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  • Suonio, Taina (2020)
    Based on scientific literature and empirical data, the aim of this study was to find out, how different policy instruments concerning vegetated roofs are used internationally, i.e. how different norms, laws, regulations and incentives, are applied in design, construction and maintenance of vegetaged roofs. The specific objective was to obtain scientific, country- or city-specific information of the functionality or effectiveness of policy instruments used in urban planning. The purpose of the thematic interviews was to survey the attitudes of the key actors involved in policy-making concerning vegetated roofs in the City of Helsinki to the policy instruments used in other countries and their applicability in Helsinki. The ultimate goal of the study was to find out which instruments could be applied in Finland and, on the other hand, which instruments would not be suitable for use in Finland. The study combined different methods and data to form data triangulation. Based on the results, the cities’ administrative policy instruments, such as a vegetated roof policy and urban planning, play a significant role in the proliferation of vegetated roofs. Financial instruments and policies (e.g. direct financial support) and informational policy instruments (e.g. increasing general awareness, knowledge and know-how) go hand in hand with administrative policy instruments. The decision of the cities to build vegetated roofs on their own premises and properties, and thus to set an example, was important. The results indicate that a toolbox of various policy instruments could be recommended for Finnish cities, to guarantee construction of vegetated roofs with various functionalities, such as promoting biodiversity, managing storm waters nd offering recreation for citizens. Further research should be carried out to find out how the prevalence of vegetated roofs has increased in Finland, and which policy instruments have been the drivers. It would be particularly interesting to study how successful building projects have increased the credibility of vegetated roofs among architects, building contractors and decision-makers. It would also be important to find out whether a line of study specialising in vegetated roofs, or a vegetated roof training and information centre established among cities, could be used as one policy instrument. A vegetated roof map template covering all the cities of Finland, in which existing vegetated roofs were presented, would serve as an easy and inexpensive informational policy instrument.
  • Nissinen, Marjo (2018)
    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) is a plant pathogen which causes bacterial speck in the host plants, especially tomato. The genome sequence of Pst DC3000 was resolved in 2003 by Buell et al. and since then it has served as an important model organism in plant pathology. Pst DC3000 secretes proteins through so-called type III pathway (T3SS). The secreted proteins, called Hrp (Hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) or Hop (Hrp outer protein), are considered as main virulence determinants of the bacterium. Aim of the study was to find out the suitability of the phage Mu DNA transposition complex to generate a transposon insertion mutant library for Gram-negative phytopathogen. Then further screen the mutant library for Hop effector protein knock-out mutants and evaluate their virulence in Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker tomato plants. The thesis was part of a research project that characterized virulence determinants of Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria, including their gene regulation and effects on the plant-bacterium interaction. Pst DC3000 transposon insertion mutant library was generated by electroporation of phage Mu DNA transposition complex and a nested PCR method was used for screening the library. Three hop transposon insertion mutants were found, and those strains were extracted from the library. The three mutant strains where then used to infect tomato plants. Virulence was evaluated through phenotypic lesions and bacterial endophytic growth. Some of the results were different from the previous studies. The ability of HopM1 mutant to form lesions was weakened and it´s endophytic growth was slowed down. In previous studies the ability to form lesions was also weakened, but the endophytic growth was not affected until avrE gene was also deleted. HopM1 deletion alone did not have an effect to bacterial growth. In HopAO1 mutant the virulence was not affected. In other studies, HopAO1 deletion weakened bacterial growth in Arabidopsis and tobacco plants, but in tomato it has not been tested. HopD1 mutant was avirulent in this study. In previous studies HopD1 was essential for Pst DC3000 bacteria in defeating plants effector-triggered immunity (ETI), but hopD1 deletion alone did not make the bacteria avirulent. Pst DC3000 has 28 different effector proteins so usually one effector protein mutation does not affect its virulence. Hence the next step of the study was to make double mutants for Hop proteins, and this included deletion of the antibiotic marker by Cre-lox mechanism, which was started in this study.
  • Autio, Mirka (2015)
    Phosphorus is traditionally considered to be the primary nutrient limiting primary production in lakes. More recent studies show that sometimes nitrogen can be the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton production in temperate lakes. This study investigated whether the nitrogen has a major role along with phosphorus in the primary production of lakes. In addition, it was studied if the limiting nutrient changes during the growing season and does the residence time of the lake affect the level of nutrient limitation. The subject lakes were Ormajärvi, Suolijärvi, Lehee, Pyhäjärvi and Iso-Roine, which are the headwater lakes of the Kokemäenjoki in Kanta-Häme. The lakes were sampled for bioassays once a month from June to September in 2004 and in May 2005, a total of five times. There were four treatments: control, lake water + P, lake water + N, lake water + P + N. For each treatment there were five replicates. There was one concentration level for each nutrient treatment. The nutrient concentration of treatments depended on the nutrient content of the lakes. To determine the combined effect of nutrients both of them were added at the same time. Nitrogen treatment solution was prepared from potassium nitrate and phosphorus treatment solution from potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Bioassays were conducted as a pure culture of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Prinz -algae. Zooplankton was removed from the lake water samples, which were then sampled for nutrient analysis. The water samples were autoclaved and filtered prior to the bioassays. Bioassays were carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks containing 60 ml of lake water, the nutrient solutions and 0.5 ml pure culture of P. subcapitata. Algae were grown in continuous illumination until the exponential growth stopped. Algal growth was monitored by taking samples of a few ml from the flasks roughly every other day. Algae in samples were counted by a microscope in Lund chambers. The actual variables were the maximum number of cells or yield and the growth rate. The limiting nutrient was found out by comparing the yield and the growth rate of different nutrient treatments to the control. The results of the bioassays were tested statistically with non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis H-test. Algal bioassays expressed only phosphorus limitation. Phosphorus limited the yield in the bioassays of Suolijärvi in August 2004 and May 2005. In Lehee and Pyhäjärvi phosphorus limited growth rate in May 2005. There was neither nitrogen limitation nor co-limitation in any of the bioassays. So the limiting nutrient didn't change during the growing season. Phosphorus treatments inhibited the growth of algae from time to time in 2004 in Ormajärvi, Suolijärvi, Pyhäjärvi and Lehee. In May 2005 there was no inhibition. Nutrient limitation was stronger in lakes with a long retention time. These bioassays indicate that reducing phosphorus loading would control eutrophication of this chain of lakes. The phosphorus treatments couldn t cause the inhibition. The cause of inhibition originated most likely from the drainage area due to heavy rains in summer 2004. It could be, for example, zinc or arsenic.
