunities to belong and take part in a group. In my thesis, I look at participation in relation to inequality. The aim of this study is to identify and find the meanings, descriptions and solutions given to participation from the perspective of equality and examine how the solutions are formed. The research material in this study was fifteen opinion pieces in Helsingin Sanomat from 2011–2021. Opinion pieces in newspapers serve as a forum for current topics in education. Opinion pieces produced in a particular context made to influence can be used to locate individual experiences and connect them to larger societal issues. The dimensions of inequality in the context of education were identified from the opinion pieces. In the research material, participation was described through three (3) discourses: participation as strengthening, limited participation, and participation as documents and obligations. Solutions were constructed through five (5) discourses: individuality, hearing, belonging, responsibility, and investment. In the research material, parents and experts stood out as authors. I analyze the material in a discourse analytical framework, distinguishing broader discourses describing and producing partici- pation. In addition to this, I also examined the solutions by means of rhetorical analysis, which enabled a more accurate linguistic examination of their construction. Based on my research, participation is identified as a strengthening force, a prerequisite for learning, and a gateway to equity. However, in practice, participation is not achieved equally. Resource inequality and existential inequality are identifiable forms of inequality in participatory descriptions in the opinion pieces. Experiences of non-belonging expose an unequal position in society. Discourses that build solutions are linked to societal values about economic interests, increased understanding, and the privilege of being heard. The requirement for teachers, tutors and adults working with children is to continuously develop themselves and to break down practices that maintain inequality. In addition to inclusive pedagogy, teachers need to know and identify discriminatory practices and structures as well as separations between children. It is essential that the dimensions of participation and the different opportunities for children to have experiences of participation are identified and made visible.
  • Kataja, Ulla (2015)
    Aims: Public health care in Finland has the main responsibility of rehabilitation, which means that public health care has to provide for persons with the severe disabilities the therapy or the rehabilitation needed. If a person fulfills the criteria of having severe disablity he is admitted Disability Allowance at its middle or highest rate. This is required for getting medical rehabilitation for persons with severe disabilities, which in Finland is financed by KELA. The speech therapy for the severely disabled organized by KELA is mainly carried out by private sector. There were approximately 500 private speech therapists under the contract of KELA during 2011-2014. Altogether 7439 persons were receiving speech therapy by KELA in 2014. The speech therapists under the contract of KELA are divided somewhat unevenly in Finland, therefore the availability of speech therapy is not equal in the whole land. Particularly areas with less inhabitants seem to suffer from inequality. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 3.5.2008 was aimed at guaranteeing equal human rights to disabled people and to promote and support their human value. Methods: This Master's thesis looks at the availability of speech therapy in Finland both quantitatively based on open statistics by KELA and qualitatively on the nature of positive and negative decisions in the Medical District of Kanta-Häme. Results and Conclusions: The availability of speech therapy for persons with severe disabilities is not by KELAs statistics fully equal in Finland. The uneven division of speech therapists has lead to the fact that there are for example, at the insurance district of Oulu considerably more speech therapists than at the insurance district of Satakunta.The speech therapists under contract of KELA are like many other highly educated people situated close by the universities and other schooling areas, By U.N agreement the persons with disabilities should have rehabilitation near where they live and timing it optimally.The severity of language impairment was the main reason in positive decisions in the Medical District of Kanta-Häme and the insufficiency of arguments in the negative ones, which seem to refer to the fact that there, with an adequate application, speech therapy is guaranteed for the persons with most severe disabilities. One of the aims of the future social welfare and health care reform is to improve the availability of speech therapy in Finland. It remains to be seen how successfully it will answer the growing need.
  • Leppäniemi, Anniina (2022)
    The purpose of this master's thesis is to examine the discourses of disability in the equality plans prepared in primary schools. The aim is to find out the meanings of disability in the material, as well as the positions and possibilities offered to a disabled student in discourses. Although disability is a fairly widely studied phenomenon, previous research on disability in the context of equality plans is not available. In this master's thesis, the construction of disability in inclusive educational documents was examined critically, recognizing that the educational equality of students with disabilities cannot be considered to have been achieved in the Finnish education system. The material used in the dissertation consisted of thirty equality plans drawn up in primary schools. The material was approached using the perspectives of discourse analysis. The concept of discourse refers to the relatively established use of language in a particular field or situation. With the help of discourse analysis, it is possible to study both the organization of the text and the consequences of language use. Disability was constructed in the research material in four different discourses, which were named the discourses of support and need, accessibility, difference, and health status. The discourses describe disability in a predictable and culturally established way. The positions offered to a student with a disability appeared to be limited and narrow. On the other hand, a student with a disability remained in the material as invisible, which appears to be problematic in the documents that are supposed to describe the inclusiveness in the education.
