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Browsing by study line "Kansainvälinen oikeus"

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  • Wesanko, Jyri (2021)
    Abstract The two globally leading anti-corruption acts, the United States’ Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (‘FCPA’) and the United Kingdom’s Bribery Act, stand at the forefront of international fight against corruption. These acts prohibit foreign bribery of public officials with an extraterritorial jurisdiction. During the past years, enforcement activities of these laws have significantly grown. Only during 2020, the total penalties for violations of the FCPA imposed by the US authorities to companies was USD 6.4 billion. Out of these 12 companies only one was from the US: jurisdiction of this strict act is exceptionally broad. A company involved in international business and the individuals representing it may face severe penalties, if the company fails to prevent corruption in its business. The US and UK anti-corruption regulation include, however, a significant defence mechanism for the companies. If the company can demonstrate, after having violated either the US or UK anti-corruption laws, that despite its representative engaged in foreign bribery, it has an effective corporate compliance and ethics program, it may receive declination or at least substantial credit possibly worth of millions. The US and UK authorities have issued guidance on corporate compliance and ethics programs to support the prosecutors in their enforcement activities. This guidance also supports the companies in identifying what is required from a corporate compliance and ethics program to be considered effective. This guidance is of utmost importance for companies, as comprehensive case law is not available when majority of cases are settled. What is enough when it comes to corporate compliance and ethics programs? The requirements of the FCPA and UK Bribery Act on corporate compliance programs are studied in this thesis using a comparative research methodology, demonstrating that full compliance with these acts can be reached simultaneously. However, it is also concluded, that given the inadequate guidance by the supporting documentation, the companies cannot verify their compliance without their compliance and ethics programs being investigated by the authorities, ie US or UK prosecutors. A clear lack of guidance is identified.
  • Palo, Joonatan (2023)
    In the past few decades the intersection of business and human rights has drawn the attention of regulators at the United Nations, within national legal systems and of the European Union. A significant turning point in this development was the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) developed by John Ruggie, the former UN Secretary-General's Special Representative on human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises. The second pillar of these principles, the corporate responsibility to respect human rights, is built around the concept of human rights due diligence (HRDD). Since the adoption of the UNGPs, HRDD has come to define the discussion in the field of business and human rights, and it has been the basis for legislative initiatives in countries like France, Norway, and Germany, with the EU following suit. Indeed, corporations’ adverse human rights impacts in value chains is to a large extent going to be regulated through the process of HRDD. The widespread adoption of this concept calls for research into its theoretical foundations, content, and its effects. The research question is as follows: ‘Is the human rights due diligence process fit for purpose in preventing and mitigating corporate human rights abuses?’ The thesis delves into John Ruggie's theoretical assumptions on global governance and the theoretical and practical challenges related to HRDD. The findings are then mirrored against the adopted laws in Europe that set out mandatory HRDD obligations. The conclusion of the thesis is that there are significant ambiguities and structural weaknesses in the HRDD process, both as envisioned in the guiding principles and in the assessed European legislations. The process gives corporations powers traditionally vested to states and international organizations regarding the monitoring, enforcement and communication of human rights. The vague rules on the other hand leave corporations to operate in the confines of the so-called ‘business case’. Further, because HRDD regulates the process itself instead of mandating results, it allows for superficial or creative compliance. Common amongst the assessed Europeans legislations is that they do little to meaningfully engage affected stakeholders, which is crucial in designing an effective HRDD process. In the coming years the case law of courts and the practice of competent authorities will mend some of these weaknesses and clarify the ‘due’ in due diligence. However, HRDD obligations by themselves will not suffice. Indeed, the UNGPs call for a ‘smart mix of measures’ to tackle adverse human rights impacts resulting from corporate activity. Accordingly, a mix of regulatory initiatives has been attempted in the EU. One future solution could be addressing corporate human rights abuses through company law by changing the purpose of the corporation to one that encourages sustainable business.
  • Sofi, Sivan (2022)
    When it comes to resolving disputes, planning before the conflict has arisen has become more and more a substantiated phenomena around the world. It is interesting to analyse and explore whether this could be possible also in solving work related individual disputes in Finland by other means. The typical solving method is through litigation, in Finnish district courts. However, This often requires a greater amount of resources and time than what a normal employee might not have, at least they would be in a weaker position than the employer in court. Thus, other ways to resolve these types of disputes do exist, Nevertheless, among litigation there are alternative dispute resolution methods. One of the methods is part of the research question of this paper, so-called Arbitration. Arbitration is private, efficient and usually less costly than litigation. It is highly used in business related disputes between two businesses in Finland, but it is intriguing to gain knowledge if it is used or could be used in individual disputes concerning work related disputes. The main focus will be in Finland because arbitration is not relatively used as much as it is in other countries in individual disputes, especially in employment relationships. What makes everything complicated and Finland an interesting topic is the availability of a labour court that doesn’t resolve all labour disputes, the vital principles that protect weaker parties like the employers and many other laws which interfere with arbitration. It is not solemnly up to the parties to go with arbitration even though arbitration is described as a process that is voluntary and time efficient. The features of arbitration would probably be ideal for both employees and employers, but there are downsides which will be explained and demonstrated in a more detailed manner. Even though it would be ideal, especially for workers to receive the verdict or judgement sooner in cases like illegal determination of work contract, there are other perks lost when one chooses arbitration over litigation. One of these includes the legal-aid the state offers in Finland, which is not admitted to arbitration. This might or mostly does put the employee and employer in an unpleasant disadvantage even though arbitration considered the parties to be equal. Along with these other values are considered and weighted along the research. Thus, Our main focus is whether arbitration could be possible or even allowed to be used in Finland in individual work related disputes, if not, maybe there could be an opening soon for arbitration in the future.