  • Sarajärvi, Aija (2021)
    Climate change is one of the biggest global threats. Food production is one of the most significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions. It has been estimated that food systems account for 19 – 29 % of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Many studies have shown that products of animal origin cause more environmentally harmful emissions than plant-based products. In order to reach the 1,5 degree target, diets need to become more sustainable and more plant-based. The life cycle of food is being studied more today to identify their climate and environmental impact. The purpose of this study was to determine life cycle assessment of a plant-based protein product. The life cycle assessment started with the initial production and ended with the finished product in the factory. The study did not take into account the transport of products to stores and consumer activities. The study examined six different scenarios, which were e.g. dealing with the conversion of mixed electricity to wind power and the impact of the new alternative packaging on the results. The study was made by openLCA and the databases used Ecoinvent 3 and AGRIBYLASE 3.0. Life cycle assessment was examined using the ReCiPe 2016 Midpoint (H). The impact categories were global warming, land use, water consumption and freshwater eutrophication. According to this study, converting mixed electricity to wind power can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 49 – 50 %. Converting electricity to wind also significantly reduces land use, water consumption and freshwater eutrophication. Greenhouse gas emissions and phosphorous emissions of plant-based protein are lower than animal origin products. Packaging materials accounted for 7 to 13 % of greenhouse gas emissions. Based on this study, it is recommended to change the primary electric source to wind power.
  • Auranen, Janne (2020)
    Maaperä tuottaa elintärkeitä ekosysteemipalveluita, joista yksi tärkeimmistä on sen kyky sitoa hiiltä ja ravinteita. Maaperän merkitys korostuu etenkin kaupunkiympäristöissä, joissa muun muassa tiivistyvän rakentamisen vuoksi viheralueiden osuus kaupungin pinta-alasta vähenee. Maaperäprosessit, kuten orgaanisen aineksen hajoaminen sekä varastoituminen ja juurituotanto vaikuttavat oleellisesti maaperän hiilibudjettiin. Eri kasvityypit tuottavat erilaista kariketta esimerkiksi hajoamisnopeuden suhteen, jolloin niillä on myös erilaiset vaikutukset maaperän hiilibudjettiin. Karikkeiden hajoamisnopeuteen ja varastoitumiseen vaikuttavat myös abioottiset tekijät, kuten lämpötila ja kosteus. Hajoamisnopeuteen ja varastoitumiseen vaikuttavat tekijät lienevät siksi erilaisia eri ilmastovyöhykkeillä (biomi). Tutkimus toteutettiin osana laajempaa PARKTRAITS-tutkimushanketta kolmessa eri biomissa sijaitsevassa kaupungissa: boreaalisen biomin Lahdessa (Suomi), lauhkean biomin Baltimoressa (USA) ja trooppisen biomin Singaporessa. Kustakin kaupungista valittiin kymmenen samankaltaisesti hoidettua, suunnilleen saman kokoista ja samalla etäisyydellä kaupungin keskustasta sijaitsevaa kaupunkipuistoa, joista viisi oli nuoria puistoja (7-15 vuotiaita) ja viisi vanhoja puistoja (50 – 200 vuotiaita). Kunkin kaupungin kussakin puistossa tuli esiintyä kolmea eri kasvityyppiä karikkeen laadun eli hajoamisnopeuden perusteella: vaikeasti/hitaasti hajotettavaa kariketta tuottavaa puu, helposti hajotettavaa kariketta tuottava puu ja nurmi (erittäin nopeasti hajotettava karike). Puistojen lisäksi jokaisen kaupungin reuna-alueilta valittiin viisi hoitamatonta metsäaluetta kontrollimetsiksi (50 – 200 vuotiaita), joiden tuli sisältää kasvityyppeinä samat puulajit kuin tutkituissa kaupunkipuistoisa, mutta ei nurmea. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää: 1) onko kasvityypillä vaikutusta maaperän ominaisuuksiin eri biomeissa ja niiden eri habitaattityypeissä, (metsä, nuori- ja iäkäs puisto), sekä 2) voivatko erot kasvityyppien aiheuttamissa maaperäprosesseissa (karikkeen hajotusnopeudessa ja/tai juurituotannon määrässä) selittää mahdollisia eroja. Tutkimuksessa otettiin maaperänäytteitä maan perusominaisuuksien selvittämiseksi ja samalla perustettiin noin kuuden kuukauden kestoisia karikepussikokeita karikkeiden hajotusnopeuden selvittämiseksi sekä juurisukkakokeita arvioimaan eri habitaattien juurituotantoa. Tutkimukseni osoitti, että globaalitasolla maaperän eloperäisen aineksen määrä kytkeytyy karikkeen hajoamisnopeuteen: trooppisen biomin eloperäisen materiaalin määrät olivat vähäisiä hajotusnopeuden ollessa suuri, kun boreaalisella biomilla hidasta hajotusta ilmensi korkea maan eloperäisen aineen pitoisuus. Habitaattitasolla kontrollimetsissä kasvityyppi vaikutti maaperän eloperäisten ainesten pitoisuuksiin, mutta kaupunkipuistoissa vaikutusta ei ilmennyt tai se oli vähäinen. Puiden kyky muokata maaperän ominaisuuksia ja prosesseja oli kaupunkipuistoissa globaalisti heikompi kuin luonnon ekosysteemeissä, mikä todennäköisesti johtui puistoihin kohdistuvista alituisista ihmisperäisistä häiriöistä kuten lehtikarikkeen haravoinnista. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että kaupunkipuistoissa maaperän orgaanisen aineksen, hiilen ja typen dynamiikkaan vaikutti ilmasto-olosuhteet, juurituotanto ja puistojen häiriötekijät biomista riippuen; kasvityypin vaikutus ko. muuttujiin ei ollut yksiselitteinen. Habitaattitasolla nuorten puistojen maaperän ominaisuudet olivat samankaltaisia tropiikista pohjoiseen, minkä arveltiin johtuvan globaalisti samanlaisista puistojen perustamismenetelmistä. Puistojen vanhetessa niiden maaperän ominaisuudet erosivat biomien välillä. Puistojen maaperällä on – biomista riippumatta - potentiaalia toimia tehokkaampana hiilinieluna, mikäli puistojen lehtikarikkeen haravointia ja muita maaperään kohdistuvia häiriötekijöitä vähennetään.
