Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Hautsalo, Juho (2013)
    The objective of this study was to develop functional method for producing doupled-haploid plants for faba bean. Microspore culture is an advanced method to produce doubled-haploids and it is based on the totipotent nature of plant cells, since even a microspore, which is an immature pollen cell with haploid genome, can develop into a plant. This plant is either haploid or doupled haploid depending on whether there has been chromosome doubling or not and because the chromosomes either do not have pairs or the pairs are pure copies of each other, the plant is completely homozygous. Doubled haploids are already used in breeding programs with several crops such as wheat, barley and oilseed rape. Faba bean is an important legume for food, feed and crop rotation. Together with other legumes it has the potential to replace soybean imports entirely in Finland. Faba bean yield stability and anti-nutritional factors restrain its use and active breeding is required to improve the crop. In Finland, where pea and faba bean are the only grain legumes actively cultivated, the breeding of faba bean has been recently reactivated and its objectives are earliness, higher yield, protein content and improved quality factors. Big bottle neck in faba bean breeding is the creation of pure homozygote lines because the partial cross-breeding in the species sets restrains for the procedure. In this study promising pea and chick pea protocols that were developed in 2009 and an efficient rapeseed protocol were applied with faba bean. The interaction of various stress treatments and two different induction media with five genotypes of faba bean on microspore culture were analysed. Pro-embryos and cell divisions were observed from the cultures. Heat shock was the most effective stress treatment. Effects of density and induction medium were high and cultivar’s low tannin content seemed to impact positively to induction efficiency. These results suggest that for faba bean microspore culture is as suitable method as anther culture is and that there is hope to produce doubled-haploid faba beans in the future.
  • Niskakoski, Anni (2022)
    Previous studies have demonstrated that legume proteins have high potential to lose their native functional properties during conventional wet fractionation, since heating and drying in the processes can lead to protein aggregation and solubility reduction. However, the effect of this process on faba bean protein has not been investigated thoroughly before, according to the literature review. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of wet fractionation process with and without spray drying on faba bean protein gelling properties. The hypothesis was that protein isolate produced with isoelectric precipitation without spray drying would have better solubility and gelling properties than spray dried isolate. Faba bean protein concentrate (FBPC) was used to prepare faba bean protein isolate with alkaline extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation, which was then dispersed into water and neutralized (faba bean protein slurry, FBPS). Some of FBPS was spray-dried (pilot faba bean protein isolate, FBPI-P). Commercial faba bean protein isolate (FBPI-C) was used as a reference sample. Their (FBPC, FBPS, FBPI-P, FBPI-C) functionality was studied by measuring thermal denaturation (DSC), protein solubility, particle size and light microscope pictures. In addition, glucono delta lactone (GDL) induced oil-in-water emulsion gels were prepared from FBPS, FBPI-P and FBPI-C. Water holding capacity (WHC), rheological and texture properties were measured from the gel samples. Surprisingly the obtained results of faba bean in this study were different from previous research on other legume proteins. It was found that spray-dried FBPI-P showed better gelling properties than wet based FBPS. This might be due to differences in thermal denaturation. Based on DSC curves, FBPI-C was found to be fully denatured and in a poor solubility. Interestingly, GDL-induced gels had strongest gel properties, which might be highly related to industrial manufacturing process of FBPI-C. When considering the theoretical environmental impact of these processes, FBPS could show potential of being more environmentally friendly process, as it could be more energy efficient than processes which require drying and heating. It was demonstrated that FBPS showed almost as good functional properties as the pilot spray-dried isolate. Hence, FBPS could work as functional and more environmentally friendly option for food industry. Future study could be conducted in near future about FBPS safety, technological applications, process optimization and environmental impact.
  • Zhu, Lin (2016)
    Hydrogels are promising biomaterials for tissue engineering. Concerning hydrogels chemical structures, the hydrogen bonding towards water makes them hydrophilic compounds. Hydrogels contain 95% ~ 99% water as the swelling agent and have the characteristics of extracellular matrix. Therefore, they are suitable for cell growth and appropriate for forming cell culture. Hydrogels can mimic the cell microenvironments and promote cell differentiation by interactions with cells. Cells can get oxygen, nutrients exchange as well as removal of metabolic waste to live. Hydrogels can be categorized into natural hydrogels, synthetic hydrogels and hybrid hydrogels by sources. Agarose, Collagen and Calcium alginate are the most popular natural hydrogels. Polyethylene (glycol) and its derivative Polyethylene (glycol) Diacrylate (PEGDA) are indispensable synthetic hydrogels. In this thesis, hydrogels are studied for their chemical structure, physical and mechanical properties and gel formation. Typical hydrogels, i.e. agarose, polyethylene (glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), collagen and calcium alginate, are reviewed for their methodology of formation, mechanical properties and applications. Since hydrogel is a solid containing a given amount of water, it has viscoelasticity. Rheology test mechanism is described for viscoelastic materials. Micropatterning methods of hydrogels are investigated in variety of approaches. How the patterned surfaces affect cell behaviour is discussed in our literature review. From the experimental results, agarose and polyethylene (glycol) diacrylate are successfully fabricated and their micropatterned hydrogels show promising properties. In addition, impact of mechanical properties, such as water diffusion in hydrogels, how temperatures influence hydrogel structures and durability of the structures storage are investigated. Hydrogel viscoelasticities are measured by rheometer. Hydrogels are also tested in chips and cell wells for future cell growth study. Finally, this research has successfully fabricated the 3D micropatterned hydrogels for cell culture.
