Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Hautsalo, Juho (2013)
    The objective of this study was to develop functional method for producing doupled-haploid plants for faba bean. Microspore culture is an advanced method to produce doubled-haploids and it is based on the totipotent nature of plant cells, since even a microspore, which is an immature pollen cell with haploid genome, can develop into a plant. This plant is either haploid or doupled haploid depending on whether there has been chromosome doubling or not and because the chromosomes either do not have pairs or the pairs are pure copies of each other, the plant is completely homozygous. Doubled haploids are already used in breeding programs with several crops such as wheat, barley and oilseed rape. Faba bean is an important legume for food, feed and crop rotation. Together with other legumes it has the potential to replace soybean imports entirely in Finland. Faba bean yield stability and anti-nutritional factors restrain its use and active breeding is required to improve the crop. In Finland, where pea and faba bean are the only grain legumes actively cultivated, the breeding of faba bean has been recently reactivated and its objectives are earliness, higher yield, protein content and improved quality factors. Big bottle neck in faba bean breeding is the creation of pure homozygote lines because the partial cross-breeding in the species sets restrains for the procedure. In this study promising pea and chick pea protocols that were developed in 2009 and an efficient rapeseed protocol were applied with faba bean. The interaction of various stress treatments and two different induction media with five genotypes of faba bean on microspore culture were analysed. Pro-embryos and cell divisions were observed from the cultures. Heat shock was the most effective stress treatment. Effects of density and induction medium were high and cultivar’s low tannin content seemed to impact positively to induction efficiency. These results suggest that for faba bean microspore culture is as suitable method as anther culture is and that there is hope to produce doubled-haploid faba beans in the future.
  • Niskakoski, Anni (2022)
    Previous studies have demonstrated that legume proteins have high potential to lose their native functional properties during conventional wet fractionation, since heating and drying in the processes can lead to protein aggregation and solubility reduction. However, the effect of this process on faba bean protein has not been investigated thoroughly before, according to the literature review. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of wet fractionation process with and without spray drying on faba bean protein gelling properties. The hypothesis was that protein isolate produced with isoelectric precipitation without spray drying would have better solubility and gelling properties than spray dried isolate. Faba bean protein concentrate (FBPC) was used to prepare faba bean protein isolate with alkaline extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation, which was then dispersed into water and neutralized (faba bean protein slurry, FBPS). Some of FBPS was spray-dried (pilot faba bean protein isolate, FBPI-P). Commercial faba bean protein isolate (FBPI-C) was used as a reference sample. Their (FBPC, FBPS, FBPI-P, FBPI-C) functionality was studied by measuring thermal denaturation (DSC), protein solubility, particle size and light microscope pictures. In addition, glucono delta lactone (GDL) induced oil-in-water emulsion gels were prepared from FBPS, FBPI-P and FBPI-C. Water holding capacity (WHC), rheological and texture properties were measured from the gel samples. Surprisingly the obtained results of faba bean in this study were different from previous research on other legume proteins. It was found that spray-dried FBPI-P showed better gelling properties than wet based FBPS. This might be due to differences in thermal denaturation. Based on DSC curves, FBPI-C was found to be fully denatured and in a poor solubility. Interestingly, GDL-induced gels had strongest gel properties, which might be highly related to industrial manufacturing process of FBPI-C. When considering the theoretical environmental impact of these processes, FBPS could show potential of being more environmentally friendly process, as it could be more energy efficient than processes which require drying and heating. It was demonstrated that FBPS showed almost as good functional properties as the pilot spray-dried isolate. Hence, FBPS could work as functional and more environmentally friendly option for food industry. Future study could be conducted in near future about FBPS safety, technological applications, process optimization and environmental impact.
  • Xu, Yi (2023)
    The literature review detailed the theoretical background for this study, identified the possibility about development of faba bean protein stabilized emulsion for food products and studied the effect of increased oil addition on the structure of emulsions. The practical work was divided into three parts emulsion analysis, emulsion gel analysis and sensory evaluation. Various research methods were applie d to support this study, including droplet size distribution , droplet charge ζ potential), texture evaluation, and rheological analysis. This study showed that oil addition increased emulsion droplet size, as well as the absolute value of ζ potential . Emulsifying activity index (EAI) and emulsion stability index (ESI) decreased with increasing oil concentration. F aba protein stabilized emulsions were better stabilized by oil addition , compared with those without oil additi on . From texture analysis of gel properties, firmness improved with increasing oil concentrations (0% 30%). In addition, rheolog ical analysis for faba yogurt samples showed that increasing oil concentrations improved the viscosity of the faba yogurt samples. T he results also illustrated that increasing oil concentrations led to increased deformation meaning the emulsion gels were more easily destroyed with increasing oil concentrations (0 30%). Oil addition resulted in higher whiteness when compared with samples without oil. Sensory evaluation by a professional panel for faba yogurt samples indicated that samples with 20% oil concentration w ere the most preferred and had the highest overall quality .