  • Simpanen, Suvi-Marja (2017)
    Viherkattojen määrä on kasvanut räjähdysmäisesti eri puolilla maailmaa viime vuosina niiden jatkuvan tutkimisen myötä. Monet kaupungit haluavatkin lisätä viherkattojen määrää ja rakentamiselle on tarjolla erilaisia tukia sekä helpotuksia. Viherkattoja rakentaessa ongelmaksi muodostuu usein viherkaton aiheuttama lisäpaino, jota saneerauskohteiden rakenteet eivät välttämättä kestä. Ratkaisuksi voi nousta sammalkatto, joka voi olla perinteisiä viherkattoja ohuempi ja siten kevyempi. Sammalet ovat putkilokasveihin verrattuna kevyempiä ja ne kestävät myös paremmin kuivuutta. Sammalkattoja ei ole kuitenkaan tutkittu tarpeeksi, jotta niitä voitaisiin suunnitella ja rakentaa uusiin kohteisiin. Tämän tutkimuksen kohteena toimi Meilahden liikuntakeskuksen sammalkatto, jossa sammalten kasvua tutkitaan eri paksuisilla ja erityyppisillä kasvualustoilla. Tutkielman tarkoituksena oli selvittää, minkä tyyppinen kasvualusta edistää parhaiten sammalten kasvua koekatolla. Materiaali koostui sammalkatolta otetuista kuvista, joita muokattiin myöhemmin Photoshop -kuvankäsittelyohjelmalla sammalpeitteisyyden selvittämiseksi. Tutkimus aloitettiin syksyllä 2015 ja saatiin päätökseen syksyllä 2016. Tutkimuksen aikana osa katosta kärsi pahasti kevään 2016 kuivasta jaksosta sekä rankkasateista. Ohuimmat koealat huuhtoutuivat pois katolta, mutta paksuimmilla koealueilla sammaleet kehittyivät tasaisesti. Maaseoksista erityisesti kivituhkaa sisältävät seokset edistivät sammalten kehitystä, kun taas hiekan sekaisesta kuoresta/turpeesta koostuneilla kasvualustoilla peitteisyys pieneni. Pääkäsittelyiden, eli kasvualustan koostumuksen ja paksuuden, lisäksi tarkasteltiin myös taustalla vaikuttavia tekijöitä, kuten katon ilmansuuntaa sekä näytealan sijaintia suhteessa korkeuteen, mitkä vaikuttivat omalta osaltaan sammalpeitteisyyteen. Sammalkattojen jatkotutkimusten tarve on suuri. Tietoa tarvitaan enemmän erityisesti kasvualustasta sekä eri lajien soveltuvuudesta katolle. Tämän tutkimuksen tulokset antavat suuntaa katolle soveltuvasta kasvualustan paksuudesta sekä koostumuksesta, mutta tutkimus tulisi toistaa useammalla katolla sekä uusilla maaseoksilla.
  • Sademies, Jenni (2018)
    In my thesis I analyzed the ongoing discussion about the relationship between economic growth and the environment by the means of content analysis and discourse analysis. As the continuously growing use of natural resources has a connection to many environmental problems, the functioning of the economy is essential when discussing the alternative solutions to environmental problems. I wanted to investigate what the discussion about the relationship between economic growth and the environment includes, and what kind of phenomenon is economic growth represented as. Theoretical frameworks I used were the environmental discourse analyses of Hajer (1995) and Dryzek (2005). I also paid attention to the organizations behind the discourses by classifying the writers due to the organization they represented. The material I used were texts published in the Internet, with no limitations concerning the form of the publication or the publisher. The only limiting factors I used, were the search terms. The material was taken from a database called “Economy and the Environment” (translation from Finnish), and it was not originally collected for this thesis, but for any scientific or educational purposes. I analyzed three discourses in the discussion concerning the relationship of economic growth and the environment: “Belief in growth”, “Green growth” and “Growth critique”. In Belief in growth, economic growth was an intrinsic goal. Pursuit for higher material standard of living was unquestionably a good thing. Belief in growth seemed to be the discourse especially for business interest groups. There were quite many academic writers too, but the academics were not mainly writing in belief in growth discourse, but were also presented in great numbers among the writers of all three discourses. In Green growth discourse economic growth was not an intrinsic goal, but was considered necessary for financing the welfare state. There were hopes that technological development, ecoefficiency and a transformation towards service and information economy would lessen the adverse environmental effects of economic growth. Technology had a major role in Green growth, and it was even seen as a major force itself, solving environmental problems without any role from the users. Amongst the writers of Green growth, Officials and members of the political Green party of Finland were presented in large numbers. In Growth critique discourse endless economic growth was seen impossible on a finite planet, and the ongoing strive for economic growth was seen to cause environmental and social problems. The discourse wanted to change our economic system, so that the pursuit for growth could be abandoned. Abandoning the pursuit for growth was seen also as a question of global equality: the rich countries were hoped to abandon the pursuit for growth, so that the developing countries would have resources left for growth. Compared to other discourses, amongst the writers of Growth critique, NGO’s, social movements, and civilians were presented in large numbers. The discussion about the relationship of economic growth and the environment constituted as a whole in such a way that in the discourses there were expressed opinions about other discourses and their writers. On the other hand, the discussion included many disconnecting elements. This was for example due to the underlying perceptions of environmental problems, and the nature itself, which differed clearly among the three discourses. This finding is convergent with the discourse analyses of Hajer and Dryzek. In Belief in growth environmental problems were local, and mostly described as pollution, which can be removed with the means of cleaning technology. Nature, in this discourse, was a collection of elements which can be used and organized by humans how ever needed. Also in Green growth environmental problems were mostly described as pollution, but the existence of other kinds of environmental problems were recognized as well. In this discourse the global scale existed, as there was a lot of discussion about climate change. In Growth critique environmental problems were seen as one big global crisis, caused by the excessive use of natural resources by humanity. In both, Green growth and Growth critique, nature was seen as a system of which humans are strongly dependent on. The weakest points in the discussion were related to the use of concepts of economics and environmental sciences, and weakly justifiable arguments. In Growth critique, some complicated concepts of economics and environmental sciences were used, which seemed to be poorly understood by the writers of other discourses. Green growth seemed to be suffering of a lack of historical perspective, especially considering the discussion about ecoefficiency, where strong presumptions about the significance of ecoefficiency in reducing the adverse effects of economic growth were made without any historical perspective. In Belief in growth there was incoherence with the concept of economic growth, and means and ends got mixed in the discussion about economic growth and wellbeing. In both Green growth and Belief in growth there were very weakly justified arguments about hopes for information technology and services creating immaterial economy. Interesting topics for future research in Finnish environmental discourse would be the discourse of Green politics, discussion about immaterial economy and the weaknesses in the arguments related to ecoefficiency.
