Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by master's degree program "Globaalia hallintoa koskevan oikeuden maisteriohjelma"

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Paricio Montesinos, Marta (2022)
    This study aims to make a preliminary assessment of the role that the new ILC Draft PERAC principles could play in the OPT. It argues that the application of standards and norms protecting or compensating for the environmental damage in times of armed conflict has been highly influenced by the political context. At the same time, it finds that two of the main causes of the environmental challenges in the OPT are Israel’s activities and the lack of environmental regulations for companies operating in the occupied territory. In addition, the Palestinians face serious difficulties in accessing justice. There is a domestic lacuna since Palestinian courts have limited competences and the Israeli Courts have showed bias towards Palestinians. Internationally, it is highly unlikely that Israel will accept the ICJ’s voluntary jurisdiction, and it is doubtful that the case before the ICC is adequate to tackle the systemic oppression in the OPT. On the other hand, since Palestine is becoming a party to different agreements and treaties, it can now use the dispute settlement mechanisms established in MEAs which Israel has also ratified, such as the Basel Convention. This has enabled Palestine to bring complaints against the illegal transfer of hazardous waste by Israel to the OPT. This showed that what is required is a change in the Israel’s practices and policies or more available dispute settlement mechanisms. Finally, it finds that the ILC Draft PERAC principles are unlikely to force a change in Israeli practices. At the same time, for the time being, they do not establish any forum or dispute settlement mechanism. Thus, their role and impact on the OPT is limited. Nevertheless, because of their innovations and clarity, they offer a new framework of understanding that can be highly beneficial in diplomatic relations, educational purposes, and in the formation of expectations and demands. Moreover, it will support and offer an additional legal language in the different strands of activism ad advocacy led by Palestinian NGOs.
  • Väänänen, Ronja (2022)
    Labour markets have changed due to globalisation, and this is challenging the traditional way of defining the notion of worker. Currently the international labour legislative system is based on a state centred way of defining the concept of worker. Each country hence defines the scope of the term on the basis of their national social and economic conditions. These national definitions have remained as the starting point even though the labour markets have internationalised. Workers may move from a country to another, businesses reach beyond national borders and across border competition has increased. Furthermore, regional, and international instruments containing their own ways to define the notion of worker, have added layers of regulation. Globalisation has hence changed the playing ground firstly with regards to the ways of work as well as with adding new layers of regulation. As the definition of worker grants rights and obligations to persons working, it is necessary to know who is categorised as a worker. The challenges caused by globalisation in defining the notion of worker based on national needs is amplified with the rise of atypical employment. Next to the traditional employment relationship based on an employment contract new forms of employment are becoming more prominent. These new forms of working do not fit into the traditional binary distinction between the workers and the self-employed. A current example of a form of atypical employment is platform work, which is work done on, or intermediated by digital platforms. Not only national regulation, but also regional and international instruments are being challenged with the changes in the global labour markets. This thesis seeks to outline the changes globalisation has brought to the labour markets. The current way of defining the concept of worker in all national, regional, and international contexts are explained. Based on this, the concepts are compared to see how similar or different the approaches to the concept are. Challenges caused by new forms of labour to the concept are furthermore presented. On the basis of this analysis, the durability of the current system of state centred way of defining the concept of worker is contrasted to the possible future changes in the labour markets and the possibility of harmonising the notion is contemplated as a solution for the changes caused by globalisation.
  • Karppinen, Olli (2022)
    In recent years, there have been increasing calls for greater European Union Weltpolitikfähigkeit - the ability to act cohesively in foreign policy. While the EU has made great strides towards cooperation in foreign policy, integration in this field remains relatively limited. To examine the potential for further integration, this thesis examines the current legal and institutional framework of the EU’s foreign policy governance, along with assessing its current capabilities for implementing it. The aim is to determine whether the current framework supports or impedes the development of Weltpolitikfähigkeit. Through examining the EU’s founding treaties, decision-making processes and institutions, this thesis finds that the EU has a robust, functional legal system to support decision-making and foreign policy contribution between Member States. The Union’s institutions are capable of supporting the EU’s Weltpolitikfähigkeit, but are subject to a number of issues which impede this development. The main conclusion is that while the legal and institutional infrastructure is in place, Member States need to do more in response to the challenges created by the emerging multipolar world. In particular, the Union needs to move from unanimity to Qualified Majority Voting in CFSP matters, improve the legitimacy of a Union level foreign policy by increasing democratic oversight by citizens, and double down security and defense cooperation. Through adopting these measures, the EU can be on the path towards building greater Weltpolitikfähigkeit.