  • Zhu, Lin (2016)
    Hydrogels are promising biomaterials for tissue engineering. Concerning hydrogels chemical structures, the hydrogen bonding towards water makes them hydrophilic compounds. Hydrogels contain 95% ~ 99% water as the swelling agent and have the characteristics of extracellular matrix. Therefore, they are suitable for cell growth and appropriate for forming cell culture. Hydrogels can mimic the cell microenvironments and promote cell differentiation by interactions with cells. Cells can get oxygen, nutrients exchange as well as removal of metabolic waste to live. Hydrogels can be categorized into natural hydrogels, synthetic hydrogels and hybrid hydrogels by sources. Agarose, Collagen and Calcium alginate are the most popular natural hydrogels. Polyethylene (glycol) and its derivative Polyethylene (glycol) Diacrylate (PEGDA) are indispensable synthetic hydrogels. In this thesis, hydrogels are studied for their chemical structure, physical and mechanical properties and gel formation. Typical hydrogels, i.e. agarose, polyethylene (glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), collagen and calcium alginate, are reviewed for their methodology of formation, mechanical properties and applications. Since hydrogel is a solid containing a given amount of water, it has viscoelasticity. Rheology test mechanism is described for viscoelastic materials. Micropatterning methods of hydrogels are investigated in variety of approaches. How the patterned surfaces affect cell behaviour is discussed in our literature review. From the experimental results, agarose and polyethylene (glycol) diacrylate are successfully fabricated and their micropatterned hydrogels show promising properties. In addition, impact of mechanical properties, such as water diffusion in hydrogels, how temperatures influence hydrogel structures and durability of the structures storage are investigated. Hydrogel viscoelasticities are measured by rheometer. Hydrogels are also tested in chips and cell wells for future cell growth study. Finally, this research has successfully fabricated the 3D micropatterned hydrogels for cell culture.
  • Katajamäki, Hanne (2020)
    Social media and its online communities and various platforms are actively used by hobby craft makers. Previous research has shown, that social media offers its users a place to meet people with similar intrests, an opportunity to share and receive information, and to showcase and receive feedback on their own crafts. Social media is also a place to find new inspiration ja ideas for future craft projects and serves as a virtual diary. The aim of this study was to find out how sewing-focused Facebook groups are used as part of the different stages of the sewing craft process; creating ideas, planning, makeing and evaluation, what kind of information, help or feedback is received from Facebook groups, and how this information is used in the sewing hobby. I was also interested in what kind of things is find to be meaningful in Facebook sewing groups. My research questions are 1) How are sewing-themed Facebook groups used at different stages of the sewing process, and 2) What issues group members find to be important in Facebook sewing groups. The data was collect througe semi-structural online survey, that included a call for volunteers to write about their experiences of how they use facebook groups during their sewing craft process. A link to the survey was shared in five Finnish Facebook sewing groups. There were 73 respondents. The writings were analyzed qualitatively, by means of content analysis. According to the research results, the groups are utilized in different ways in different stages of the sewing process, but the aims behind these different ways are very similar between the different stages: The groups are utilized to support progress in craft process, increase knowledge and as a helpt to clarify vision. In addition, a deliberate retrieval of feedback is identifiable in the evaluation phase. In the sewing groups, it was find to be importat to find new ideas and inspiration, learn new skills and develop oneself, seek information, meet people with similar intrests, and share information and help others.
  • Raikko, Roosa-Maria (2020)