  • Kiukainen, Reetta (2018)
    Although the importance of equality work has been repeated in administrative and political programs, equality work has not been seen in the same legitimized profession as many other well-being in Finland. There has, however, been some degree of professionalization, meaning equality work in projects. My research focuses on Finland's this moment’s largest development, research and education project Tasova, and my point of view is in the collective equality and parity knowledge. In my research I see the conditions created by project-based equality work through which the knowledge required in equality work is determined. The theoretical framework can be divided into two parts. In the first part I considered knowledge in the light of previous literature, especially from a collective point of view. The question of the importance of collectivity is particularly necessary now when structures and institutions around the experts, especially in the public sector, have become brutal. The importance of collective expertise in equality work involves the fact that equality work is perceived as a precarious and challenging work among equality workers. In the second part, I described the conditions of equality work and made the concept of projection important for my research visible. Notable research data have been drawn from research interviews with six expert students from Tasova. Other data I’ve produced is by observing students during the training and exploring different Tasova materials and virtual platforms. All in all, the material was generated altogether in 131 pages. The analysis of my data was done by ethnographic discursive analysis. According to the results of this study, equality and parity knowledge is multi-dimensional and difficult to identify. It is knowledgeable and skillful management, tunnel, co-operation, discourse virtuosity and the ability to break away from the learned hierarchies. Its collective construction requires confidence, a secure space, time, place, involvement, commitment, structured and unstructured discussion, and the ability to break away from predetermined positions. According to the results of this study, Tasova appears as a discursively produced form of power, which builds a manuscript about what is the right way to make equality and what is the right way to know. In project-based equality training, the definitions of equality and parity knowledge have been manuscripted from above and they set the participants to be editable and evaluated in accordance with the needs and conditions of education.
  • Korhonen, Sanni (2022)
    This master ́s thesis examines feminist pedagogy and its discourses, possibilities and its necessity. Feminist pedagogy takes into account the questions of feminist theory about gender and other inter- secting differences and their effects. As well as the presence of power in education and the localization of knowledge and experiences. Many experiences of discrimination and exclusion have been identified in education, and it also maintains societal structures, positions and hierarchies and inequality-producing practices. Teachers are in the same way inside these structures, so that opportunities for change in power are offered through dissent. Feminist pedagogy provides tools to think differently and ask new kinds of questions. I interviewed six teachers at different levels of education who utilized feminist pedagogy in their teaching. In addition, they all had academic studies in the course offerings of women's or gender studies and/or feminist pedagogy. The interview material was analyzed by discourse analysis methods. The study is influenced by the guidelines and conceptualizations of feminist research. Feminist pedagogy is described as a tool and a support for thought, from which one theorist was borrowed something and from another something else, adapting it to their own teaching needs and situation. It offers new perspectives and ways to address topics that are discouraged by power discourse. It takes the form of a counter-discourse that questions, criticizes, and seeks to change power relations and internalized norms and practices in education. The possibilities of feminist pedagogy were related to the kind of issues that were raised, but also to the ways in which they were dealt with. Opportunities also include failures, where a pre-planned situation takes an unpredictable direction and leads to inappropriate interaction situations from the teacher’s perspective. The possibilities of feminist pedagogy also provide avenues for distributing power more evenly in the classroom. It is needed to shake up the grievances in education, to take into account gender and other differences and their effects, and to create practices that produce hierarchies. It ́s also needed to question everything that is presented as neutral and non-political, when in reality power is intertwined with such a talk, but also with what is considered significant or important information.
  • Kallio, Iida (2023)
    The topic of my thesis is the social construction of reality in Finnish children's literature. In my dissertation, I am looking for an answer to what kind of reality is constructed in Finnish children's literature. Literature is an important part of education. As society changes, it is necessary to examine what kind of reality is built in children's literature, because children's books are the part of children's reality. Children's books are a mirror where children reflect themselves and the world around them. The values, norms and attitudes that appear in literature are transmitted to the child and how the child builds a picture of reality through books. The Finnish education system has been criticized for the favoring of middle-class and white children. There is also too little diversity in Finnish education materials. The first step to appreciate and understand diversity is to become aware of the phenomena associated with it. For this reason, in my thesis I have examined the values, norms and attitudes of the most popular and newest children's books.  The theoretical framework of my dissertation is divided into two parts. I examine the research material from the perspective of social constructionism and intersectionality. In the theoretical framework, I focus on examining the language used in the material as a factor that constructs and shapes reality. From the point of view of an intersectional approach, I look at different social groups and their attention in children's books. My material consists of eight Finnish children's books, which have been selected as material according to two different principles. Four of the children's books have been selected from among the most quoted children's books of 2021. The other four books have been selected as part of the material based on their year of publication, as the thesis had an imperative to pay attention to the newest children's books as well. There are three research questions. In the first research question, I am looking for an answer to what kind of reality is constructed in the books from the point of values, norms and attitudes. In the second question, I study whether there are factors that promotes equality. In the third research question, I am searching for what kind of racism appears in the books. I divided the material into two main entities, through which reality was constructed. They are called discourses of values, norms and attitudes that differ from traditional ones and traditional values, norms and attitudes. These two entities contain a total of 15 discourses, which turned out to be relevant for the topic of my research.  The results of my thesis show that although there are more factors supporting equality in children's literature than before, the presence of diversity is low. Instead of diversity, the whiteness norm prevailed in the majority of the books. For this reason, based on the results, children belonging to the PoC (People of Color) group or other minorities do not have enough identification in my thesis literature. With the help of observed discourses, educators and teachers can in the future choose anti-racist children's books as books to read, which promote equality and prevent racism. As a whole, the thesis provides important information about the values, norms and attitudes prevailing in Finnish children's literature. Through them, educators and teachers can utilize better the power of social change hidden in children's books.