  • Sormunen, Sofia (2022)
    Transparency of the Commission is as important as ever considering the ever-expanding nature of EU’s influence. In current digital era, EU’s access to documents regime is increasingly also conducted through technological solutions assisting and replacing previously predominant tangible and human solutions. An example of the technological solutions equipped for transparency in the context of the Commission are document registers, which are founded in law and created in the name of transparency. However, the practical and legal effects of document registers materialising transparency is largely unstudied aspect of the Union’s transparency. Therefore, this thesis is devoted to examining how we can observe the materialisation of transparency in practice, focusing on the European Commission’s Register of Documents. Aim is to show the (often) hidden ways in which the technological solutions influence transparency in their own right. To be able to study transparency in practice, it is necessary to understand the concept not only as talk but also an action. The related legal instruments are studied in order to get a full picture of the realm in which transparency conducted through document registers function. The technology is studied to bring fore ways in which the technological solutions are able to govern transparency on their own right. Institutional and expert interviews were conducted and incorporated in the analysis to support the findings from the usability of the registers. The thesis shows how technological construction of the Register of Documents is able to largely limit access to documents precisely due to the way in which it has been constructed. Together with the technological solutions, soft law instruments as well as institutional specific guidelines prove to have enormous influence in practicing transparency through the registers. Main finding suggests that access to documents is not an equal right in practice but high level of expert knowledge is required to gain information. This raises question on the nature of transparency as an ideal principle in a democratic society which would allow to hold the governing entities responsible on their decision and actions. What is needed is renewed attention to the ways in which designing technology creates, in itself, silent rules and shapes the reality of transparency in practice. Tämän tutkielman keskiössä on se, miten Komission läpinäkyvyys materialisoituu digitaalisessa ympäristössä asiakirjarekisterien kautta ja mitä vaikutuksia tällä on asiakirjoihin perustuvalle läpinäkyvyydelle. Euroopan Unionin demokratiavaje on ollut puheenaiheena jo pitkään. Hallinnon läpinäkyvyys on ajateltu olevan yksi keino parantaa demokraattista päätöksen tekoa ja tuoda se lähemmäksi kansalaisia. Läpinäkyvyyttä, kuten monia muitakin hallinnon osa-alueita on digitalisaation myötä lähdetty toteuttamaan myös teknologian avulla. Esimerkkinä tästä on Euroopan Komission Asiakirjarekisteri (RegDoc), joka on tämän tutkielman keskiössä. Teknologian oikeusvaikutukset on oikeustieteen tutkimuksessa aiemmin jo tunnistettu. Komission toimien ja päätösten läpinäkyvyyttä lainopillisesti sääntelee perussopimuksien ja perusoikeuskirjan lisäksi tarkempi asetus asiakirjojen saamisesta yleisön tutustuttavaksi (1049/2001). Nämä luovat pohjan, jonka päälle Komissio on säätänyt päätöksiä, menettelyohjeita, sekä -sääntöjä, niin sanottuja soft law instrumentteja. Vaikkakaan näillä instrumenteilla ei ole yhtäläistä lainpohjaa kuten perussopimuksilla tai asetuksilla, ne vaikuttavat olevan vahvemmassa asemassa asiakirjarekisterien yksityiskohtaisemmassa sääntelyssä. Yksi tutkimuksen löydös osoittaakin, että soft law:sta tuleva sääntely osittain poikkeaa asetuksen vaatimuksista liittyen asiakirjojen metadataan tietokannassa. Tutkielma keskittyy siihen, kuinka rakennettu teknologia itsessään pystyy sääntelemään Komission läpinäkyvyyttä. Komission Asiakirjarekisterin analyysi tuo uutta tietoa ensinnäkin siitä, miten tietyt ratkaisut Asiakirjarekisterin rakennuksessa itsessään vaikeuttaa asiakirjojen saantia. Toiseksi analyysi näyttää miten läpinäkyvyys materialisoituu soft law:n ja teknologian pohjalta. Tutkimuksessa käytetään instituutio- ja asiantuntija haastatteluja, jotka tukevat kirjallisuuteen perustuvaa, lainopillista sekä empiiristä tutkimusta. Tutkielman keskeinen löytö on kuinka Komission läpinäkyvyys ei ole käytännössä saavutettavissa jokaiselle. Erityisesti teknologiset ratkaisut ovat johtaneet vaikeuksiin käyttää asiakirjarekisteriä tai löytää sieltä tietoa. Samalla asiantuntijat, joilla on täsmällistä tietoa haluamistaan asiakirjoista eivät monesti pysty löytämään niitä rekistereistä. Asiakirjoihin pääsy vaikuttaa olevan hyvinkin elitistinen oikeus, jos sitä tarkastellaan rekisterien kautta, ja asiakirjarekisterit vaikuttavat olevat enemmän symbolinen ideaalin läpinäkyvyyden ilmentymä. Kuitenkin asiakirja rekisterien ongelmilla on vaikutuksia muihinkin kansalaisten oikeuksiin, kuten asiakirjapyyntöihin. Näin ollen asiakirja rekisterien käytettävyyteen tulisi kohdistaa enemmän huomiota ja resursseja.