    Tekoälypohjaisten järjestelmien käyttö on merkittävästi lisääntynyt viime vuosien aikana. Vaikka tekoälypohjaisia järjestelmiä kehitetään ja käytetään perinteisesti yksityisten toimijoiden toimesta, myös viranomaiset ovat alkaneet hyödyntämään tekoälypohjaisia järjestelmiä enenevissä määrin. Samalla, kun näiden järjestelmien käyttöaste kasvaa, on herännyt huoli siitä, kuinka vastuullisesti algoritmit toimivat. Vaikka kasvojentunnistus ei ole uusi ilmiö, on sen käyttö huomattavasti lisääntynyt viime vuosina tekoälypohjaisten algoritmien antamien tehokkuushyötyjen vuoksi. Etenkin rajavalvonnan osa-alueella kasvojentunnistuksen hyödyntämisen merkitys on kasvanut ja sen lisäämisestä keskustellaan laajemmin Euroopan Unionin alueella. Helmikuussa 2020 Euroopan komissio painotti Euroopan digitaalista tulevaisuutta rakentamassa -hankkeen yhteydessä luottamuksen ekosysteemin muodostamista tekoälyn suhteen. Hankkeen taustalla vaikuttaa muun muassa se, että lukuisat tutkimukset ovat osoittaneet, että tekoälyn kehitysprosessin aikana tehtävät toimet vaikuttavat siihen, miten järjestelmä oppii malleja sekä tekee päätöksiä. Tämän osalta etenkin koneoppimista varten tarvittava harjoitusdata määrittelee hyvinkin laajasti sen, miten järjestelmä toimii tulevaisuudessa. Näin ollen huomiota on alettu enenevissä määrin kiinnittää siihen, sisältääkö harjoitusdata mahdollisia piileviä ennakkoasenteita tai muutoin syrjiviä elementtejä. Etenkin kasvojentunnistuksen osalta on käynyt ilmi, että tällaisia elementtejä sisältäviä datasettejä on käytetty kasvojentunnistusjärjestelmien opettamiseen, joka puolestaan on johtanut näiden järjestelmien kykenemättömyyteen tunnistaa esimerkiksi vähemmistöjä. Yleisen tietosuoja-asetuksen 35 artiklan perusteella rekisterinpitäjän on ennen henkilötietojen käsittelyä toteutettava arviointi suunniteltujen käsittelytoimien vaikutuksista henkilötietojen suojalle. Vaikutustenarviointi on toteutettava etenkin silloin, jos käsittely todennäköisesti aiheuttaa luonnollisen henkilön oikeuksien ja vapauksien kannalta korkean riskin. Kasvojentunnistuksen käyttäminen rajavalvontatarkoituksiin on korostetun perusoikeusliitännäinen aihealue, joten 35 artiklan vaatimukset mitä todennäköisimmin täyttyvät. Kyseisten vaikutustenarviointien toimivuus on kuitenkin laajasti kyseenalaistettu, ja on esitetty, että algoritmien vaikutustenarviointi pystyisi paremmin arvioimaan tämän tyyppisten käsittelytoimien vaikutuksia. Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena on selventää yleisen tietosuoja-asetuksen 35 artiklan perusteella tehtävien vaikutustenarviointien suhdetta algoritmien vaikutustenarviointeihin. Tutkielmassa selvitetään, miten kyseiset arvioinnit eroavat toisistaan ja voidaanko ne katsoa erillisiksi arvioinneiksi, vai ovatko kyseiset vaikutustenarvioinnit läheisesti liitoksissa toisiinsa. Tutkimuskysymyksiä lähestytään lainopillisen metodin näkökulmasta siten, että ensin tarkastellaan kyseisten vaikutustenarviointien normitasoista sääntelyä. Tämän jälkeen tutkielmassa selvitetään, mitä ongelmia yleisen tietosuoja-asetuksen 35 artiklan perusteella tehtäviin vaikutustenarviointeihin liittyy ja samalla selvitetään, olisiko algoritmien vaikutustenarviointien lisääminen oikeudelliseen viitekehykseen tärkeää algoritmipohjaisten järjestelmien tuottamien laajojen, yli tietosuojan oikeudenalan menevien vaikutusten arvioimiseksi. Tutkimuskysymyksiä lähestytään rajavalvonnassa käytettävän kasvojentunnistusjärjestelmien näkökannalta, mutta kuitenkin siten, ettei jo olemassa olevia niin sanottuja pelkkiin todentamiseen perustuvia järjestelmiä tarkastella lähempää. Tutkielman tarkoituksena ei ole selventää, milloin kasvojentunnistusta voidaan käyttää rajavalvonnassa, vaan tarkoituksena on arvioida edellä mainittujen vaikutustenarviointien käytön toimivuutta silloin, kun kasvojentunnistusta käytetään. Tutkielman keskeinen johtopäätös on, että yleisen tietosuoja-asetuksen tietosuojakeskeinen viitekehys rajoittaa tietosuojaa koskevien vaikutustenarviointien laajuutta siten, että 35 artiklan perusteella tehtävät vaikutustenarvioinnit ovat kykenemättömiä arvioimaan rajavalvonnassa käytettävien kasvojentunnistusjärjestelmien aiheuttamia vaikutuksia. Tämän pohjalta tutkielmassa suositellaan, että algoritmien vaikutustenarviointi tulisi saattaa osaksi tekoälypohjaisia järjestelmiä koskevaa oikeudellista viitekehystä.
  • Huang, Haoyan (2023)
    Despite that curiosity is beneficial for learning, researchers found that it is declining among adolescents. The aim of this thesis is to identify the prominent environment facilitators for youths’ curiosity from an Ecological perspective that includes both family and school. To further understand the developmental effects, two age cohorts (10-year-old and 15-year-old) were compared. In total, 5482 Finnish students (3034 aged 10, 2448 aged 15) from the OECD Survey on Social-emotional Skills were chosen and their family and school factors related to basic psychological needs were surveyed (autonomy, competence, relatedness). Using Complex Two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling, results demonstrated that (1) parents’ criterion-referenced evaluation, relations with both parents and teachers were associated with youths’ curiosity, whereas autonomy support was not; (2) parents’ criterion-referenced evaluation played the primary role in younger youths’ curiosity, but its effect was much smaller in the elder cohort; and (3) relations with teachers was a vital driving factor for elder youths’ curiosity, though its effect was weaker on the younger. Findings extend the literature by identifying the prominent need-based supporting factors in different age periods for youths’ curiosity facilitation.