  • Turunen, Iina (2023)
    Finland is committed to sustainable development work, which is guided by the global UN sustainable development action program Agenda2030. The program aims in broad sustainable development work and recognizes cities as key actors in achieving the goals. In Finland, the Commitment2050 online database serves as a tool for achieving the goals of sustainable development. In the website, different actors, including cities and municipalities, commits to operational commitments which require concrete action that promotes sustainability. The purpose of this work is to examine what kind of sustainable development commitments cities and municipalities have made on the “Commitment2050” -website. The thesis aims to create an overall picture of the operational commitments of cities and municipalities. In addition, the thesis highlights what kind of follow-up has been done regarding the commitments and how the actors have evaluated the implementation of the goals of their commitments. The study examined a total of 209 commitments made by cities and municipalities from between the years 2013 and 2022. Monitoring commitments is important so assessment of sustainability implementation can be made. Surprisingly, the study found that a significant proportion of commitments had done no follow-up at all. The actors who had done the monitoring had assessed the fulfillment of the objectives in a very diverse way, which made it difficult to draw conclusions. Thus, deeper knowledge is needed on the commitments implementation.
  • Tuomimaa, Julia (2020)
    Climate change has exacerbated extreme weather events. According to climate scenarios, temperatures will rise and heat periods will become more common also in Finland. These heat periods worsen the urban heat island phenomenon which is known to have negative impacts on human well-being. The impacts of the urban heat island phenomenon can be reduced through careful urban planning, adaptation policies and economic investments. Adaptation to climate change can be monitored through indicators but research and development on adaptation indicators has been largely absent. The development of adaptation monitoring indicators is particularly important in order to ensure the long-term success of the city's adaptation efforts and whether adaptation is moving towards the desired goals. This thesis asks the following research question with the help of a literature review, a focus group discussion and a questionnaire: what kind of indicators can be used to monitor and evaluate adaptation to the urban heat island phenomenon in Helsinki? With the help of the literature review and New York Climate Change Panels framework “the seven steps to indicator selection”, 17 preliminary indicators were developed which were divided into six themes accounting the diverse nature of the urban heat island and its impacts. The indicators were specified in a focus group discussion which had six attendees from environment-, the technical-, social- and health sectors. After the group discussion, the indicators were further modified with the help of a questionnaire answered by ten municipal employees, mainly from the environmental, technical and social and health sectors. On average, respondents found each indicator useful, five indicators were found to be really useful on average, and three indicators were found to be useless among a couple of respondents. After the survey, 11 indicators were modified and one indicator was removed. The end result was 16 indicators for monitoring adaptation to the urban heat island phenomenon divided into the following themes: social vulnerability, state of environment, infrastructure, green-blue infrastructure, policy actions and communication. The development of indicators does not as such contribute to the development of urban adaptation to a desired level, but it is nevertheless an important step in the process of developing adaptation monitoring in the city of Helsinki. This work provides tools for the city to develop their adaptation monitoring strategy which should be systematic and comparable. If the city wants to develop its adaptation monitoring, it is essential to document decisions and programs to explore sufficient coverage. Decisions and programs should be compared against identified adaptation commitments, targets and needs. As a conclusion, this thesis is important step towards more diverse and effective adaptation monitoring. This thesis takes adaptation monitoring forward, developing ways to put adaptation monitoring into practice.
  • Iivonen, Anna-Pauliina (2018)
    Recently, our group reported that mutations in KCNQ1, a potassium channel gene usually linked to long QT syndrome, cause growth hormone deficiency and maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis. Expression of the mutated KCNQ1 with KCNE2 subunit was shown to reduce pituitary hormone secretion in functional experiments in the original study. The aim of this thesis was to investigate if germline mutations in KCNQ1 and KCNE2, a gene encoding an auxiliary potassium channel subunit, could also play a role in the opposite phenomenon, growth hormone excess. Growth hormone (GH) excess causes acromegaly, a condition that is typically due to a GH secreting pituitary adenoma. I screened KCNQ1 and KCNE2 for germline mutations in 45 acromegaly patients by Sanger sequencing and predicted effects of the mutations on protein function by in silico tools. Only deep intronic and synonymous polymorphisms were detected in KCNQ1. These findings were likely insignificant based on the in silico predictions and the variants’ frequencies in the general population. In KCNE2, a heterozygous c.22A>G, p.(Thr8Ala) mutation with an unknown significance was found in two patients. It was present in the general population with a frequency of 0.0038. In conclusion, no evidence of KCNQ1 or KCNE2 mutations being associated with growth hormone excess was found. Mutation screenings of larger patient series and additional functional experiments are needed to shed more light on the roles of KCNQ1 related genes in growth hormone secretion.
  • Mutanen, Justus (2015)
    The International Biology Olympiad is a yearly science competition; hundreds of high school students from over 60 countries take part in it. In Finland, the students are chosen by the national biology competition and the national Olympiad training camp. The research subject of this study is Finnish training for International Biology Olympiad (IBO). About ten high school students who are interested in biology take part at each training camp. Science competitions, such as IBO and training camps, are classified as non-formal or out-of-school science education. Since there is very little scientific knowledge about non-formal biology education, especially about science competitions, the theoretical framework of this study consists of non-formal science education, the relevance of science education and the development of interest. In this study, design research methodology with three research cycles was applied to develop the course. In the study, both theoretical and empirical problem analyses were used. There were two main research questions: 1) What are the needs for the development of the training camp? 2) What kind of training is relevant for the participants? The first research question was elaborated by examining a) what kind of topics of interest the participants have, b) how the participants expect the training to be relevant for them, c) what kind of relevance the previous participants experienced, and d) what kind of effects the previous training camps had on the participants interest in biology and career choice. The features of relevant biology Olympiad training were searched in the second research question. The data was collected from pre-camp and post-camp questionnaires, post-camp interviews and a questionnaire sent for the previous camp participants. The qualitative data was analyzed by content analysis and quantitative data from the questionnaires was analyzed by statistical methods. The main results were following: 1) The biggest needs for development were diversifying the contents and balancing the workload of the camp. The participants of the training camps were interested mostly about medicine and human biology -related topics and cell and molecular biology. In addition, it was found out that the previous participants considered biology education to be individually, vocationally and societally relevant for them. According to them, the training camps were especially individually relevant and had some effects on the career choice. 2) The new training camp for biology Olympiad is especially individually relevant for the participants but it has also some vocational relevance. In the science Olympiad training, special attention should be directed towards developing vocational and societal relevance. A new model for Biology Olympiad training camps was developed based on the collected research data. The individual dimension can be improved by i) diversifying the contents of the camps, ii) including inquiry-based learning modules and by iii) taking a student-centered approach to the development process. The vocational and societal dimensions of relevance can be targeted by iv) allowing the teachers of the participants to take part at camps. The vocational dimension of relevance can be enhanced v) by organizing visits to research laboratories and companies and vi) by enabling the participants to meet university students. The results of this study can be applied to not only to Science Olympiad training but also to non-formal biology education. This research provides models for developing out-of-school biology education and its relevance. This is the first design research study about Biology Olympiad training and it opens up discussion about the relevance of science competitions and Science Olympiad training.