  • Snellman, Felix (2022)
    Leveraging new satellite communication technology, the European Commission published in February 2022 a proposal for a regulation which would facilitate the creation of a European space-based secure communication system serving EU institutions and agencies, Member States as well as EU citizens. In terms of Member States intra-governmental use, several public and private entities in the EU have expressed interest in supplementing national public authority networks with the technology that the proposed system uses. However, public authority networks are strictly regulated due their critical function in terms of safety and national security. An issue of regulatory and policy compatibility thus arises. After demonstrating why Finland is a relevant object to study, this thesis proceeds to analyse and compare relevant national legislation and policy with the proposed regulation and related documents, in order to assess whether, and to what extent, the proposed system is compatible, particularly in the context of control, security and ownership. While the research identified several issues relating to transparency, procurement, financing, ownership, access and control, the thesis ultimately finds that these concerns do not merit a conclusion of incompatibility.
  • Zenzen, Stefanie (2022)
    The principle of transparency is a core principle within EU administration being highly intertwined with the right to access to documents. Regulation (EC) No 1049/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2001 regarding public access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents (ATD Regulation) lays down the principles and limits on public access to documents. The European Ombudsman has set itself the particular task of promoting transparency and the right to access to documents. The research focusses on the processing of public access to documents requests by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) and the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). While EMA and Frontex apply so-called queuing mechanisms, ECHA processes access to documents requests in batches when multiple requests or one large request by one applicant are submitted in a short period of time as these multiple submissions could possibly result in adversely affecting the proper functioning of the agencies. The agencies base these means of processing on Article 6(3) ATD enabling the EU institution to confer with the applicant with a view to finding a fair solution. The Court of Justice of the European Union ruled that EU institutions can, based on the principle of proportionality, balance the interests of the applicant to gain access to documents against the workload of the EU institutions caused by the submission of multiple access to documents requests. The Court further stated that Article 6(3) mirrors the possibility of reconciling the interests of the applicant with those of good administration. The European Ombudsman found that applying a queuing mechanism can be considered a suitable means to process multiple requests by one applicant under exceptional circumstances, but academic literature has not dealt with this topic yet. The thesis hence addresses more profoundly the question of the extent to which the queuing mechanisms and the processing in batches as applied by the EU agencies in question are able to reconcile the principle of transparency with the right to good administration and fairness amongst applicants while maintaining the core business and efficiency of the applicable EU agency. Furthermore, the thesis examines if a better alternative to these mechanisms can be found. The study comes to the conclusion that, on the one hand, the queuing mechanisms and the processing in batches have deficits in regard to enhancing transparency and complying with the ATD Regulation. On the other hand, they are able to balance out the different interests between the EU agency and the applicant to some extent. Instead of however finding a better alternative to these mechanisms, a potential solution is, as the study has revealed, to find a better administrative process to reduce the number of ATD requests in order to deprive the queuing mechanisms and the processing in batches of their necessity to better adhere to the principle of transparency and the principle of efficiency. A better administrative process could for instance be the combination of a web form to submit an access to documents request with the obligatory search in a public register of documents to potentially reduce the overall number of requests submitted to the EU institutions every day. Ultimately, it is in the hands of the EU institutions to make EU administration more transparent and to reconcile the different interests at stake.