  • Mustamäki, Milla (2013)
    The World Trade Organization (WTO), established in 1994, has been criticized for not sufficiently accommodating other values of international law such as the environment or human rights. This study examines interaction and possible collisions between the WTO and other special regimes of international law from the viewpoint of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. Both normative and jurisdictional conflicts are studied. The purpose is to analyze the means available in international law to solve these conflicts and whether they actually are working. There is no hierarchy between international tribunals and no codified rules on how to solve conflicts of jurisdiction. Treaty clauses may be of some help, but often the clauses are too vague to offer any guidance in practical situations. Traditional principles governing jurisdiction, such as res judicata and lis pendens, might solve conflicts inside one regime, but they seem to work poorly in conflicts of jurisdiction between different special regimes. Parallel proceedings can be avoided if one of the tribunals shows deference to the other, or if the parties manage to agree on the relevant tribunal. Paradoxically, politics and diplomacy seems to play an important role in solving conflicts of jurisdiction between international tribunals. Normative conflicts can be defined either narrowly or broadly. This study advocates a broad definition of conflict in order to realize conflicts between obligations and permissions, and to avoid solving conflicts by merely defining them narrowly. Conflicts can be avoided through interpretation in the light of other rules of international law applicable between the parties, also known as systemic integration. Systemic integration could be especially useful in smoothing friction in the interaction between the WTO and other special regimes. However, so far the WTO panels and the Appellate Body have not made use of systemic integration to the extent possible. Actual conflict rules become necessary when interpretation fails in providing harmony between two conflicting norms. It is concluded that conflict rules, such as lex posterior and lex specialis, can be of use when solving conflicts inside one regime, but their applicability to conflicts between special regimes is problematic. Possible conflicts between peremptory norms and WTO law are also discussed. It is concluded that solving jurisdictional and normative conflicts has more to do with political decision-making than with the application of legal rules. It is suggested that the interaction between the WTO and other special regimes could further be enhanced by a broad definition of conflict and the utilization of systemic integration to its full extent.
  • Julkunen, Jenny (2017)
    From the perspective of symbolic interactionism gender identities are negotiated in interaction. This study illustrates how transgender individuals negotiate on their gender identities in everyday interaction. The emergence of communication and interaction technologies and development of various online settings provide essential and unique contexts for these ongoing identity negotiations. This study focuses on how transgender individuals negotiate on gender identities in offline and online settings. As minority identities and online settings relate closely tor regulating privacy, special attention is directed to the relation of identity negotiation and privacy. This study is based on semi-structured intensive interviews of ten Finnish self-identified transgenders. The interviewees self-identified as transfeminines, transmasculines and non-binary and their ages ranged from 26 to over 60 years. Interview data is analysed with constructivist grounded theory analysis. The findings highlight the importance of online settings for gender minorities as it provides necessary privacy, tools to control interaction and presentation of “authentic self”. The automated face-recognition, friend recommendation systems in online settings and fear of confrontation in offline settings complicated the efforts to control interaction and presentation of self. This resulted continuous balancing between strategies to protect and disclose in order to construct a desired identity. These findings portray the relation of safe environments, personal control and identity negotiation. The findings suggest that individual´s identity negotiations are bounded in situations and contexts. It was discovered that online and offline contexts set various and differing boundaries and possibilities for identity negotiations. Online and offline settings are interwoven entities where transgenders manoeuvre flexibly to express themselves while protecting their safety and privacy.
  • Uusikorpi, Juuso (2020)
    The geochemical regolith data gathered from Dzhumba, a gold prospect in eastern Kazakhstan, was analyzed using factor analysis and then integrated into ArcGIS as spatial data. Principal axis factoring method was used for factor extraction combined with varimax orthogonal rotation and Kaiser normalization. Five clear factors were extracted from the data set of 47 elements in 3942 regolith samples. Kriging interpolation was used to generate spatial data surfaces from factor scores. The generated factors are composed of the geochemical associations in the raw data, and represent the underlying geological processes and formations of the area. The fourth factor generated represents gold mineralization with As, Sb, Au, Zr, Sc, Mn, Mo, Cu, K and Ni being the elements that are positively loaded onto factor 4. Therefore, single element maps of these elements have been produced alongside the factor maps in order to examine factor 4 more intensely. Also maps about structural geology and alteration in the Dzhumba project area have been produced in order to give better understanding of the factor maps. The data suggests that the deposit type is an orogenic gold deposit. Other factors created interesting results as well, and they gave information about the different geological units of the area. Factor 1 represents granitic rocks by their feldspar and trace element content, factor 2 represents black shales with possible mafic rock constituents, factor 3 represents a sulfide rich mafic mineral group or graphitic rocks that are most likely black shales and factor 5 possibly represents calcite alteration. Factor 4 is the main interest of this study. The most intense loadings for factor 4 are in Brigadnoe, Svistun and Dzhumba with a small peak in Belyi. Single element map for gold mostly corresponds to factor 4 for Svistun and Dzhumba, but Brigadnoe is represented with a small peak. However, gold has a major presence in Fedor-Ivanovskoe, which is absent from factor 4. Further exploration in Fedor-Ivanovskoe could be performed in order to clarify if this is due to an unrelated gold-only deposit or some other event. Possible future exploration in the area could benefit from factor 4 results, using As and Sb, or a combination of As, Sb, Zr, Sc, Mn, Mo, Cu, K and Ni as pathfinders for possible gold occurrences.