  • Saavalainen, Santtu (2024)
    Rajavartiolain 16 §:n muutos kesällä 2022 salli kansainvälisen suojelun hakemisen keskittämisen. Esitettyyn pykälään tehtiin muutoksia eduskuntakäsittelyn aikana. Tutkielmassa etsitään vastausta siihen, mitä kansainvälisen suojelun hakemisen keskittämisellä voidaan tosiasiassa tarkoittaa, sillä pykälän mukaan toimenpiteet eivät saa loukata kenenkään oikeutta kansainvälisen suojelun saamiseen. Valtioneuvoston tehtyä päätöksiä turvapaikanhaun keskittämisestä on myös rajavartiolain 16 §:n soveltamista koskevia tietoja ja näkemyksiä on huomioitu. Valtion toimintamahdollisuuksia rajoittaa myös poikkeavissa maahantulon tilanteissa oikeusjärjestelmää läpileikkaava palautuskielto. Euroopan ihmisoikeustuomioistuimen oikeuskäytännössä palautuskiellon soveltamisessa merkitystä on saanut se, onko aito ja tehokas tapa hakea kansainvälistä suojelua turvattu. Euroopan unionin oikeuskäytännössä tai valmistelluissa uudistuksissa ei ole viitteitä mahdollisuudesta lopettaa turvapaikkahakemusten vastaanottoa välineellistetyn maahantulon johdosta. Suomen laajaa itärajan rajanylityspaikkojen sulkua ja kansainvälisen suojelun hakemisen keskittämistä pidetään jännitteisenä unionin oikeuden kanssa. Ei ole selvää miten kansainvälisen suojelun hakemiseen liittyvät oikeudet toteutuvat, kun keskittämistoimet ovat laajoja ja tavanomainen pääsy valtion alueelle on hankaloitunut.
  • Tarkiainen, Lauri Vilppu Juhani (2019)
    The purpose of this study is to research legal challenges and solutions for data sharing with autonomous ships. Autonomous ships store and share a significant amount of data, and data sharing occurs between various parties with autonomous ships. The aim of this study is to analyze and examine the legal challenges and solutions related to different types of data sharing activities in autonomous shipping, as well as to research the general legality of autonomous ships. The first part of this study is to study how well autonomous ships fit into the existing legislative framework. The existing legislative framework is mainly based on IMO conventions, and the purpose of this study is to research those conventions from the perspective of autonomous ships. Based on this research, amendments are proposed when necessary to better support the legality and development of autonomous ships. In addition to the IMO conventions, other relevant sources, such as guidelines on MASS trials, are examined to highlight guidance on the development of autonomous ships. The legal analysis on IMO conventions and other sources shows that as the level of autonomy of a ship increases, the more challenging the ship is for the legal framework. Several conventions directly mention the need for a master and crew to be physically present on board, and various watchkeeping duties are required to be performed by human senses. Regarding the use of human senses, a legal argument can be made to accept technological means as long as they are at least equally functional than human senses. For remotely controlled ships, a legal question is whether a master and crew can operate from the SCC and how well this satisfies the requirement to operate on board. Recommended action is to amend those IMO conventions that require physical human presence and decision-making to accept the lack of manned crew and the presence of autonomous decision-making. However, technical requirements are recommended to be included in the legal amendments to the conventions to ensure a high level of safety and functionality. The second part of the thesis examines legal challenges and solutions for data sharing with autonomous ships. First, a factual assessment of data sharing principles with autonomous ships are described and discussed, and afterwards a legal analysis is conducted. The legal analysis on data sharing and autonomous ships examines what kind of legal challenges exist with data sharing and autonomous ships and how to solve them by legal solutions. Cyber security is a key challenge with autonomous ships, and its role in data sharing is analyzed and requirements to have robust cyber security systems are recommended. For operational data sharing, the issue of ensuring a functional data flow is necessary. Autonomous ships should be legally required to have strong data sharing and connectivity capabilities in order to comply with requirements to share information. Also, this requirement is to achieve as safe and functional navigation as possible. The role of ship-to-ship and ship-to-port data sharing are examined, and legal requirements should facilitate their maximal utilization. At the end of this study, a contractual framework is applied by using the Sitra Rulebook on data sharing in order to illustrate how contractual means can support data sharing with autonomous ships.