  • Katajamäki, Hanne (2020)
    Social media and its online communities and various platforms are actively used by hobby craft makers. Previous research has shown, that social media offers its users a place to meet people with similar intrests, an opportunity to share and receive information, and to showcase and receive feedback on their own crafts. Social media is also a place to find new inspiration ja ideas for future craft projects and serves as a virtual diary. The aim of this study was to find out how sewing-focused Facebook groups are used as part of the different stages of the sewing craft process; creating ideas, planning, makeing and evaluation, what kind of information, help or feedback is received from Facebook groups, and how this information is used in the sewing hobby. I was also interested in what kind of things is find to be meaningful in Facebook sewing groups. My research questions are 1) How are sewing-themed Facebook groups used at different stages of the sewing process, and 2) What issues group members find to be important in Facebook sewing groups. The data was collect througe semi-structural online survey, that included a call for volunteers to write about their experiences of how they use facebook groups during their sewing craft process. A link to the survey was shared in five Finnish Facebook sewing groups. There were 73 respondents. The writings were analyzed qualitatively, by means of content analysis. According to the research results, the groups are utilized in different ways in different stages of the sewing process, but the aims behind these different ways are very similar between the different stages: The groups are utilized to support progress in craft process, increase knowledge and as a helpt to clarify vision. In addition, a deliberate retrieval of feedback is identifiable in the evaluation phase. In the sewing groups, it was find to be importat to find new ideas and inspiration, learn new skills and develop oneself, seek information, meet people with similar intrests, and share information and help others.
  • Raikko, Roosa-Maria (2020)
    Tekoälypohjaisten järjestelmien käyttö on merkittävästi lisääntynyt viime vuosien aikana. Vaikka tekoälypohjaisia järjestelmiä kehitetään ja käytetään perinteisesti yksityisten toimijoiden toimesta, myös viranomaiset ovat alkaneet hyödyntämään tekoälypohjaisia järjestelmiä enenevissä määrin. Samalla, kun näiden järjestelmien käyttöaste kasvaa, on herännyt huoli siitä, kuinka vastuullisesti algoritmit toimivat. Vaikka kasvojentunnistus ei ole uusi ilmiö, on sen käyttö huomattavasti lisääntynyt viime vuosina tekoälypohjaisten algoritmien antamien tehokkuushyötyjen vuoksi. Etenkin rajavalvonnan osa-alueella kasvojentunnistuksen hyödyntämisen merkitys on kasvanut ja sen lisäämisestä keskustellaan laajemmin Euroopan Unionin alueella. Helmikuussa 2020 Euroopan komissio painotti Euroopan digitaalista tulevaisuutta rakentamassa -hankkeen yhteydessä luottamuksen ekosysteemin muodostamista tekoälyn suhteen. Hankkeen taustalla vaikuttaa muun muassa se, että lukuisat tutkimukset ovat osoittaneet, että tekoälyn kehitysprosessin aikana tehtävät toimet vaikuttavat siihen, miten järjestelmä oppii malleja sekä tekee päätöksiä. Tämän osalta etenkin koneoppimista varten tarvittava harjoitusdata määrittelee hyvinkin laajasti sen, miten järjestelmä toimii tulevaisuudessa. Näin ollen huomiota on alettu enenevissä määrin kiinnittää siihen, sisältääkö harjoitusdata mahdollisia piileviä ennakkoasenteita tai muutoin syrjiviä elementtejä. Etenkin kasvojentunnistuksen osalta on käynyt ilmi, että tällaisia elementtejä sisältäviä datasettejä on käytetty kasvojentunnistusjärjestelmien opettamiseen, joka puolestaan on johtanut näiden järjestelmien kykenemättömyyteen tunnistaa esimerkiksi vähemmistöjä. Yleisen tietosuoja-asetuksen 35 artiklan perusteella rekisterinpitäjän on ennen henkilötietojen käsittelyä toteutettava arviointi suunniteltujen käsittelytoimien vaikutuksista henkilötietojen suojalle. Vaikutustenarviointi on toteutettava etenkin silloin, jos käsittely todennäköisesti aiheuttaa luonnollisen henkilön oikeuksien ja vapauksien kannalta korkean riskin. Kasvojentunnistuksen käyttäminen rajavalvontatarkoituksiin on korostetun perusoikeusliitännäinen aihealue, joten 35 artiklan vaatimukset mitä todennäköisimmin täyttyvät. Kyseisten vaikutustenarviointien toimivuus on kuitenkin laajasti kyseenalaistettu, ja on esitetty, että algoritmien vaikutustenarviointi pystyisi paremmin arvioimaan tämän tyyppisten käsittelytoimien vaikutuksia. Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena on selventää yleisen tietosuoja-asetuksen 35 artiklan perusteella tehtävien vaikutustenarviointien suhdetta algoritmien vaikutustenarviointeihin. Tutkielmassa selvitetään, miten kyseiset arvioinnit eroavat toisistaan ja voidaanko ne katsoa erillisiksi arvioinneiksi, vai ovatko kyseiset vaikutustenarvioinnit läheisesti liitoksissa toisiinsa. Tutkimuskysymyksiä lähestytään lainopillisen metodin näkökulmasta siten, että ensin tarkastellaan kyseisten vaikutustenarviointien normitasoista sääntelyä. Tämän jälkeen tutkielmassa selvitetään, mitä ongelmia yleisen tietosuoja-asetuksen 35 artiklan perusteella tehtäviin vaikutustenarviointeihin liittyy ja samalla selvitetään, olisiko algoritmien vaikutustenarviointien lisääminen oikeudelliseen viitekehykseen tärkeää algoritmipohjaisten järjestelmien tuottamien laajojen, yli tietosuojan oikeudenalan menevien vaikutusten arvioimiseksi. Tutkimuskysymyksiä lähestytään rajavalvonnassa käytettävän kasvojentunnistusjärjestelmien näkökannalta, mutta kuitenkin siten, ettei jo olemassa olevia niin sanottuja pelkkiin todentamiseen perustuvia järjestelmiä tarkastella lähempää. Tutkielman tarkoituksena ei ole selventää, milloin kasvojentunnistusta voidaan käyttää rajavalvonnassa, vaan tarkoituksena on arvioida edellä mainittujen vaikutustenarviointien käytön toimivuutta silloin, kun kasvojentunnistusta käytetään. Tutkielman keskeinen johtopäätös on, että yleisen tietosuoja-asetuksen tietosuojakeskeinen viitekehys rajoittaa tietosuojaa koskevien vaikutustenarviointien laajuutta siten, että 35 artiklan perusteella tehtävät vaikutustenarvioinnit ovat kykenemättömiä arvioimaan rajavalvonnassa käytettävien kasvojentunnistusjärjestelmien aiheuttamia vaikutuksia. Tämän pohjalta tutkielmassa suositellaan, että algoritmien vaikutustenarviointi tulisi saattaa osaksi tekoälypohjaisia järjestelmiä koskevaa oikeudellista viitekehystä.
  • Mustamäki, Milla (2013)
    The World Trade Organization (WTO), established in 1994, has been criticized for not sufficiently accommodating other values of international law such as the environment or human rights. This study examines interaction and possible collisions between the WTO and other special regimes of international law from the viewpoint of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. Both normative and jurisdictional conflicts are studied. The purpose is to analyze the means available in international law to solve these conflicts and whether they actually are working. There is no hierarchy between international tribunals and no codified rules on how to solve conflicts of jurisdiction. Treaty clauses may be of some help, but often the clauses are too vague to offer any guidance in practical situations. Traditional principles governing jurisdiction, such as res judicata and lis pendens, might solve conflicts inside one regime, but they seem to work poorly in conflicts of jurisdiction between different special regimes. Parallel proceedings can be avoided if one of the tribunals shows deference to the other, or if the parties manage to agree on the relevant tribunal. Paradoxically, politics and diplomacy seems to play an important role in solving conflicts of jurisdiction between international tribunals. Normative conflicts can be defined either narrowly or broadly. This study advocates a broad definition of conflict in order to realize conflicts between obligations and permissions, and to avoid solving conflicts by merely defining them narrowly. Conflicts can be avoided through interpretation in the light of other rules of international law applicable between the parties, also known as systemic integration. Systemic integration could be especially useful in smoothing friction in the interaction between the WTO and other special regimes. However, so far the WTO panels and the Appellate Body have not made use of systemic integration to the extent possible. Actual conflict rules become necessary when interpretation fails in providing harmony between two conflicting norms. It is concluded that conflict rules, such as lex posterior and lex specialis, can be of use when solving conflicts inside one regime, but their applicability to conflicts between special regimes is problematic. Possible conflicts between peremptory norms and WTO law are also discussed. It is concluded that solving jurisdictional and normative conflicts has more to do with political decision-making than with the application of legal rules. It is suggested that the interaction between the WTO and other special regimes could further be enhanced by a broad definition of conflict and the utilization of systemic integration to its full extent.