  • Luoto, Senni (2021)
    Kalvojännitteen syntyyn ja sen muutoksiin liittyvät prosessit mielletään usein haastaviksi aiheiksi oppia ja opettaa. Aiheen opetuksesta ja oppimisesta lukiossa ei juurikaan ole tehty tutkimusta, mutta aiemmat tutkimukset yliopisto-opiskelijoilla ovat osoittaneet, että haasteita esiintyy erityisesti lepokalvojännitteen muodostumisen ymmärtämisessä. Aihetta käsitellään suomalaisissa lukiossa pääasiassa ihmisen biologian kontekstissa vapaavalintaisella kurssilla 4 (LOPS 2015) tai 5 (LOPS 2019) ja aihe onkin yksi ihmisen biologian kurssin keskeisistä sisällöistä oppia ja ymmärtää. Kalvojännitteen synty ja sen muutokset on kuvattu suomenkielisissä lukion biologian oppikirjoissa usein yksinkertais-tetusti ja ajoittain virheellisesti. Tämä saattaa johtaa virhekäsitysten syntymiseen, jolloin opiskeltavaa aihetta ei opita riittävällä tasolla. Siksi tämän maisterintutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää, miten solukalvon sähköistä aktiivisuutta opetetaan suomenkielisissä lukioissa ja millaisia virhekäsityksiä opiskelijoilla aiheesta esiintyy. Näiden tulosten pohjal-ta luodaan kehittämistuotos eli opetusmateriaali biologian aineenopettajien käyttöön, jolla voidaan tukea solukalvon sähköisen aktiivisuuden opetusta ja oppimista. Tutkimusmenetelmänä tutkimuksessa käytettiin kehittämistutkimusta, jossa yhdisteltiin teoreettisen ja empiirisen ongelma-analyysin periaatteita. Teoreettisen ongelma-analyysin kautta pyrittiin kartoittamaan lukio-opetuksen kannalta solukalvon sähköiseen toimintaan liittyvät keskeisimmät seikat, joihin monet virhekäsitykset liittyvät, sekä tarkastelemaan niitä eri näkökulmista. Tämä toteutettiin aiemman tutkimuskirjallisuuden avulla. Empiirisessä ongelma-analyysissä tarkasteltiin sekä lukion biologian oppikirjoja (N=3) että kevään 2021 biologian ylioppilaskoevastauksia (N=400) hermosolun aktiopotentiaalin kulkuun liittyen. Molempia aineistoja analysoitiin laadullisen sisällönanalyysin periaatteiden mukaisesti. Teoreettisesta ja empiirisestä ongelma-analyysistä saatujen tulosten perusteella kehitettiin opetusmateriaalin ensimmäinen versio. Opetusmateriaali luetutettiin läpi maisterintutkielman ohjaajilla ja opetusmateriaalia kehitettiin heiltä saatujen kommenttien perusteella. Jatkokehittämisen tuloksena syntyi opetusmateriaalin toinen ja virallinen versio. Tutkimuksen tulokset osoittivat, että solukalvon sähköinen aktiivisuus on haastava aihe sekä opetuksen että oppimi-sen näkökulmasta. Lukion biologian oppikirjoissa esiintyi epätarkkoja kohtia solukalvon sähköiseen aktiivisuuteen liit-tyen ja nämä epätarkkuudet näkyivät opiskelijoiden ylioppilaskokeen vastauksissa yleisinä virhekäsityksinä. Erityisesti esiin nousi virheellinen käsitys natrium-kaliumpumpun ioneja ”palauttavasta” vaikutuksesta aktiopotentiaalin jälkeen. Toinen yleinen virhekäsitys oli, että uusi aktiopotentiaali on mahdollinen vasta kun kalvojännite on hyperpolarisaation jälkeen palautunut lepotilaan. Tulosten perusteella voidaan todeta, että ainakin osa opiskelijoiden virhekäsityksistä on lähtöisin oppikirjoista eikä näitä virhekäsityksiä ole pystytty korjaamaan opettajan toimesta opetustilanteessa. Ylioppi-laskokeessa tehtävään vastanneista opiskelijoista 11,3 % ei osannut vastata tehtävän ensimmäiseen kysymykseen ollenkaan. Vastauksista, joissa opiskelija oli vähintään välttävällä tasolla onnistunut vastaamaan kysymykseen (N=381), 92,4 % sisälsi yhden tai useamman virhekäsityksen. Virhekäsitysten karsimiseksi paras keino on estää niiden syntyminen. Siksi tämän tutkimuksen perusteella voidaan todeta, että lukion uuden opetussuunnitelman biologian oppikirjat tulisi päivittää sellaisiksi, että virheellistä käsitystä ei pääse syntymään. Tämä ei kuitenkaan pelkästään riitä, vaan myös lukion biologian opettajien tulisi luopua vanhoista opetusdioistaan ja varmistaa, että he opettavat aihetta nykytiedon valossa oikein. Tässä apuna toimii tämän tutkimuksen osana kehitetty opetusmateriaali solukalvon sähköisestä aktiivisuudesta hermosolun aktiopotentiaalin kontekstissa. Jotta opetusmateriaalin toimivuutta ja opiskelijoiden käsitteellistä muutosta voidaan arvioida, jatkotutkimukset ai-heesta ovat tarpeellisia.