  • Paricio Montesinos, Marta (2022)
    This study aims to make a preliminary assessment of the role that the new ILC Draft PERAC principles could play in the OPT. It argues that the application of standards and norms protecting or compensating for the environmental damage in times of armed conflict has been highly influenced by the political context. At the same time, it finds that two of the main causes of the environmental challenges in the OPT are Israel’s activities and the lack of environmental regulations for companies operating in the occupied territory. In addition, the Palestinians face serious difficulties in accessing justice. There is a domestic lacuna since Palestinian courts have limited competences and the Israeli Courts have showed bias towards Palestinians. Internationally, it is highly unlikely that Israel will accept the ICJ’s voluntary jurisdiction, and it is doubtful that the case before the ICC is adequate to tackle the systemic oppression in the OPT. On the other hand, since Palestine is becoming a party to different agreements and treaties, it can now use the dispute settlement mechanisms established in MEAs which Israel has also ratified, such as the Basel Convention. This has enabled Palestine to bring complaints against the illegal transfer of hazardous waste by Israel to the OPT. This showed that what is required is a change in the Israel’s practices and policies or more available dispute settlement mechanisms. Finally, it finds that the ILC Draft PERAC principles are unlikely to force a change in Israeli practices. At the same time, for the time being, they do not establish any forum or dispute settlement mechanism. Thus, their role and impact on the OPT is limited. Nevertheless, because of their innovations and clarity, they offer a new framework of understanding that can be highly beneficial in diplomatic relations, educational purposes, and in the formation of expectations and demands. Moreover, it will support and offer an additional legal language in the different strands of activism ad advocacy led by Palestinian NGOs.
  • Huttunen, Juri (2022)
    This study examines the use of migrants or asylum seekers as a means of pressure by States towards other States. The term ‘coercive engineered migration’ (CEM) by Kelly Greenhill, denoting cross-border population movements that are deliberately created or manipulated in order to induce political, military and/or economic concessions from a target State or States, is used as the factual framework in this study to describe the phenomenon under examination. Inspired by the recent events between Belarus and its neighbours, this study looks at a situation, where a sending State, outside the EU and CoE, is deliberately sending asylum seekers to its neighbour, the receiving State, being an EU and CoE Member State. The research question guiding this study is: ‘Can an EU and CoE member State receiving asylum seekers in connection to a situation of coercive engineered migration prevent the entry into its territory from said individuals?’ An answer is attempted via doctrinal analysis of the receiving State’s rights under the jus ad bellum and parallel obligations under international human rights law, namely obligations relating to non-refoulement and collective expulsion of aliens under the ECHR. It is submitted that a CEM situation may amount up to a use of force and where it does, in order to draw a balance between the State’s rights and the human rights of the asylum seekers, the receiving State should be able to derogate from its collective expulsion-related obligations under the ECHR and the EU Fundamental Rights Charter in order to close off a portion of its land border to defend itself against the CEM situation deliberately created by the sending State.
  • Voutilainen, Julia (2024)
    This Thesis examines the impact of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) on global governance, focusing on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Human Rights Due Diligence (HRDD). In the globalized world, MNCs have gained significant social power and influence, which they may utilize to advance their business interests at the cost of human rights through global governance. Simultaneously, they may seek to evade their social responsibilities and act with impunity without accountability mechanisms under the voluntary, self-regulated CSR regime. The primary research question is to what extent HRDD legislation mitigates the lack of accountability exhibited by MNCs, particularly in light of the challenges posed by the voluntary CSR regime. The research examines the effectiveness of HRDD laws in regulating corporate behaviour and protecting human rights against MNCs’ pursuit of profit maximization. The research employs a case study, legal analysis, and literature review to analyse MNCs’ influence and challenges of CSR in the global market. Key findings reveal the need for stronger regulatory frameworks to counterbalance MNCs' profit-driven agendas with CSR. The study underscores the importance of enhancing accountability mechanisms and collaboration among MNCs, governments, and civil society to uphold human rights standards in corporate operations. The research advocates for the continued development of HRDD laws and the CSR framework to mitigate the adverse impacts of MNCs on the surrounding society and environment and to promote responsible business practices.
  • Gill, Sukhman (2023)
    Two Abstracts
  • Aho, Johannes (2022)
    There has always been an imbalance between a small buyers and professional sellers. Understanding and managing the market ecosystem for ones’ advantage requires resources. Given the larger amounts of resources professional seller parties often possess, especially compared to small buyers, they have the possibility to find out the key elements of prevailing market ecosystem, and correspondingly understand and utilize better the existing options. Hence professional sellers often have the upper hand in trade negotiations and ability to dominate trade related negotiations and terms of trade. There is a demand for a different kind of trading approach that would provide quickly better temporary or permanent bargaining position for small buyers. Small buyers could benefit from a functional, scalable, international, and effective way to access and form legally qualified buyer groups that can gain negotiation leverage and correspondingly discounts that usually only a large buyer organisation can access. Fundamental challenges in grouping parties in order to obtain leverage in trade negotiations culminates in how to first identify and group different parties into buyer groups and then to define the rights and responsibilities between the group members. It becomes evident that technology, such as an online platform, is required to perform such a procedure. The platform is a plug-and-play business model that allows multiple participants (e.g. small buyers and professional sellers) to interact with each other and create and exchange value. This thesis will present core concepts and regulation related to digital grouping of buyers into buyer groups in the EU. With the information obtained, a Buyer Grouping Process Framework, sort of an algorithm, is developed. This Framework provides a way to efficiently group buyers with similar demand, and then to define appropriate legal entity under which buyers can group, conduct bidding, and make desired trade with a leverage and consequently with better terms.