  • Julkunen, Jenny (2017)
    From the perspective of symbolic interactionism gender identities are negotiated in interaction. This study illustrates how transgender individuals negotiate on their gender identities in everyday interaction. The emergence of communication and interaction technologies and development of various online settings provide essential and unique contexts for these ongoing identity negotiations. This study focuses on how transgender individuals negotiate on gender identities in offline and online settings. As minority identities and online settings relate closely tor regulating privacy, special attention is directed to the relation of identity negotiation and privacy. This study is based on semi-structured intensive interviews of ten Finnish self-identified transgenders. The interviewees self-identified as transfeminines, transmasculines and non-binary and their ages ranged from 26 to over 60 years. Interview data is analysed with constructivist grounded theory analysis. The findings highlight the importance of online settings for gender minorities as it provides necessary privacy, tools to control interaction and presentation of “authentic self”. The automated face-recognition, friend recommendation systems in online settings and fear of confrontation in offline settings complicated the efforts to control interaction and presentation of self. This resulted continuous balancing between strategies to protect and disclose in order to construct a desired identity. These findings portray the relation of safe environments, personal control and identity negotiation. The findings suggest that individual´s identity negotiations are bounded in situations and contexts. It was discovered that online and offline contexts set various and differing boundaries and possibilities for identity negotiations. Online and offline settings are interwoven entities where transgenders manoeuvre flexibly to express themselves while protecting their safety and privacy.
  • Uusikorpi, Juuso (2020)
    The geochemical regolith data gathered from Dzhumba, a gold prospect in eastern Kazakhstan, was analyzed using factor analysis and then integrated into ArcGIS as spatial data. Principal axis factoring method was used for factor extraction combined with varimax orthogonal rotation and Kaiser normalization. Five clear factors were extracted from the data set of 47 elements in 3942 regolith samples. Kriging interpolation was used to generate spatial data surfaces from factor scores. The generated factors are composed of the geochemical associations in the raw data, and represent the underlying geological processes and formations of the area. The fourth factor generated represents gold mineralization with As, Sb, Au, Zr, Sc, Mn, Mo, Cu, K and Ni being the elements that are positively loaded onto factor 4. Therefore, single element maps of these elements have been produced alongside the factor maps in order to examine factor 4 more intensely. Also maps about structural geology and alteration in the Dzhumba project area have been produced in order to give better understanding of the factor maps. The data suggests that the deposit type is an orogenic gold deposit. Other factors created interesting results as well, and they gave information about the different geological units of the area. Factor 1 represents granitic rocks by their feldspar and trace element content, factor 2 represents black shales with possible mafic rock constituents, factor 3 represents a sulfide rich mafic mineral group or graphitic rocks that are most likely black shales and factor 5 possibly represents calcite alteration. Factor 4 is the main interest of this study. The most intense loadings for factor 4 are in Brigadnoe, Svistun and Dzhumba with a small peak in Belyi. Single element map for gold mostly corresponds to factor 4 for Svistun and Dzhumba, but Brigadnoe is represented with a small peak. However, gold has a major presence in Fedor-Ivanovskoe, which is absent from factor 4. Further exploration in Fedor-Ivanovskoe could be performed in order to clarify if this is due to an unrelated gold-only deposit or some other event. Possible future exploration in the area could benefit from factor 4 results, using As and Sb, or a combination of As, Sb, Zr, Sc, Mn, Mo, Cu, K and Ni as pathfinders for possible gold occurrences.
  • Nuutinen, Vilma (2016)
    Tässä tutkielmassa pyritään antamaan kokonaisvaltainen kuvaus factoring-rahoituksen toteuttamisesta Suomen oikeus- järjestelmän puitteissa. Tavoitteena on antaa kokonaisvaltainen kuvaus kaikesta rahoitusmuotoon vaikuttavasta säänte- lystä. Factoring-rahoitusta, kuten monia muitakaan rahoitusmuotoja, ei sääntele oma lakinsa, jolloin rahoitusmuoto tulee arvioitavaksi niin velkakirjalain, kauppakaaren kuin myös oikeustoimilain normien kautta. Tutkielmassa pyritään antamaan kattava kuvaus kaikesta tästä sääntelystä. Erityistä huomiota kiinnitetään rahoitusmuodon kannalta keskei- simpään sääntelyyn eli panttioikeudelliseen sääntelyyn. Factoring-rahoitus on luonteeltaan kolmikantasuhde, jossa on mukana rahoittaja, asiakasyritys sekä velallinen. Tut- kielmassa tarkastellaan näitä henkilösuhteita rahoittajan näkökulmasta ja esitetään, mitä