  • Sarpo, Maija (2008)
    Yhteiskunnalliset liikkeet ovat merkittävä osa poliittista järjestelmäämme. Niillä on kuitenkin usein vajavaiset poliittiset vaikutusmahdollisuudet ja niukat resurssit. Yksi liikkeiden tärkeimmistä poliittisen painostuksen keinoista on mobilisoituvan ihmisjoukon määrä. Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin yhden kansalaisliikkeen kautta tämän instrumentin käyttöä ja hallintaa liikkeissä. Tutkimuskohteena oli Itä-Uudellamaalla vuodesta 2006 lähtien toiminut uraanikaivosten vastainen kansalaisliike Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin osallistumista ympäristöongelman määrittelyprosessiin sekä arvioitiin määrittelyn vaikutusta kannatuksen saamiseen ja toiminnan mobilisoitumiseen. Tutkimuksen empiirinen aineisto muodostui aktiivisten toimijoiden haastatteluista ja liikkeen jäsenten tuottamista teksteistä. Aineisto analysoitiin kvalitatiivisin menetelmin. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä tutkimuksessa käytettiin kehystämistä. Yhteiskunnallisten liikkeiden tutkimuksen yhteydessä kehystämisellä tarkoitetaan sellaista merkitysten antoa ja tulkintaa tapahtumista ja olosuhteista, jolla pyritään keräämään yleisön kannatusta ja mobilisoimaan potentiaalisia toimijoita sekä asettamaan vastustajien kehystäminen kyseenalaiseksi ja vaikeuttamaan vastapuolen mobilisaatiota. määritteli Itä-Uudenmaan uraanikaivoshankkeen kansalaisten oikeuksia loukkaavaksi yhteiskunnalliseksi ongelmaksi. Liike koki hankkeen epäoikeudenmukaiseksi, sillä kamppailussa olivat vastakkain ulkomaisen suuryrityksen oikeus harjoittaa liiketoimintaa ja paikallisten ihmisten oikeus turvalliseen ja terveelliseen elinympäristöön. Valtion virkamiesten nähtiin ajavan kaivosyhtiön etuja ja toimivan siten epäoikeudenmukaisesti. nosti ilmiön puheenaiheeksi ja käynnisti ongelman määrittelyprosessin. Liike loi konkreettiset puitteet protestille ja yhdisti toimintaan valmiit kansalaiset. Kehystämisellään onnistui muodostamaan Itä-Uudellemaalle yhtenäisen protestirintaman. Kohdistamalla toimintansa ainoastaan Itä-Uudenmaan uraanikaivoshankkeen vastustamiseen liike löysi hyvin heterogeeniselle joukolle pienimmän yhteisen nimittäjän, johon kaikkien oli mahdollista samaistua. saavutti päätavoitteensa: Itä-Uudenmaan uraanivaltaushakemukset hylättiin. Osana valtakunnallista uraanikaivosten vastaista kansalaisliikehdintää vaikutti kaivoslain uudistamiseen, muovasi uraanikaivoksista käytävää keskustelua ja osoitti kaivosyhtiöille, että ainakaan ilman vastarintaa Suomeen ei uraanin etsintää kaivata.
  • Ketola, Katri (2015)
    Darwinian selection can be measured and investigated from gene sequences. A certain gene form favored by positive selection will become more common in the population. Detecting strong positive selection is rare, but it has been found to affect genes involved in immune defense and perception of odorants. Genes under positive selection have a possible role in speciation or adaptation. This is why chemical communication, being based on the sense of smell, is an interesting topic for measuring natural selection and positive selection in particular. Social insects, such as ants, are model organisms for chemical communication. They use chemical communication not only for finding nutrition and detecting intruders, but also in coordinating the activities of several thousands of colony members. Insects perceive odorant signal molecules with their antennae. Odorant binding proteins (OBP) and chemosensory proteins (CSP) bind and transport odorant molecules through the sensillar lymph. OBPs and CSPs are also suspected to have a role in selecting odorants. This work focuses on two OBP genes and two CSP genes to study natural selection. All of these genes are conserved among all ant species. Three of these genes, OBP1, CSP1 and CSP7, are strongly expressed in the antennae suggesting that they function in chemical communication. CSP7 also has a known function in nest mate recognition in ants and OBP1 is known to bind a queen pheromone in the honeybee. The data includes gene sequences from 7 Formica ant species (270 sequences in total). The main goals of the research were to find out 1) the extent of variation between and within closely related ant species, 2) which evolutionary forces, natural selection or random drift, are behind the variation and 3) are there systematic differences between the two social forms of ants suggesting that these genes would affect the social structure of an ant colony. The variation in the sequence data was visualized by phylogenetic, principal coordinate and fixed differences analyses. Differences between populations were studied by FST values. The evolutionary forces shaping chemical communication genes within the species and populations, were studied by McDonald-Kreitman test, Tajima s D, Fu and Li test and MFDM test. The data shows that two of the species, F. cinerea and F. exsecta, significantly differ from the other five ant species, the F. rufa group species, and that the F. rufa group species don t significantly differ from each other based on these genes and this data. This could be due to their recent speciation or crossing between the species leading to hybrids in the data. The results of the evolutionary analyses are inconsistent. However, CSP7 has the strongest indication of selection based on all of the tests. Possible selection and sequence variation was detected at a predicted transcription factor binding site in F. cinerea. This indicates that selection might affect the regulation of CSP7. In the future it would be interesting to check the true transcription factor binding sites experimentally.