  • Aloia, Vinicius (2020)
    The recent shift in paradigm caused by the increasing democratisation and commercialisation of outer space, commonly referred to as ‘NewSpace’, has once again rekindled humankind’s interest in space and space exploration. The trend to global digitalisation is changing the traditional face of space activities and the space industry is now subject to a commercialisation wave. With technological advancements, private commercial entities have taken it up to the stars in order to turn a profit. New actors in NewSpace range from the pragmatics of the space industry, dealing with, for instance, satellite communications and connectivity, satellite components, satellite navigation, and launch services, all the way to the dreamers postponing immediate rewards, working towards concepts such as mining and utilising space resources, in-orbit servicing of satellites, space tourism, where space is conceived as an instrument for implementing new business models and ideas. While the traditional space industry dates back to the space race, States are no longer the only actors with spacefaring capabilities. The emergence of NewSpace, private non-governmental actors taking part in space activities, and new business models call for new technologies and implementation practices that create new legal and regulatory challenges that NewSpace companies and the traditional commercial space sector need to take into account in their business activities. To answer whether the current international and national legal framework is sufficient to accommodate the recent paradigm shift and new trends and the approach of the Nordic countries, this thesis will provide a cursory look on the issue and scrutinise the main legal and regulatory challenges faced by NewSpace companies, and, when appropriate, the impact on and the response of Nordic countries in tackling these challenges. First, it will provide the necessary historical background on the space industry as a whole, explaining the roots of NewSpace and how the industry has developed to its current state. Second, it will introduce the basic concepts of space law, the five international space treaties – which compose the international legal framework on space activities – and a more in-depth look on the basic requirements and conditions for authorisation in national space legislation. The national legal framework for space activities in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark will be examined comparatively and their impact of national legislation on the private space industry in the Nordic countries. Finally, this thesis analyses the main legal issues surrounding both the traditional space sector, such as contract practices in the space industry, aspects of space insurance, and export, and hallmark projects typical of NewSpace, such the exploitation of space resources from the Moon and other celestial bodies, and suborbital flights, and active debris removal.
  • Miller, Carola (2022)
    The need to effectively regulate the environment is recognized globally, for example, under the Paris Agreement, states are obligated to formulate national policies to combat the adverse effects of climate change. However, states are increasingly facing the consequences of such regulation in investment arbitration, as these progressive environmental protection goals can lead to a multi-billion claim made by foreign investors. International investment law and the investor-state dispute settlement are currently going through a so-called “legitimacy crisis” as there has been criticism towards both its substantive and procedural levels. As a response to this imbalance, there has been a move towards trying to reestablish international investment law. The overall purpose of this thesis is to examine the conflicting dimension of the link between environmental and investment protection. The aim is therefore to examine the defects of the international investment treaty regime in relation to the sovereign right of states to regulate environmental concerns. This is done by examining frequently used substantive treaty provisions that protect foreign investment: expropriation, fair and equitable treatment (FET), most-favored-nation (MFN) and national treatment (NT). It then examines how investment tribunals have interpreted these provisions when a foreign investor has challenged environmental measures taken by the host state in investor-state arbitration. This thesis further examines whether new types of clauses introduced in international investment agreements in recent years have succeeded in balancing the rights of investors with the interest of states in regulating public issues such as the environment. These include environmental treaty language that clarifies that investment protection should not be implemented at the expense of public policy issues. This thesis finds that both the vaguely worded investment protection provisions in international investment agreements and the inconsistent practice of arbitral tribunals have created uncertainty about the extent of state liability. It therefore seems that international investment law is still in a formative stage with respect to public interest concerns such as environmental protection. These reforms may increase the interaction between international investment law and environmental protection. However, these measures are not sufficient as they do not reduce the likelihood of a state being sued in investor-state arbitration. Therefore, more radical reforms are needed in the future to address the negative impact of the investment regime on the environmental protection measures of states.