riskejä näihin suhteisiin lain- säädännön tasolta kohdistuu, ja annetaan suosituksia siitä, miten nämä riskit voidaan etukäteisesti torjua. Factoring-rahoituksen toteutuksen ja siihen kohdistuvien riskien osalta tutkimuksessa päädytään siihen lopputulokseen, että rahoitusmuotoon kohdistuvat suurimmat riskit voidaan etukäteisesti sopimusoikeudellisin keinoin sulkea pois. Tutkielmassa esitetään, että riskienhallinnan kannalta suotavinta olisi, että rahoitusmuodon käyttö otettaisiin huomioon asiakasyrityksen toiminnassa ja omissa sopimusehdoissa jo ennen yrityksen ryhtymistä factoring-rahoitukseen. Omana osanaan tutkielmassa tarkastellaan myös asiakasyrityksen konkurssin vaikutuksia factoring- rahoitusjärjestelyyn, erityisesti takaisinsaantilain 14 §:n näkökulmasta. Suomen oikeusjärjestelmässä factoring-rahoitus järjestetään pääsääntöisesti panttauksen kautta. Tällöin asiakasyritys siirtää rahoittajalle laskusaatavakantansa, joka toimii yleisvakuutena rahoittajan saamisista asiakasyritykseltä. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan sitä, voidaanko nämä va- kuudet peräyttää asiakasyrityksen konkurssipesään TakSL 14 §:n edellytysten mukaisesti. Takaisinsaantilain soveltamisen osalta tullaan siihen tulkinnalliseen lopputulokseen, että vain tapauksissa, joissa facto- ring-rahoitukseen liittyviä vakuuksia on annettu rahoittajalla ilman liiketaloudellista perustetta, on takaisinsaanti mah- dollista. Mikäli factoring-rahoitus ja siihen liittyvät oikeudelliset toimet on tehty yrityksen normaaliin liiketoiminnan puitteissa, ei takaisinsaanti voi tulla kyseeseen kuin poikkeustapauksissa. Tutkielmassa myös esitetään, että takaisin- saantilain 14 §:n soveltamisedellytys, oikeustoimen vahingollisuus muiden velkojien näkökulmasta, ei voi muutoin kuin poikkeustapauksissa aktualisoitua factoring-rahoituksessa, vaikka jompikumpi pykälän soveltamisedellytyksistä, vakuuden antaminen vanhasta velasta ja julkivarmistuksen viivästyminen, täyttyisi.
  • Wang, Shijun (2018)
    The article shows the history of studies of DC, stresses the importance of lateral transport of DC, explores and reviews the factors (vegetation, soil, temperature and precipitation, discharge, pH, weathering, global change and human perturbations) affecting transport of DC from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems and reveals many research gaps, which currently hinder a systematic understanding of lateral transport of DC from aquatic to ecosystems. The inclusion of DIC and DOC in the context of lateral transport of carbon offers more information on studies of DC. This article offers insight into the factors affecting the lateral transport of DC for future studies that focus on constructing models of the global carbon cycle and the estimate of terrestrial/global carbon budget. In addition, the factors affecting the transport of DC from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems shed some light on the management of forests, peatlands, agricultural activities and land use changes.
  • Lamminen, Markku (2016)
    Formation of second skin under artificial casing is essential when manufacturing of skinless frankfurters. The aim of this study was to study how manufacture skinless frankfurters that have a good and firm bite. In literature part the aim was to study factors what affect the formation of the second skin. Skinless frankfurters were manufactured with 4 different artificial cellulose casing: 23 mm non-CMC (carboxymethylcellulose) casing, 23mm Rapid Peel®-casing, 21 mm Rapid Peel®-casing, 17 mm Rapid Peel®-casing. Frankfurters were prepared with 2 different recipes and thermal treated with 3 different smoking-cooking programs. Commercial and pilot plant prepared natural casing frankfurters were used as a reference. Properties of frankfurters were tested with sensory analysis by making sensory profile of each product (Colour intensity, Flexibility/bendability of skin, Snappiness of the skin (voice), Snappy bite, Gumminess of the skin and Texture of frankfurter). Physical test methods to measure frankfurters were: cooking loss; colour measurements (Minolta); shear force and maximum load of skin with Allo-Kramer device and peak force needed when skin breaks with Texture Analyser. Physical test showed that all product types need to have their own tailored smoking and cooking program to reach the wanted result. Texture analyser and Allo-Kramer-device did not give any logical results so these methods needs more testing for useful results. Sensory evaluation indicated that the properties of a natural casing frankfurter is hard to achieve by manufacturing skinless frankfurter. The differences between artificial casing samples were low in all experiments. But when comparing these results to natural casing had significantly (p<0.05) lower bendability of skin, snappiness and gumminess of the skin was higher as well as the overall texture of frankfurter was harder than skinless frankfurters. In conclusion, skinless frankfurters made with artificial casings could not compete with properties of natural casings. Maybe it is possible to get very close with the right recipe, additives, casing and thermal treatment. But at the moment the natural casing is unbeaten.
