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Browsing by Subject "http://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p5868"

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  • Ritola, Ville (2016)
    Background. Knowing what a psychological test measures and if it works the same way in different contexts, i.e. has measurement invariance (MI), is crucial for its valid and reliable use. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) was published in Finland in 2012. However, recent research suggests that the factor model given in the WAIS-IV test manual and the information regarding MI between different age groups and levels of education are lacking. Methods. This study employed the normative sample of the Finnish WAIS-IV. First, the factor model in the manual was examined and improved using confirmatory factor analysis with a mixed data-theory approach. Second, the new model was tested for strict residual MI for different age groups and levels of education, in order to study if the test reaches an acceptable level of MI. Results and conclusions. The results indicated that the normative data is best modeled by an oblique non-g model. The study also replicated a Spatial Visualization factor with loadings from Block Design, Visual Puzzles and Picture Completion, and Quantitative Reasoning factor with Figure Weights and Arithmetic. A previously unmentioned link in factor analytic literature on WAIS-IV was found between Block Design and Processing Speed factors. The results questioned the link between Arithmetic and Verbal Comprehension factor and found the underlying source of shared variance to be links between Information and Arithmetic, which was interpreted as Educational Achievement. WAIS-IV reached strict residual MI for both different age groups and levels of education. The study offers a more accurate factor model of WAIS-IV and gives confidence that psychologists can reliably apply it over different ages and levels of education in the normal population of Finland.
  • Ritola, Ville (2016)
    Background. Knowing what a psychological test measures and if it works the same way in different contexts, i.e. has measurement invariance (MI), is crucial for its valid and reliable use. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) was published in Finland in 2012. However, recent research suggests that the factor model given in the WAIS-IV test manual and the information regarding MI between different age groups and levels of education are lacking. Methods. This study employed the normative sample of the Finnish WAIS-IV. First, the factor model in the manual was examined and improved using confirmatory factor analysis with a mixed data-theory approach. Second, the new model was tested for strict residual MI for different age groups and levels of education, in order to study if the test reaches an acceptable level of MI. Results and conclusions. The results indicated that the normative data is best modeled by an oblique non-g model. The study also replicated a Spatial Visualization factor with loadings from Block Design, Visual Puzzles and Picture Completion, and Quantitative Reasoning factor with Figure Weights and Arithmetic. A previously unmentioned link in factor analytic literature on WAIS-IV was found between Block Design and Processing Speed factors. The results questioned the link between Arithmetic and Verbal Comprehension factor and found the underlying source of shared variance to be links between Information and Arithmetic, which was interpreted as Educational Achievement. WAIS-IV reached strict residual MI for both different age groups and levels of education. The study offers a more accurate factor model of WAIS-IV and gives confidence that psychologists can reliably apply it over different ages and levels of education in the normal population of Finland.
  • Mäkinen, Juuso (2016)
    Mikael Soininen (1860–1924) and Matti Koskenniemi (1908–2001) were two of the most distinguished thinkers in Finnish educational thought in the 20th century. Soininen's books Yleinen kasvatusoppi (General Pedagogy) and Opetusoppi I and II (Didactics I and II) dominated Finnish teacher education from the turn of the 19th and 20th century until World War II. Then Koskenniemi's Kansakoulun opetusoppi (Elementary School Didactics) abolished Soininen's former works. This denoted a major change in Finnish educational thought. This Master's Thesis is a historical and philosophical analysis of the educational systems of Soininen ja Koskenniemi. I compare and assess Soininen's and Koskenniemi's views on the nature and history of pedagogy as well as their worldviews, anthropology and views on education in order to find out what this paradigmatic change in Finnish educational thought consisted of. Soininen's approach is philosophical whereas Koskenniemi's is more pragmatic. According to Soininen, the task of pedagogy is to combine psychology with ethics in order to generate moral human beings. Both Soininen and Koskenniemi see pedagogy as consisting of an old bad and a new good one while both seeing themselves as representing the latter. Soininen focuses on the moral upbringing of the individual whereas Koskenniemi stresses the inseparable connection of the individual and the community (school class, home, nation). Soininen wants to foster first moral and then patriotic human beings while Koskenniemi wants to foster first patriotic and then moral human beings. Despite their many differences, Soininen and Koskenniemi agree on many basic educational principles. Former research has not adequately stressed this point.