  • Muranen, Antti (2022)
    Factoring on yrityksen liiketoiminnassa syntyvien laskusaatavien hyödyntämiseen perustuva erityisrahoitusmuoto. Suomalaisessa rahoituskäytännössä factoringjärjestely rakennetaan tyypillisesti laskusaatavien yleispanttauksen varaan. Factoring perustuu factoringrahoittajan ja asiakasyrityksen väliseen rahoitussopimukseen, jossa sovitaan factoringin puitteissa myönnettävän luoton ehdoista sekä toisaalta järjestelyyn liittyvistä vakuuksista. Tyypillisesti asiakasyritys sitoutuu rahoitussopimuksessa siirtämään kaikki nykyiset ja tulevat toimialansa mukaisesta liiketoiminnasta syntyvät laskusaatavansa factoringrahoittajalle rahoitussopimukseen perustuvien factoringrahoittajan saatavien vakuudeksi. Laskusaatavan siirrossa asiakasyritykseltä factoringrahoittajalle katsotaan olevan kyse laskusaatavan panttauksesta. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan lainopillisin menetelmin factoringjärjestelyn puitteissa tapahtuvaa laskusaatavan panttausta sekä sen sitovuutta factoringrahoittajan asiakasyrityksen konkurssitilanteessa. Jotta factoringrahoittaja saavuttaisi turvatun panttivelkojan aseman asiakasyrityksen konkurssissa, tulee laskusaatavan panttauksen olla paitsi oikeustoimena pätevä niin myös esineoikeudellisesti tehokas suhteessa asiakasyrityksen konkurssivelkojiin. Tutkielmassa eritellään laskusaatavan panttauksen pätevyyden sekä esineoikeudellisen tehokkuuden osatekijöitä ja edellytyksiä. Vaikka laskusaatavan panttaus olisi oikeustoimena pätevä sekä myös esineoikeudellisesti tehokas suhteessa asiakasyrityksen konkurssivelkojiin, voi panttaus silti tulla peräytettäväksi konkurssipesään jonkin takaisinsaannista konkurssipesään annetussa laissa (758/1991, TakSL) säädetyn takaisinsaantiperusteen nojalla. Tutkielmassa on tarkasteltu factoringpanttaukseen liittyvää takaisinsaantiriskiä TakSL 5 §:n mukaisen yleisen takaisinsaantiperusteen sekä vakuuden peräytymistä koskevan TakSL 14 §:n perusteella. Riski factoringjärjestelyyn perustuvan laskusaatavan panttauksen peräyttämisestä TakSL 14 §:n perusteella vaikuttaisi olevan olemassa erityisesti sellaisissa tilanteissa, joissa takaisinsaantiaikana pantatuilla laskusaatavilla katetaan aikaisemmin pantattujen kokonaan tai osittain arvottomiksi osoittautuneiden laskusaatavien synnyttämää vakuusvajetta. Takaisinsaantiperusteen edellytysten täyttymistä ei kuitenkaan factoringpanttauksen yhteydessä ole välttämätöntä arvioida täysin saatavakohtaisesti, sillä factoringjärjestelyssä vakuutena voidaan käsittää olevan factoringrahoittajalle siirretyistä laskusaatavista muodostuva rahavirta vakuusmassana. Vakuusmassa-ajatteluun perustuen on mahdollista esittää jopa sellainen tulkinta, että factoringjärjestelyyn perustuvat takaisinsaantiaikana tehdyt laskusaatavien panttaukset eivät ole TakSL 14 §:n mukaisesti peräytettävissä, vaikka panttauksilla olisi ainoastaan katettu aikaisemmin pantattujen laskusaatavien arvottomuudesta johtunutta vakuusvajetta, mikäli panttauksia voidaan muutoin pitää factoringjärjestelyn puitteissa tavanomaisina. Oikeustila vaikuttaa kuitenkin olevan avoin sen osalta, onko tällaista tulkintaa perusteltua tehdä.