  • Vanhatalo, Anna (2009)
    Outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism have increased during the last ten years. In addition, the interest towards national parks has grown, which can be seen also as an increasing trend in the development of the number of visits to national parks. The aim of this thesis is to explain the cross-sectional variation in the visitation data representing different parks and hiking areas. Another aim is to explore the question of why the visitation in national parks has increased in Finland. These questions are studied separately for the national parks and hiking areas, because the development of the number of visits in national parks and hiking areas has been different. In addition, the separation is made also between Southern Finland and Northern Finland due to for example the size differences and close link of the national parks in Northern Finland with the ski-resort centers. Explanatory factors are divided into supply side factors (services inside and outside the park) and demand side factors (economic and demographics factors). The data is a panel data, including all national parks and hiking areas in the time period 2000?2008. The one-way fixed effects model is used in the regression analysis. According to results the land area of the park, services inside the park and population size seemed to have positive effects on the number of visits. Income per capita had negative impact on the visits. In Southern Finland the size of the age-class 65?74 affected positively the number of visits, whereas the effect of gasoline price was negative. Used time period was short due to the lack of appropriate data. Thus, the results reflect more the cross-sectional variation between parks. Results can be used in the planning of the management of national parks and hiking areas.
  • Muurman, Tuulikki (2021)
    Background: Poor health literacy (HL) is associated to increased hospitalization and decreased seeking for screenings. Shared decision making can increase patient knowledge, decrease anxiety over the care process, improve health outcomes and reduce health care costs. Little is known about factors influencing health literacy and participation in treatment decision making in different population groups. Objectives: To investigate factors predicting HL and participation in the treatment decision making. Methods: A cross-sectional population online survey conducted in Finland in 2019 by Finnish Medicines Agency. Both health literacy and participation in the decision making were assessed by three statements that sum variables were created with score 1-5 (Cronbach’s alpha value 0.584 and 0.810). Age, gender, education, household income and most common chronic diseases were chosen as possible predicting factors. Two-variable Pearson’s chi-squared test was first used to find significant factors followed by logistic regression analysis to take into account several variables. Results: Of all the respondents (n=2104) 76.5% had good HL and 73.4% had willingness to participate in the treatment decision making. In the two-variable test older age (p<0.001), lower education (p<0.001), lower household income (p=0.001), higher number of chronic diseases (p=0.003), having cardiovascular diseases (p=0.003), diabetes (p=0.029) and cancer (p=0.001) predicted poorer health literacy. Male gender (p=0.001), not having chronic diseases (p=0.001), not having a musculoskeletal disorder (p=0.050) or mental health disorders (p<0.001) predicted poorer participation in the treatment decision making. In the logistic regression analysis older age and having cancer predicted poorer health literacy. Male gender and not having mental health disorders predicted less willingness to participate in the decision making. Conclusions: Older age and cancer predicts poorer health literacy and male gender poorer willingness to participate in the decision making. Further research should focus on investigating more in detail the contributing factors to these findings, and how health literacy in elderly and men’s involvement to the decision making could be improved.
  • Heinilä, Teemu (2017)
    The role of bank credit in shaping economic recoveries has been the subject of a growing body of literature, especially in the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2007-2009. Generally, bank lending is thought to be an important source of finance that supports economic growth, indicating that output and bank credit should always move in the same direction. However, the evidence shows that creditless recoveries – episodes in which output recovers without the growth of bank credit – have been common both in advanced as well as in emerging and developing economies. Thus, a more detailed examination of this phenomenon is important to improve our understanding of the nature of creditless recoveries that have been found to be weaker and more protracted than normal recoveries. This thesis analyzes the main determinants of creditless recoveries in (i) advanced and (ii) emerging and developing economies and compares the differences between these country groups. The key determinants of creditless recoveries are studied by using a panel probit estimation method. The data sample includes 32 advanced and 105 emerging and developing economies in the period of 1980-2015. This thesis adds value to existing literature by taking the global financial crisis of 2007-2009 into account. Particular focus will be given to analyzing advanced economies, which have gained less attention in the existing literature. The empirical results of this thesis suggest that a banking crisis that preceded a recession seems to be a major factor increasing the probability of creditless recoveries in both country groups. Furthermore, the results from advanced economies indicate that declining investments preceding an economic downturn will significantly increase the likelihood of creditless recoveries. On the contrary, the findings from emerging and developing economies suggest that sizeable contractions in real GDP as well as currency crises are likely to increase the probability of creditless recoveries. The existing literature offers several hypotheses that might, at least partly, explain the obtained empirical results. A banking crisis typically forces banks to clean up their balance sheets and thus reduce lending, which in turn is likely to increase the probability of creditless recoveries in both country groups. The differences in results between the country groups have been commonly explained as a result of the divergent progress of financial markets. It is likely that advanced economies have more developed financial markets which makes it easier for firms to exploit alternative funding sources. In the event of a liquidity crunch, firms may boost their liquidity and eventually output by curtailing investments and thus borrowing. Creditless recoveries may also be explained by a shift from more to less credit-intensive activities.