  • Silfverberg, Paula (2022)
    Toimiva vesihuolto on yhteiskunnalle elintärkeä. Tärkeimpinä vesihuollon tavoitteina on puhdistaa juomavesi ja vähentää jätevedestä aiheutuvaa ympäristökuormitusta. Kemianteollisuudella on keskeinen rooli tuottaa kemikaaleja vesihuollon käyttöön. Vedenpuhdistus on yksi osa kemikaalien arvoketjua, jossa useat eri toimijat osallistuvat kemikaalien raaka-aineiden valmistukseen, kemikaalien tuottoon, kuljetukseen ja käyttöön, sekä jätteiden loppusijoitukseen. Kemikaalien arvoketjulla on vaikutuksia ympäristöön. Vedenpuhdistuskemikaalien arvoketjua ei ole tutkittu kemikaalien valmistajien ja ostajien välisessä suhteessa. Tutkimuksessani selvitin, kuinka biodiversiteetti näkyy vedenpuhdistuskemikaalien arvoketjun päätöksenteossa ja miten se vaikuttaa kemikaalien ostopäätöksiin. Biodiversiteetti takaa ihmistoimintaakin ylläpitävien ekosysteemipalveluiden toiminnan, kuten veden kiertokulun. Merkittävimpiä uhkia biodiversiteetille ovat vieraslajit, ilmastonmuutos, ravinnekuormitus, ympäristömyrkyt ja roskaantuminen, elinympäristöjen muutokset ja luonnonvarojen liikakäyttö. Kestävillä ratkaisuilla arvoketjun eri toimijat voivat vaikuttaa biodiversiteettiin positiivisesti. Tutkimuksessa haastattelin kuutta vedenpuhdistuslaitoksissa ja kemikaaleja valmistavassa yhtiössä työskentelevää osto- ja myyntipuolen asiantuntijaa puolistrukturoiduilla asiantuntijahaastatteluilla. Lisäksi tarkastelin yhtiöiden vastuullisuusraportteja. Analysoin aineistoa teema-analyysin keinoin. Keskeisimpänä tuloksena havaitsin, että vesikemikaalien arvoketjussa päätettäessä kemikaalien ostamisesta ja myymisestä, toimijat asettavat kemikaalien hinnan ja toimitusvarmuuden ympäristöasioiden edelle. Biodiversiteettiä pidetään tärkeänä, mutta ostopäätöksiin se ei vielä vaikuta. Kemikaalien kehittämiseen ja hankintoihin tarvitaan lisää tietoa biodiversiteettivaikutuksista läpi koko kemikaalien arvoketjun.
  • Huusari, Noora (2020)
    Social insects such as ants live in societies and have a strict division of labor between reproductive and worker castes. A colony can consist of even millions of individuals and the number of queens can vary a lot. Populations where each colony comprises just one or few queens are often called kin structured because the relatedness between nestmates is high. Colonies that have lots of queens and the society lives in many connected nests (polydomy) in are referred to as supercolonies. In these colonies relatedness between individuals is low and the workers represent many genetic lineages. Depending on species and the environment where the colony lives societies can behave aggressively towards individuals from other nests to protect their own nest. Ants must be able to recognize members of their own colony from the intruders to be able to protect the nest. Nestmate recognition is a key element in the interaction between nests and species and makes it possible for the workers in the colony to favour their own nestmates in form of care, defence or food acquisition to gain inclusive fitness benefits. To recognise nestmates ants must be able to sense chemical cues. Ants detect these chemical signals through the proteins expressed mainly in their antennas. In this thesis I studied gene expression of genes related to chemosensation in seven Formica species using the RT qPCR method. My study species were kin structured Formica exsecta, F. pratensis and F. fusca and supercolonial F. truncorum, F. pressilabris, F. cinerea and F. aquilonia. My study genes belong to gene families that code for odorant binding proteins (OBP), chemosensory proteins (CSP) and gustatory reseptors (GRT). I want to find out whether the expression of these genes differs between castes, and whether the caste difference varies between kin structured and supercolonial species. Workers have many tasks in the ant colony and to take care of them, they need to have a sophisticated sensory system. For that reason, I expect to find out that the study genes are expressed more in the worker than the queen caste. In addition, I expect the caste difference in gene expression to be higher in the kin structured species than in the supercolonial species. That is because kin structured species behave more aggressively towards intruders and possibly confront intruders more often than the individuals living in supercolonies. Furthermore, in the supercolonies low relatedness between individuals sometimes lead to conflicts inside the nest. For that reason, I suppose queens of the supercolonies express chemosensory genes more than the queens from the kin structured colonies. Overall expression level was the highest for the OBP and the lowest for GRT. The expression level of CSP was in between these extremes. In accordance with my hypothesis gene expression of OBP and CSP was higher in workers in all the study species. GRT expression was worker biased in six of the seven species. Caste difference in expression of chemosensory genes was similar in kin structured and supercolonial species. The expression level varied between species but did not show a pattern depending on the degree of the polygyny. The study revealed that the expression of OBP and CSP is correlated. My results revealed expected worker biased pattern in the expression. The result might be a consequence of better olfactory or taste abilities in the worker caste compared to queens or it may even be consequence of more sophisticated nestmate recognition skills of the workers. This study reveals valuable information about the gene expression of chemosensory genes related to the recognition system in the ants and awakes many new study questions. Chemical sensory system has been studied a lot in the ants, but in the field of expression studies there is still lot to reveal.
  • Sellman, Oona (2021)
    Several studies have stated that social media has the potential to promote sustainable lifestyles. The purpose of this master’s thesis was to study the contents made by “eco-influencers” who make video blogs about sustainable lifestyles on YouTube. This thesis investigated what topics eco-influencers' videos deal with and what kind of means of argumentation are used. The theoretical background included research on sustainable lifestyles and consumption as well as the potential role of social media in promoting sustainable lifestyles. The study was conducted as a qualitative study and the video material was collected from YouTube according to criteria defined by the researcher. The channels of 20 influencers were selected for the final data. From each channel 1-2 videos were selected. At the end, a total of 39 videos were selected. The material was selectively transcribed, and that text served as the basis for the data-driven content analysis. The results show that the contents of the videos emphasize sustainable consumption and responsibility, especially individual responsibility. However, the videos had only a little content about the three most important aspects of a sustainable lifestyle: housing, mobility, and food. According to eco-influencers, sustainable lifestyles are closely linked to the concept of well-being. Sustainable consumption was considered a very important aspect of sustainable living. Eco-influencers mainly use their own experience, opinions, and comparison as a means of argumentation in their videos. Often the arguments were not substantiated with many scientific references. The results suggest that eco-influencers perceive complex sustainability themes as important but want to communicate them in a way that even laypeople understand. This will also make it easier for more non-experts to approach the matter and change their lifestyles. Justifying arguments with opinions and personal experiences can be based on the personal, even entertaining, format of the video blog, or on the fact that experiential knowledge or expertise is valued in social media. Based on the contents of the videos examined in this study, it seems unlikely that they would contribute to great lifestyle changes.