  • Nuutinen, Vilma (2016)
    Tässä tutkielmassa pyritään antamaan kokonaisvaltainen kuvaus factoring-rahoituksen toteuttamisesta Suomen oikeus- järjestelmän puitteissa. Tavoitteena on antaa kokonaisvaltainen kuvaus kaikesta rahoitusmuotoon vaikuttavasta säänte- lystä. Factoring-rahoitusta, kuten monia muitakaan rahoitusmuotoja, ei sääntele oma lakinsa, jolloin rahoitusmuoto tulee arvioitavaksi niin velkakirjalain, kauppakaaren kuin myös oikeustoimilain normien kautta. Tutkielmassa pyritään antamaan kattava kuvaus kaikesta tästä sääntelystä. Erityistä huomiota kiinnitetään rahoitusmuodon kannalta keskei- simpään sääntelyyn eli panttioikeudelliseen sääntelyyn. Factoring-rahoitus on luonteeltaan kolmikantasuhde, jossa on mukana rahoittaja, asiakasyritys sekä velallinen. Tut- kielmassa tarkastellaan näitä henkilösuhteita rahoittajan näkökulmasta ja esitetään, mitä riskejä näihin suhteisiin lain- säädännön tasolta kohdistuu, ja annetaan suosituksia siitä, miten nämä riskit voidaan etukäteisesti torjua. Factoring-rahoituksen toteutuksen ja siihen kohdistuvien riskien osalta tutkimuksessa päädytään siihen lopputulokseen, että rahoitusmuotoon kohdistuvat suurimmat riskit voidaan etukäteisesti sopimusoikeudellisin keinoin sulkea pois. Tutkielmassa esitetään, että riskienhallinnan kannalta suotavinta olisi, että rahoitusmuodon käyttö otettaisiin huomioon asiakasyrityksen toiminnassa ja omissa sopimusehdoissa jo ennen yrityksen ryhtymistä factoring-rahoitukseen. Omana osanaan tutkielmassa tarkastellaan myös asiakasyrityksen konkurssin vaikutuksia factoring- rahoitusjärjestelyyn, erityisesti takaisinsaantilain 14 §:n näkökulmasta. Suomen oikeusjärjestelmässä factoring-rahoitus järjestetään pääsääntöisesti panttauksen kautta. Tällöin asiakasyritys siirtää rahoittajalle laskusaatavakantansa, joka toimii yleisvakuutena rahoittajan saamisista asiakasyritykseltä. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan sitä, voidaanko nämä va- kuudet peräyttää asiakasyrityksen konkurssipesään TakSL 14 §:n edellytysten mukaisesti. Takaisinsaantilain soveltamisen osalta tullaan siihen tulkinnalliseen lopputulokseen, että vain tapauksissa, joissa facto- ring-rahoitukseen liittyviä vakuuksia on annettu rahoittajalla ilman liiketaloudellista perustetta, on takaisinsaanti mah- dollista. Mikäli factoring-rahoitus ja siihen liittyvät oikeudelliset toimet on tehty yrityksen normaaliin liiketoiminnan puitteissa, ei takaisinsaanti voi tulla kyseeseen kuin poikkeustapauksissa. Tutkielmassa myös esitetään, että takaisin- saantilain 14 §:n soveltamisedellytys, oikeustoimen vahingollisuus muiden velkojien näkökulmasta, ei voi muutoin kuin poikkeustapauksissa aktualisoitua factoring-rahoituksessa, vaikka jompikumpi pykälän soveltamisedellytyksistä, vakuuden antaminen vanhasta velasta ja julkivarmistuksen viivästyminen, täyttyisi.
  • Kaksonen, Kerttu (2023)
    Factoringtoiminnassa on kyse yritykselle syntyneiden laskusaatavien muuttamisesta rahaksi joko panttaamalla tai myymällä ne factoringtoimijalle. Arvonlisäverotuksen näkökulmasta factoringtoimijan harjoittamassa factoringtoiminnassa voi olla kyse arvonlisäverollisen palvelun myynnistä, arvonlisäverosta vapautetun rahoituspalvelun myynnistä, arvonlisäverollisesta ja arvonlisäverottomasta osasuorituksesta koostuvan palvelun myynnistä tai arvonlisäverotuksen ulkopuolelle jäävästä saamisten hankinnasta. Jos factoringpalvelun katsotaan koostuvan osasuorituksista, joiden arvonlisäverokohtelut eroavat toisistaan, tulee pohdittavaksi jakamis- tai liittymisperiaatteen soveltuminen. Tarkastelun kohteena on erityisesti factoringpalvelun myynnin arvonlisäverokohtelu, mutta myös factoringpalvelun ostajan arvonlisäveron vähennysoikeutta käsitellään tutkielmassa. Factoringtoiminnan arvonlisäverokohtelusta on kertynyt verrattain paljon kotimaista oikeuskäytäntöä, minkä lisäksi Euroopan unionin tuomioistuimen oikeuskäytäntö on keskeisessä asemassa arvonlisäverosta vapautetun rahoituspalvelun käsitteen sekä jakamis- ja liittymisperiaatteiden tulkinnassa. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan Suomen voimassa olevaa oikeustilaa lainopillisesta näkökulmasta. Koska arvonlisäverotus on harmonisoitu Euroopan unionin arvonlisäveroalueella direktiivillä, kuljetetaan läpi tutkielman mukana myös EU-oikeudellista näkökulmaa kysymykseen. Koska termillä factoring voidaan tarkoittaa hyvin monenlaista toimintaa, ei ole olemassa yhtä arvonlisäverokohtelua, joka soveltuisi kaikkeen factoringiin. Tutkielman tavoitteena on löytää ne factoringtoiminnan piirteet, jotka vaikuttavat toiminnan arvonlisäverokohteluun.