  • Koivuaho, Fady (2023)
    Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena oli käsitellä energiaperuskirjaa, sen uudistamista ja EU:n suunnitteleman sopimuksesta irtautumisen vaikutuksia kansainväliseen investointisuojaan ja EU:n ja sen jäsenmaiden sopimukseen liittyviin riidanratkaisua koskeviin velvoitteisiin. Energiaperuskirja on energia-alaan liittyvä monenvälinen investointisuojasopimus, joka neuvoteltiin 1990-luvulla Neuvostoliiton romahtamisen jälkeen. Sopimuksen tarkoituksena oli turvata Euroopan energiansaanti sekä tuoda Venäjä lähemmäksi länsimaista kauppa- arvo- ja oikeusyhteisöä sekä lisätä ulkomaisten sijoittajien energia-alan investointien suojaa sopimusvaltioiden alueella. EU:n sopimuksesta irtautumisen keskeisenä tavoitteena on mitätöidä energiaperuskirjan mahdollistama sijoittajan ja sopimusvaltion välinen riidanratkaisua koskeva säännös, joka antaa sijoittajalle mahdollisuuden viedä riita-asia käsiteltäväksi ICSID-sopimuksen mukaiseen välimiesmenettelyyn, ja joka on yksi investointisuojan keskeisimmistä osista. Irtautumiseen soveltuu kuitenkin energiaperuskirjan 47 artiklan mukainen auringonlaskusäännös, jonka puitteissa sopimuksen määräyksiä sovellettaisiin 20 vuotta sopimuksen irtisanomisesta eteenpäin. EU pyrkii mitätöimään tämän auringonlaskusäännöksen vaikutuksen. Tutkielma keskittyy vastaamaan kysymykseen, voiko EU yksipuolisesti sopimuksesta irtautuessaan mitätöidä auringonlaskusäännöksen vaikutuksen ja estää sopimuksen riidanratkaisua koskevan osan soveltamisen heti irtisanomisen voimaantulosta lähtien ja 20 vuoden siirtymäajan sivuuttaen. Irtautumisen oikeudellisten vaikutusten arvioinnissa voidaan tunnistaa riidanratkaisuun liittyen neljä eri skenaariota, joihin kaikkiin liittyy oma oikeudellinen tulkintansa ja joita tässä tutkielmassa käsitellään: 1. EU:n sisäiset energiaperuskirjan perusteella nostetut sijoittajan ja sopimusvaltion väliset riidat ennen EU:n irtaantumissopimuksen voimaantuloa 2. EU:n sisäiset energiaperuskirjan perusteella nostetut sijoittajan ja sopimusvaltion väliset riidat EU:n irtaantumissopimuksen voimaantulon jälkeen 3. EU-jäsenmaan ja kolmannen maan väliset sijoittajan ja sopimusvaltion väliset riidat EU:n irtaantumissopimuksen voimaantulon jälkeen, kun kolmas valtio ei ole sopinut EU:n kanssa sopimuksen soveltamisen lopettamisesta 4. EU-jäsenmaan ja kolmannen maan väliset sijoittajan ja sopimusvaltion väliset riidat EU:n irtaantumissopimuksen voimaantulon jälkeen, kun kolmas valtio on sopinut EU:n kanssa sopimuksen soveltamisen lopettamisesta Tutkielman johtopäätelmänä on se, että EU:n sisäisten 1–2 skenaarioiden osalta irtautumisen oikeudellisissa seuraamuksissa ratkaiseva eron tekevä tekijä on se, onko sijoittajan ja valtion välinen riita-asia pantu vireille tai ratkaistu ennen vai jälkeen irtaantumissopimuksen voimassaoloa. Välitystuomioiden ratkaisukäytännön perusteella välitystuomioistuimet eivät todennäköisesti jaa EU:n näkemystä energiaperuskirjan määräyksien tehon lakkaamisesta tapauksissa, joissa menettely on aloitettu ennen irtautumista. Irtautumisen jälkeisten tapauksienkin osalta on todennäköistä, että EU:n argumentit haastetaan vetoamalla kansainvälisen oikeuden normeihin ja periaatteisiin, jotka suojelevat valtiosopimusten kolmansien osapuolien perusteltuja odotuksia ja luottamusta oikeusympäristön varmuuteen ja pysyvyyteen. Skenaarioiden 3-4 osalta, eli EU:n irtautumisen vaikutuksista energiaperuskirjan antamaan investointisuojaan suhteessa kolmansiin maihin, irtautumisen ajallisen ulottuvuuden osalta oikeudelliset kysymykset saavat saman vastauksen kuin EU:n sisäisen soveltamisen osalta. EU-jäsenmaan ja kolmannen maan suhteen avainerona- ja kysymyksenä on kuitenkin se, saako EU neuvoteltua kolmannen maan kanssa irtautumissopimusta vastaavan sopimuksen, jossa sopimusvaltiot sopivat, ettei energiaperuskirjan 47 artiklan mukaista auringonlaskusäännöstä sovelleta. Jos tällaista sopimusta ei neuvotella, niin tällöin auringonlaskusäännös tulee normaalisti voimaan. Jos sopimus on neuvoteltu, niin se kohtaa todennäköisesti välimiestuomioistuimessa saman haasteen, kuin EU:n sisäinen lopettamissopimus.