  • Korhonen, Jaana (2013)
    Direct investments are considered the main source of economic growth and are desirable for countries. Factors driving the geographical distribution of direct investments are unknown. Many forest investments are directed to plantations, which have expanded rapidly during the past two decades. The global forestry scheme is changing; until 1990, developed countries accounted for almost all investments. Since then, developing countries have started to employ them at an accelerating rate. The major changes in a world economy are likely to drive this trend in the future. To assess factors contributing to investment in forest plantation, we drew from methods used by the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), which developed a forest attractiveness index (IAIF) to ?measure the business climate to sustainable forest business?. In this research, several multiple linear regression models were developed to examine the effects of different variables. As well, different macro-economic, institutional, and forest-sector factors were considered the main components that drive forest plantation development. Factors attracting direct investment in forest plantations are different on a global scale, in developed and developing countries. Therefore, some general trends can be identified: Macro-economic factors are important. Foreign direct investment inflows and area of planted forests are positively correlated, indicating that the investment behavior of forestry investors is not significantly different from other investors‘. Other significant factors are GDP and the exchange rate. GDP was positively correlated with the area of planted forests. Weak currency is desirable in OECD countries, and a strong currency is favorable for plantation investments in non-OECD countries. Institutional factors were not significant, which suggests investments occur despite the country challenges. The human development index was the most significant factor in this category. The human development index had a negative effect on the area of planted forests. The more developed a country, the fewer plantations. The forest-sector factors were the most important factors that determine plantation investment attractiveness. Production capacity and productivity were globally significant. Productivity was not significant in non-OECD countries, which may have equally beneficial circumstances for tree growth. Macro-economic factors are important especially in these countries. The results suggest macro-economic and forestry factors are key determinants of investment attractiveness in forestry. Macro-economic factors cannot be affected by investors. Forestry-factors can be affected by country level decision making. Investors can choose between countries, and sometimes affect these factors. These results may be useful to firms considering foreign direct investment and to policy makers in potential destination countries.
  • Glushkova, Tatiana (2021)
    The number of older migrants has been increasing in the world. Immigration to Finland has also been growing with Russia as one of the biggest nationalities. Older migrants are one of the most vulnerable groups since they might receive less attention than younger migrants, feel more insecure in a new environment, and deal with age-related processes, such as retirement, loss of a spouse, and declining health. Additionally, migration leads to relocation to a new society and adjustment to it, a language barrier, separation from family and friends, and other difficulties. A sense of belonging is crucial for migrants since it provides a feeling of comfort and affects their well-being, and negotiating cultural identity and belonging remains relevant even for those who lived in the country of settlement for decades. Creating a sense of belonging in the receiving society may be challenging for older people due to difficulties in learning a language, declining health, and socialization into origin ethnic culture long before migrating. That is why older migrants’ sense of belonging is a primary interest of this study. This thesis focuses on belonging through identity, which is defined as identification with a certain community, and on individual-level factors of belonging. In addition, the association between cultural orientations and types of belonging is examined. The thesis uses a quantitative approach and data from CHARM research. CATPCA is used to identify types of belonging and cultural orientations, and regression analysis is employed to examine the association between factors and types of belonging. Three types of belonging were found among older Russian-speaking migrants (50 years and above) in Finland : national belonging to Russians and Russian-speaking people in Finland, emotional belonging to communities of colleges, friends, neighbours in Finland, and belonging to Ingrian Finns. Worth noting that a core element of belonging to Ingrian Finns is a religion since it is one of the indicators of Ingrian Finns' identity. Similar to previous studies, local language may be one of the barriers to emotional belonging. However, “poor” Finnish or Swedish skills contribute to national belonging to Russians. Other significant predictors for all types of belonging health, religion, and economic situation. Additionally, orientations to Russian and Finnish culture are moderately and positively correlated, which indicates that migrants may orientate to both Finnish and Russian cultures simultaneously, and their cultural identities may be compatible. Orientation to Russian culture contributes to national belonging and belonging to Ingrian Finns. On the other hand, orientation to Finnish culture and belonging to Ingrian Finns are negatively associated. This thesis shows that older Russian-speaking migrants in Finland may have multiple types of belonging, and some of the most significant factors of national and emotional belonging as well as belonging to Ingrian Finns include language, health, and religion. Furthermore, the concept of cultural orientations is significant for migrants' sense of belonging, and the association between cultural orientations and a sense of belonging should be investigated in more detail
  • Lindfors, Teppo (2019)