  • Wang, Shijun (2018)
    The article shows the history of studies of DC, stresses the importance of lateral transport of DC, explores and reviews the factors (vegetation, soil, temperature and precipitation, discharge, pH, weathering, global change and human perturbations) affecting transport of DC from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems and reveals many research gaps, which currently hinder a systematic understanding of lateral transport of DC from aquatic to ecosystems. The inclusion of DIC and DOC in the context of lateral transport of carbon offers more information on studies of DC. This article offers insight into the factors affecting the lateral transport of DC for future studies that focus on constructing models of the global carbon cycle and the estimate of terrestrial/global carbon budget. In addition, the factors affecting the transport of DC from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems shed some light on the management of forests, peatlands, agricultural activities and land use changes.
  • Bosas, Janina; Toffol, Elena; Pohjoranta, Elina; Mentula, Maarit; Hurskainen, Ritva; Suhonen, Satu; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2023)
    Introduction Sexual well-being is associated with general well-being. Several factors, such as overweight, infertility, anxiety, and sex hormones, also play a role, but the effects of hormonal contraception remains a point of debate. We characterized the factors associated with sexual well-being in fertile-aged women following induced abortion. Methods A 5-year follow-up of a nested longitudinal cohort study examining the effects of routine provision of intrauterine contraception as part of abortion care. Sexual well-being, anxiety, and quality of life were assessed annually using validated questionnaires (McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and EuroQoL), along with data on general and reproductive health, and relationship status. Of the 742 women participating in the trial, 290 (39%) provided sufficient follow-up data and were included in this study. Results Based on trajectories of McCoy-scores across the 5-year follow up, two groups were identified: those with stable and higher (n=223, 76.9%) and those with declining sexual well-being (n=67, 23.1%). Women in the group of declining sexual well-being had significantly higher levels of anxiety and lower quality of life at all time points. They also had more often chronic diseases and were less happy in their relationships. No differences were found in method of contraception when classified as hormonal vs non- hormonal, or long-acting vs short-acting reversible contraception. Conclusions Lower anxiety and higher quality of life are associated with stable and higher sexual well- being. Method of contraception or relationship status are not associated with sexual well-being during long-term follow-up in fertile aged women.
  • Tilander, Vivianna (2023)
    Context: An abundance of research on the productivity of software development teams and developers exists identifying many factors and their effects in different contexts and concerning different aspects of productivity. Objective: This thesis aims to collect and analyse existing recent research results of factors that are related to or directly influence the productivity of teams or developers, how they influence it in different contexts and briefly summarise the metrics used in recent studies to measure productivity. Method: The method selected to reach for these aims was to conduct a systematic literature review on relevant studies published between 2017 and 2022. Altogether, 48 studies were selected and analysed during the review. Results: The metrics used by the reviewed studies for measuring productivity range from time used for completing a task to self-evaluated productivity to the amount of commits contributed. Some of these are used by multiple studies and many by only one or a few and measure productivity from different angles. Various factors were found and these range from team size to experienced emotion to working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. The relationships found between these factors and some aspects of the productivity of developers and teams range from positive to negative and sometimes both depending on the context and the productivity metric in question. Conclusions: While many relationships were found between various factors and the productivity of software developers and development teams in this review, these do not cover all possible factors, relationships or measurable productivity aspects in all possible contexts. Additionally, one should keep in mind that most of the found relationships do not imply causality.
  • Lamminen, Markku (2016)
    Formation of second skin under artificial casing is essential when manufacturing of skinless frankfurters. The aim of this study was to study how manufacture skinless frankfurters that have a good and firm bite. In literature part the aim was to study factors what affect the formation of the second skin. Skinless frankfurters were manufactured with 4 different artificial cellulose casing: 23 mm non-CMC (carboxymethylcellulose) casing, 23mm Rapid Peel®-casing, 21 mm Rapid Peel®-casing, 17 mm Rapid Peel®-casing. Frankfurters were prepared with 2 different recipes and thermal treated with 3 different smoking-cooking programs. Commercial and pilot plant prepared natural casing frankfurters were used as a reference. Properties of frankfurters were tested with sensory analysis by making sensory profile of each product (Colour intensity, Flexibility/bendability of skin, Snappiness of the skin (voice), Snappy bite, Gumminess of the skin and Texture of frankfurter). Physical test methods to measure frankfurters were: cooking loss; colour measurements (Minolta); shear force and maximum load of skin with Allo-Kramer device and peak force needed when skin breaks with Texture Analyser. Physical test showed that all product types need to have their own tailored smoking and cooking program to reach the wanted result. Texture analyser and Allo-Kramer-device did not give any logical results so these methods needs more testing for useful results. Sensory evaluation indicated that the properties of a natural casing frankfurter is hard to achieve by manufacturing skinless frankfurter. The differences between artificial casing samples were low in all experiments. But when comparing these results to natural casing had significantly (p<0.05) lower bendability of skin, snappiness and gumminess of the skin was higher as well as the overall texture of frankfurter was harder than skinless frankfurters. In conclusion, skinless frankfurters made with artificial casings could not compete with properties of natural casings. Maybe it is possible to get very close with the right recipe, additives, casing and thermal treatment. But at the moment the natural casing is unbeaten.