  • Leikola, Salli (2024)
    Due to the accelerating environmental crisis and the frequency of environmentally harmful activities having negative extraterritorial impacts, the traditional notions of state responsibility and jurisdiction are being tested. Restrictive interpretation of jurisdiction within international environmental law and human rights results in gaps in protection, with respect to both individuals and the environment. A significant gap, particularly evident in relation to climate change, also remains between the aspirational promises and agreed targets, on the one hand, and the level of implementation and action, on the other. Climate change does not adhere to political boundaries, thus requiring a transnational approach in relation to the establishment of accountability for environmental damage and resulting human rights violations. This thesis explores the scope of due diligence obligations of states in the interplay of human rights and international environmental law as well as the notions of jurisdiction and control influencing the territorial reach of responsibility. The research is conducted by investigating the environmental due diligence standard under the human rights, international environmental law and climate law regimes. Despite its wide acknowledgement, the concept of due diligence has been relatively understudied in international law. The increasing incidence of transboundary and global environmental harm as well as phenomena such as relocation of harmful activities and carbon leakage prompt the question of the scope of existing due diligence obligations of states – both within and outside territorial boundaries. International environmental law is based on guiding principles, such as prevention and precaution, having the ability to create obligations of customary international law character. It is argued that the standard of due diligence provides a promising way to hold states accountable for environmental harm – even beyond territorial limits. By combining the ambitious environmental policies, often lacking in bindingness, and the effective human rights systems through the standard of due diligence, it is concluded that the already existing legal frameworks may be utilized for environmental protection objectives. Furthermore, the mutually reinforcing relationship between international environmental law and human rights has contributed to the emergence and development of environmental due diligence standard of extraterritorial nature. Instead of a vague 'buzzword', absent of identifiable obligations and enabling the evasion of responsibility in relation to environmental harm and ensuing human rights violations, the case law in relation to the due diligence obligations of states presents evidence that such evasion of accountability is no longer acceptable nor possible. As human rights regimes should not be interpreted in a vacuum, consideration must be given to developments within international environmental law. The Paris Agreement is founded on the highest possible ambition of the member states. It is this due diligence standard against which the actions of the state are evaluated. The known and/or admitted risks of environmental harm, coupled with inconsistent measures against non-state actors’ activities, could establish state responsibility before such risks materialize. Of relevance is the actual ability to regulate or influence over the harmful activities, which may result in a jurisdictional link and individual responsibility.
  • Mali, Minna (2023)
    Women commit international crimes for a variety of reasons, including political and personal agendas. Still, the perceptions of female offenders are often very gendered. These perceptions vary between female offenders committing crimes solely because they are influenced by a man to female offenders being sadistic monsters. In both instances female offenders are denied their personal agency. Either they are mentally, and sexually, deranged or not personally responsible for the crimes committed. This is a factor in sentencing proceedings as gender has been proved to play a role. It can act as an aggravating factor, which is the case when women are portrayed as monsters, or as a mitigating one. International crime and criminology have also generally considered female perpetrators an anomaly. Most of the early works in these fields either ignored the possibility of a woman committing crimes or regarded female criminals as mentally deranged to separate them from ‘ordinary’ women. Women are often victimised during conflicts and the protection of these women is extremely important. This work is not to undermine the efforts to protect women but to offer a more holistic approach to women’s wartime experiences. This thesis will discuss the crimes committed by Azra Basic during the war in Bosnia Herzegovina and Lynndie England in Abu Ghraib during the ‘war on terror’. Both women served as prison guards during their respective conflicts and were accused of participating in various atrocious crimes. England quickly became the face of the Abu Ghraib -scandal, not because she was more responsible of the torture than others, but because she was a young woman. Basic and England received relatively long sentences when these are viewed in context with the sentences of the men involved. In international criminal law there is an explicit obligation to prosecute or extradite. But with the primacy having been given to national courts, sentencing practices are not cohesive and national courts may be inclined to be more lenient towards their own nationals. In the cases of England and Basic it becomes clear that, although gendered language is not present in many court decisions or indictments, gender stereotypes and narratives have an impact on how men and women and their appropriate roles are seen in a society. Thus, though gender-neutral in language, the decisions were impacted by the fact that the perpetrators were women.
  • Kalkku, Saramaria (2022)
    The thesis discusses recent instances of application of the principle of universal criminal jurisdiction in Finland, Germany, Argentina and in several nations to the situation in Ukraine. Despite the lacking international consensus at the United Nations and the prevailing academic dissonance, the quantity and frequency of national adjudication of international crimes have been multiplying. The increasing number of cases in new hotspots have shifted the traditional balance of where international crimes are being tried. The cases will be discussed in light of the present doctrine on universal jurisdiction. An overview will be provided to the doctrinal development and international lawmaking efforts as well as international practice. The national cases will be discussed alongside the relevant national legislation and practice. The cases will show numerous legal challenges such as unforeseeability in the reality of the practice. Some closely connected principles will be also discussed in light with the cases such as judex loci deprehensionis, aut dedere aut judicare and the legality principle. The doctrine and the national judicial practice on the principle of universal jurisdiction seem to be in separate realities. The amount of adjudication in national courts is increasing and many of the fundamental doctrinal questions of definition, scope and application criteria remain undecided. The cases with complex settings of international and non-international conflicts as well as differences in legal cultures create challenging settings for national first instance judiciaries to determine and serve justice.