    Within the last forty years, capital has increased its share of national income at the expense of labour across developed and developing economies, with few exceptions. The trajectory has been successfully linked to technological change, globalisation and the erosion of the bargaining power of employees in theoretical and empirical examinations. Due to short time series, it has remained unclear whether the increase in capital share is a consequence of modern trends, such as hyperglobalisation or the ICT-boom. Recognizing the mechanisms behind the increase is worthwhile from the social planner’s viewpoint, because of factor shares’ connection with personal income inequality and unemployment, both triggers of social unrest. This thesis examines the connection between labour income share and its potential determinants in Finnish industry, namely technological change, globalisation, union power, devaluations, capital mobility and public expenditure between 1907 and 2015. The main empirical strategy used was the fixed effects regression, where the first three aforementioned determinants were proxied with capital intensity, total factor productivity (TFP), import and export exposure, union density and the number of strike days per worker, while controlling for branch fixed effects, common national trends and branch-specific trends. The last three country-level determinants were studied using time series analysis. The primary data source was Bank of Finland’s Growth studies, which was complemented with the data in various volumes of the Official Statistics of Finland, in addition to selected separate publications. According to the results, technological change has a negative effect on labour share, while union power and import exposure have a positive impact. Periodizing, the increase in capital intensity can more than explain the decrease in labour share from 1907 to 1943. Between 1943 and 1991 the quadrupling of union density accounts around a third of the 28.2 percentage point increase in labour share. From 1991 to 2007, the acceleration of TFP growth rate can predict around 60% of the 23.7 percentage point decline in labour share. The findings suggest, that technology is the key driver of functional income distribution also in the long-term, which complements its importance in the recent increase in capital shares, covered in previous research. Moreover, in the early 20th century technology appears to have worked more as a substitute for labour, while after mid-century it has become rather complementary and efficiency-improving. In addition, the ICT era has brought along an increase in market concentration, implying that technology operates also potentially through rising economic rents. Union power had a non-trivial role in inflating labour share during the post-WWII decades. Finally, import exposure has increased labour share presumably by squeezing profits, but its significance is overshadowed by the other covariates.
  • Seppänen, Olli (2017)
    Objectives. The job satisfaction of employees is important to organizations, because dissatisfaction impacts directly the economic results of the company, e.g. through increased employee turnover, poor quality of work and hiding problems. Job satisfaction has been defined as a relationship between the expectations for a job by an employee and the subjectively perceived fulfilment of those expectations. In this research, factors influencing job satisfaction are investigated by comparing three theoretical models related to job satisfaction. According to the Job Demands – Job Control model, demands of the job affect job satisfaction. Better job control or support from supervisor or peers can decrease the impact of demands on job satisfaction. According to the Effort – Reward Imbalance model, job satisfaction can be explained by investigating whether the rewards received from the job are commensurate with the effort required by the job. In the Job Demands and Resources model, different jobs have different demands and resources which are important. The model emphasizes the difference between jobs and assumes that demands impact job stress but not job satisfaction, whereas resources are mainly associated with job satisfaction. Methods. Based on the three models and previous empirical research results, 11 hypotheses were created and tested by using a large survey sample. The sample included 2 195 employees which represented 13 departments from nine organizations. The dependent variable was job satisfaction, and independent variables were associated with job demands, job control, rewards, and support by supervisor and peers. Linear mixed models were used as the statistical method because of its ability to compare the possibly different impacts of various resources and demands in different organizations. Results and conclusions. The most important factors associated with job satisfaction were opportunities to advance, possibility to use and develop skills and job security. Older employees were more satisfied with their jobs. Increased demands decreased the influence of peer support on job satisfaction. When the demands were high, the support of supervisor was more important. The impact of material rewards, such as salary or benefits, was low. As a conclusion, the Job Demands – Resources model was best able to explain job satisfaction out of the three tested models in this sample, if the model was expanded to include job security from the Effort-Reward Imbalance model.
  • Howe, Timothy (2021)
    EFL Education in Japan has the reputation of being ineffective in teaching students how to speak English. Despite that, there are Japanese who can use English proficiently. This dissertation seeks to answer the question: How do Japanese learners of English obtain language fluency despite numerous flaws in the Japanese EFL education system? The thesis takes a qualitative approach to the issue by interviewing Japanese students at the University of Helsinki to determine how they became so proficient in using English. The results of these interviews suggest that cram schools and university English classes had the most positive influence on the development of their English skills.
  • Salovaara, Aino (2015)
    Mortality is one of the main criteria in the evaluation of burn centre effectiveness. Different scoring systems predict mortality, the main variables being age, TBSA and inhalation injury. This retrospective study was conducted on 170 consecutive patients treated in the Helsinki Burn Centre and individual factors affecting mortality were assessed. The applicability of the Baux and ABSI scales was also evaluated. The mortality rate of the 147 actively treated patients was 19.7%. 23 patients were directed into palliative care within 48 hours. The non-survivors had a significantly higher mean age, proportion of women, mean TBSA, prevalence of inhalation injury and Baux and ABSI values than the survivors. Age, gender and TBSA were significant predictive factors. The Baux and ABSI scoring systems were statistically significant and specific in the prediction of mortality. No patients with a Baux score > 112 or an ABSI score ≥ 12 survived.