  • Vanhatalo, Anna (2009)
    Outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism have increased during the last ten years. In addition, the interest towards national parks has grown, which can be seen also as an increasing trend in the development of the number of visits to national parks. The aim of this thesis is to explain the cross-sectional variation in the visitation data representing different parks and hiking areas. Another aim is to explore the question of why the visitation in national parks has increased in Finland. These questions are studied separately for the national parks and hiking areas, because the development of the number of visits in national parks and hiking areas has been different. In addition, the separation is made also between Southern Finland and Northern Finland due to for example the size differences and close link of the national parks in Northern Finland with the ski-resort centers. Explanatory factors are divided into supply side factors (services inside and outside the park) and demand side factors (economic and demographics factors). The data is a panel data, including all national parks and hiking areas in the time period 2000?2008. The one-way fixed effects model is used in the regression analysis. According to results the land area of the park, services inside the park and population size seemed to have positive effects on the number of visits. Income per capita had negative impact on the visits. In Southern Finland the size of the age-class 65?74 affected positively the number of visits, whereas the effect of gasoline price was negative. Used time period was short due to the lack of appropriate data. Thus, the results reflect more the cross-sectional variation between parks. Results can be used in the planning of the management of national parks and hiking areas.
  • Muurman, Tuulikki (2021)
    Background: Poor health literacy (HL) is associated to increased hospitalization and decreased seeking for screenings. Shared decision making can increase patient knowledge, decrease anxiety over the care process, improve health outcomes and reduce health care costs. Little is known about factors influencing health literacy and participation in treatment decision making in different population groups. Objectives: To investigate factors predicting HL and participation in the treatment decision making. Methods: A cross-sectional population online survey conducted in Finland in 2019 by Finnish Medicines Agency. Both health literacy and participation in the decision making were assessed by three statements that sum variables were created with score 1-5 (Cronbach’s alpha value 0.584 and 0.810). Age, gender, education, household income and most common chronic diseases were chosen as possible predicting factors. Two-variable Pearson’s chi-squared test was first used to find significant factors followed by logistic regression analysis to take into account several variables. Results: Of all the respondents (n=2104) 76.5% had good HL and 73.4% had willingness to participate in the treatment decision making. In the two-variable test older age (p<0.001), lower education (p<0.001), lower household income (p=0.001), higher number of chronic diseases (p=0.003), having cardiovascular diseases (p=0.003), diabetes (p=0.029) and cancer (p=0.001) predicted poorer health literacy. Male gender (p=0.001), not having chronic diseases (p=0.001), not having a musculoskeletal disorder (p=0.050) or mental health disorders (p<0.001) predicted poorer participation in the treatment decision making. In the logistic regression analysis older age and having cancer predicted poorer health literacy. Male gender and not having mental health disorders predicted less willingness to participate in the decision making. Conclusions: Older age and cancer predicts poorer health literacy and male gender poorer willingness to participate in the decision making. Further research should focus on investigating more in detail the contributing factors to these findings, and how health literacy in elderly and men’s involvement to the decision making could be improved.
  • Prinkey, Tyler (2024)
    Aims: There is no information on changes in body mass index (BMI) due to the COVID-19 pandemic among persons of migrant origin. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on BMI and factors associated with changes in BMI among the general- and migrant-origin populations in Finland. Methods: Individual-level changes in self-reported BMI among migrant origin persons (n=3313) were obtained from the FinMonik Survey conducted in 2018 and MigCOVID Survey conducted 2020-2021. Data for the general population reference group was obtained from the FinHealth 2017 Study conducted 2017-2018 and the FinHealth 2017 follow-up Study (n= 2982). Logistic regression was applied to examine the association between changes in BMI and age, sex, education, economic activity, length of residence in Finland, language skills, smoking, alcohol usage, sleep, physical activity, snacking, and fruit and vegetable consumption. A significant change in BMI was defined as a 5% or greater change. Results: 40.8 percent of the migrant-origin population and 41.2 percent of the general population in Finland experienced at least a five percent change in BMI. Persons of migrant origin who were other than students or employed (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.18, 2.48) faced an increased risk for an increase in BMI of at least 5%, while being between 35-49 (OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.49, 0.98) and between 50-66 (OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.36, 0.83) had a significantly decreased risk. In the general population, an increase in BMI of at least 5% was more likely to occur among women (OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.26, 2.07), those who were other than students or employed (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.26, 2.25), those who increased their alcohol intake (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.06, 2.54), those who increased their snacking (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.04, 1.90) and decreased their fruit and vegetable intake (OR=1.85 , 95% CI 1.18, 2.90). An increase of at least 5% in BMI was inversely related with being between the ages of 50 and 66 (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.27, 0.57), having secondary education or higher (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.43, 0.86), and even among those who smoked more during the pandemic (OR=0.50, 95% CI 0.26, 0.96). Conclusions: Although economic activity was determined to be a significant predictor of increases in BMI among both general- and migrant-origin populations, most examined factors applied differently to each population. These differences must be considered when planning future public health promotion efforts, particularly those during crisis situations.