  • Higuera Ornelas, Adriana (2022)
    AI-driven innovation offers numerous possibilities for the public sector. The potential of digital advancements is already palpable within the tax administrations. Automation is efficiently used for tax assessments, to perform compliance management, to enhance revenue collection and to provide services to taxpayers. A digital transformation encompassing Big Data, advanced analytics and ADM systems promises significant benefits and efficiencies for the tax administrations. It is essential that public organizations meet the necessary legal framework and safeguards to expand the use of these automated systems since its sources of information, technical capacity, and extent of application have evolved. Using Finland as a case study, this research assesses the use of automated decision-making systems within the public sector. Constitutional and administrative legal principles serve as guidelines and constraints for the administrative activity and decision-making. This study examines the lawfulness of the deployment of ADM systems in the field of taxation by looking its compatibility with long-standing legal principles. Focus if given to the principles of the rule of law, due process, good administration, access to information, official accountability, confidentiality, and privacy. Numerous public concerns have been raised regarding the use of ADM systems in the public sector. Scholars, academics and journalists have justifiably pointed out the risks and limitations of ADM systems. Despite the legal challenges posed by automation, this research suggests that ADM systems used to pursue administrative objectives can fit with long-standing legal principles with appropriate regulation, design and human capacity.
  • Manner, Tupuna (2021)
    International maritime transportation of goods is an inevitable part of global trade and economics. Over 90 percent of global trade are seaborne. Shipping is considered as cost-effective transport mode and it emits less greenhouse gases than e.g. freight or air cargo. Global trade is expected to rise. Shipping industry must be able to answer to the increasing demand of delivering shipping services while adapting to sustainability requirements such as reducing GHG emissions. Shipping interests both public and private sectors and engages complex cross-border supply chain stakeholders from various interest groups. International sustainability and maritime policies are affecting shipping industry from multiple levels. Both the European Union and the United Nations are implementing new normative tools and mechanisms to enhance a sustainability trajectory into all areas of business and society. Traditional treaties and conventions are supplemented by new objectives to meet the overarching sustainable development and economic growth requirements. Three complex subject matters are discussed – the international maritime regulatory scheme, climate and sustainability regulatory scheme and, the wicked problem of reducing shipping industry GHG emissions. An interdisciplinary method is used. The overarching research theme is – what actions and measures are needed in order to safeguard that shipping industry can answer (i) to the increasing demand of delivering shipping services and, (ii) to the increasing sustainability requirements. Two research questions are asked: 1) who governs international maritime affairs and shipping sustainability objectives in the context of shipping GHG emissions reductions, and 2) how to implement the GHG reductions objectives in the shipping industry? In order to attain sustainable development objectives into shipping industry practices, innovative administrative solutions and governance models are needed from the maritime affairs policy makers on both national and international level. Interdisciplinary and innovative solutions are needed to tackle emissions reductions objectives.
  • Majoinen, Mervi (2023)
    Tutkielma keskittyy ristiriitaan vihreän siirtymän ja saamelaisille alkuperäiskansana kuuluvien oikeuksien toteutumisen välillä. Useat kansainväliset sopimukset, muun muassa YK:n kansalais- ja poliittisia oikeuksia koskeva yleissopimus, sekä YK:n alkuperäiskansojen oikeuksia koskeva julistus turvaavat saamelaisten itsemääräämisoikeutta sekä oikeutta harjoittaa ja ylläpitää kulttuuriaan, johon kuuluvat myös perinteiset elinkeinot, kuten poronhoito. Samalla ilmastonmuutos vaatii uusiutuvan energian määrän lisäämistä. Tuulivoimaa pidetään yhtenä tärkeimpänä uusiutuvan energian tuotantomuotona. Tuulivoimaprojekteilla on kuitenkin todettu olevan merkittäviä vaikutuksia poronhoidon harjoittamiseen projektien eri vaiheissa rakentamisesta energiantuotantoon. Tutkielman ensimmäinen osa keskittyy tuulivoiman ja poronhoidon väliseen konfliktiin. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan, salliiko kiireellinen vihreän energian tarve tasapainottelua vihreän siirtymän ja saamelaisten oikeuksien toteutumisen välillä, kun arvioidaan, loukkaako tuulivoimaprojekti saamelaisten kulttuurisia oikeuksia KP-sopimuksen 27 artiklan perusteella. Tutkielman toinen osa keskittyy saamelaisten itsemääräämisoikeuden toteutumiseen Suomen järjestelmässä. Oikeus osallistua saamelaisten asioihin vaikuttavaan päätöksentekoon on tärkeä osa saamelaisten itsemääräämisoikeutta. Tutkielmassa selvitetään saamelaisten osallistumisoikeuden toteutumista tuulivoimaa koskevan päätöksenteon näkökulmasta. Lisäksi tutkielmassa arvioidaan vaikutuksia, joita alkuvuonna 2023 kaatuneella hallituksen esityksellä HE 274/2022 vp. olisi ollut saamelaisten osallistumisoikeuden toteutumiseen kansainvälisten ihmisoikeuksien valossa huomioiden ihmisoikeusinstituutioiden ratkaisukäytännön. Tutkielmassa esiteltyjen argumenttien nojalla johtopäätöksinä esitetään ensinnäkin, että jonkinlainen tasapainottelu vihreän siirtymän ja poronhoitoon liittyvien oikeuksien välillä voi olla sallittua, jos kysymyksen katsotaan olevan perustavanlaatuisten oikeuksien välisestä arvioinnista. Keskenään tasapainoteltavat perustavanlaatuiset oikeudet olisivat tässä tapauksessa yhteiskunnan jäsenten oikeus hyvään ja terveelliseen ympäristöön sekä saamelaisten oikeus harjoittaa ja ylläpitää poronhoitoelinkeinoa. Tällainen tilanne voi kuitenkin olla kysymyksessä vain, jos tuulivoiman sijoittaminen alueelle, jossa sillä on vaikutuksia poronhoitoon, on välttämätöntä vihreän energian tuottamiseksi ja elinkelpoiseen ympäristöön liittyvän oikeuden toteuttamiseksi. Mikäli tuulivoimalle on löydettävissä sijainteja, jotka rajoittavat poronhoitoa vähemmän tai ei lainkaan, ei vihreän siirtymän tärkeydellä voi perustella KP-sopimuksen 27 artiklan turvaamien oikeuksien rajoittamista. Suomen järjestelmään liittyen esitetään, että saamelaisten osallistumisoikeudet poronhoitoon vaikuttavaa tuulivoimaa koskevaan päätöksentekoon eivät ole tasolla, jota saamelaisten kansainvälisten alkuperäiskansoja koskevien ihmisoikeuksien täysimääräinen toteutuminen vaatii. Ensinnäkin saamelaiskäräjälain 9 §:ssä säädetty velvoite neuvotella saamelaiskäräjien kanssa päätöksistä, jotka vaikuttavat saamelaisiin tai heidän oikeuksiinsa, koskee vain saamelaisten kotiseutualuetta. Lisäksi velvoite näyttää toteutuvan vaihtelevasti ja paikoin riittämättömällä tavalla. Muulla osalla poronhoitoaluetta, jolla yli 75 % paliskunnista sijaitsee, neuvotteluvelvoite perustuu poronhoitolain 53 §:ään, jonka mukaan velvoite on vain valtion viranomaisilla ja soveltuu vain valtion omistamaa maata koskevaan päätöksentekoon. Poronhoitolain velvoite näyttää painottavan oikeutta elinkeinoon ja takaa saman turvan saamelaisten lisäksi myös alkuperäiskansaan kuulumattomille poronhoitoa harjoittaville henkilöille, eikä siis heijasta riittävällä tavalla saamelaisten alkuperäiskansa-asemaan liittyviä kansainvälisessä oikeudessa tunnustettuja oikeuksia. Lisäksi tutkielmassa esitettyjen näkökulmien perusteella esitetään, että saamelaiskäräjälain uudistamista koskevan hallituksen esityksen 274/2022 vp läpimenolla olisi ollut merkittäviä saamelaisten osallistumisoikeuksia edistäviä vaikutuksia. Tärkeimmät osallistumisoikeutta parantavat vaikutukset olisivat olleet kaikkien saamelaisten kulttuuriin ja perinteisiin elinkeinoihin vaikuttavien päätösten tuomisella esitetyn 9 §:n yhteistyö- ja neuvotteluvelvoitteen piiriin sekä neuvotteluvelvoitteen laajentamisella muun muassa kunnallisvaltuustoihin, jotka käyttävät merkittävää päätöksentekovaltaa maankäyttöä koskevissa asioissa.
  • Oivo, Katariina (2023)
    Mounting environmental challenges including climate change call for accelerated global action, but the response provided within international frameworks has thus far remained inadequate. In this context, can the perspectives of human rights law and climate change be usefully combined? This thesis studies the prospects of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) as the most widely ratified global human rights treaty. It explores whether it can be argued that obligations in relation to environmental and climate action follow from the Convention and examines how current discourses on children’s rights and climate change are intersecting. These questions are approached by assessing the wording and aim of the UNCRC text and its interpretation by the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) through the case Sacchi et al v Argentina et al and a draft of the upcoming General comment on children's rights, the environment and climate change. The analysis is complemented by an overview of practitioner discourses on the topic, including policy and advocacy documents, climate litigation and multilateral resolutions. In this study, law as a concept is understood as a living institution, consisting not only of the specific legislation but also its application in legal and social contexts. The results show that although the UNCRC includes strikingly few references to the environment, several of the rights enshrined in the Convention are directly affected by environmental threats, notably the impacts of climate change. Considering this, the CRC has indicated that state parties have environmental and climate-related obligations in order to comply with the UNCRC. A holistic reading of human rights instruments and obligations under international environmental law comes across as a key point. Furthermore, it seems that the UNCRC is being deployed in expert narratives to urge climate action to respect, protect and fulfil the rights of children, despite the Convention’s substantive limitations in this regard and its interpretation by the CRC being ‘work in progress’. It is concluded that the UNCRC has potential to foster actions to protect children and humanity from harm related to climate change. A holistic interpretation of the Convention is required to safeguard child rights in the context of the escalating planetary crisis. Acknowledging these interlinkages can serve both the child rights and the environmental and climate policy fields.