  • Neuvonen, Samuli (2002)
    Kevyen liikenteen kulkutapaosuus on viimeisten kahden vuosikymmenen aikana jatkuvasti vähentynyt henkilöautoliikenteen kasvaessa. Moottoriliikenteen lisääntymisellä on kuitenkin selviä ekologisia (kuten myös taloudellisia ja sosiaalisia) haittavaikutuksia ja siksi tarpeen olisi pyrkiä toisaalta vähentämään liikkumistarvetta ja toisaalta korvaamaan henkilöautoilua kevyen liikenteen - ja joukkoliikenteen - avulla. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitetään asiantuntijahaastatteluin niitä tekijöitä, jotka kevyen liikenteen käyttöön ja kulkutapaosuuteen vaikuttavat. Tulosten perusteella kevyestä liikenteestä muodostetaan systeemiajatteluun nojautuva laadullinen malli, joka sisältää kevyen liikenteen käyttöön merkittävimmin vaikuttavat tekijät ja näiden tekijöiden väliset vuorovaikutussuhteet. Tutkimuksessa tehtyjen asiantuntijahaastattelujen perusteella tärkeimmät kevyen liikenteen käyttöön vaikuttavat tekijät ovat yhdyskuntarakenne, kevyen liikenteen infrastruktuurin määrä ja laatu sekä ihmisten asenteet, arvot ja elämäntavat. Yhdyskuntarakenne voisi matkaetäisyyksien puolesta antaa mahdollisuudet kevyen liikenteen käyttöön, kattava kevyen liikenteen verkosto voisi luoda siihen muut ulkoiset mahdollisuudet ja ihmisten myönteinen asennoituminen johtaisi kevyen liikenteen valintaan aina silloin kun se olisi mahdollista. Muita merkittäviä tekijöitä ovat moottoriliikenteen määrät ja nopeudet, Suomen aluerakenne, väestön jatkuva ikääntyminen, talouden ja elinkeinorakenteen kehitys, sää- ja ilmasto-olot sekä joukkoliikenteen palvelutaso. Kaikki mainitut tekijät ovat monimutkaisissa vaikutussuhteissa toisiinsa ja lukuisiin muihin tekijöihin. Talouskehitys vaikuttaa väyläinvestointeihin, aluerakenteeseen ja ihmisten asenteisiin, aluerakenne yhdyskuntarakenteeseen, yhdyskuntarakenne henkilöautoilun ja joukkoliikenteen määriin jne. Näistä vuorovaikutussuhteista muodostuu laadullinen malli, jota voidaan kutsua kevyenliikenteen systeemiksi.
  • Elbadri, Khalil (2020)
    An increased attention has been drawn towards porous silicon (PSi) based materials for biomedical applications, due to their promising features demonstrated through several scientific studies. Here, we further investigated the biological responses of PSi nanoparticles (NPs) with different surface chemistries, including immunomodulatory effects, inflammation mitigation and biocompatibility. In this collaborative study, the PSi NPs were investigated both in vitro and in vivo, using different molecular biology and biochemistry techniques, e.g., qPCR, ELISA, cell sorting and cell viability assays. Our results showed the capabilities of these PSi NPs to relieve the inflammatory conditions, whereas significant decrease was recorded of pro-inflammatory cytokines: TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Likewise, these PSi NPs revealed a considerable consumption aptitude of pro-inflammatory reactive oxygen species molecules. Administrating PSi NPs in an acute liver inflammation (ALI) model, showed no conspicuous influence on cellular viability. Thus, the outcome of this study demonstrates the potential biocompatibility of PSi nanomaterials, in addition to their outstanding features as potential candidates for further incorporating in ALI applications.
  • Asmala, Eero (2008)
    Rehevöityminen on Itämeren näkyvin ympäristöongelma. Itämereen päätyvät typpi- ja fosforivirrat lisäävät perustuotantoa, jonka seurauksena lajisto yksipuolistuu ja pohjalle vajoavan biomassan määrä kasvaa. Pohjan hajotustoiminta kuluttaa laajoilla alueilla vedestä kaiken käytössä olevan hapen, jonka seurauksena vain anaerobinen eliöstö pystyy näillä alueilla selviytymään. Kalan merkitys ihmisravintona kasvaa jatkuvasti. Muun eläintuotannon eettiset kysymykset ja kalaruoan terveellisyys ovat etenkin länsimaissa nostaneet kalan suosiota muiden eläintuotteiden kustannuksella. Yhä suurempi osa kulutetusta kalasta on kasvatettua, myös Suomessa. Kalankasvatuksen kuormitus Suomessa on pienentynyt viimeisen 15 vuoden ajan, pääasiassa rehujen kehityksen myötä. Kalankasvatuksesta aiheutuu kuitenkin edelleen paikallisesti merkittäviä rehevöittäviä ravinnepäästöjä, tuotannon tehokkuudesta huolimatta. Teolliseen ekologiaan sisältyvän teollisen metabolian periaatteiden mukaan teollisten prosessien ainevirtoja tulisi sulkea. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin ainevirta-analyysin avulla Suomen merialueiden kalankasvatusjärjestelmän keskimääräisiä vuotuisia typpi- ja fosforivirtoja vuosien 2004-2006 tuotantotietojen perusteella. Kalankasvatusjärjestelmään tulee typpeä 849 t ja fosforia 118 t kalojen rehusta. Ravinteet sitoutuvat kasvatettavaan kalaan tai kulkeutuvat ympäröivään vesistöön. Kaksi kolmasosaa kalankasvatusjärjestelmän ravinnepäästöistä päätyy kasvatusaltaasta suoraan veteen, kolmasosan sitoutuessa kasvuun. ImPACT-analyysillä todettiin vuosien 1980-2006 välillä kulutustottumusten ja teknologian vaikuttaneen merkittävästi kalankasvatuksen typen ja fosforin aiheuttamaan vesistökuormitukseen, sen sijaan väestön ja varallisuuden muutoksilla ei ollut merkitystä. Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin myös mahdollisia muutoksia ravinnevirroissa, jos rehun sisältämä Itämeren valuma-alueen ulkopuolelta peräisin olevasta kalasta tehty kalajauho korvattaisiin Itämeren kalasta tehdyllä kalajauholla. Menetelmällä saavutettaisiin huomattavat vähennykset Itämeren altaaseen päätyvissä ravinnevirroissa: typen osalta vähennys olisi 420 t, fosforin osalta nettokuormitus muuttuisi negatiiviseksi, -10 t. Ravinteet konsentroituisivat intensiivisen kasvatuksen alueille, mutta kyseessä on kustannustehokas keino Suomessa Itämereen kohdistuvan ravinnekuormituksen pienentämiseksi.